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•  CRKOWITX  IHVKi.0^1  CO.,  K.  0.*  MO. 

001  045332 





MOZART  (1782) 
From  tin  unfinished  portrait  by  Josef 
(Mo/.art  Museum,  Kalzhurg) 



Chronologically  Arranged,  Translated  and  Edited 
with  an  Introduction,  Notes  and  Indices  by 


With  extracts  from  the  letters  of  Comtanze  Mozart 
to  Johann  Anton  Andre"  translated  and  edited  by 









19,  '21 


This  is  a  list  of  all  the  known  letters  of  Mozart  and  his  family  written 
between  the  years  1762  and  1791.  It  contains,  therefore,  some  letters 
(unnumbered)  which  owing  to  their  slight  interest  have  not  been  included 
in  the  present  edition. 

Letters  hitherto  unpublished  are  marked  * 

Letters  hitherto  incompletely  published  are  marked  ** 

(Owing  to  exigencies  of  space,  in  most  cases  extracts  only  have  been 
given  from  Leopold  Mozart's  letters.  But  considerable  additions  have  been 
made  to  the  portions  published  in  the  standard  German  edition  of  Professor 
Ludwig  Schiedermair :  and  copies  of  the  complete  versions  are  in  the 
possession  of  the  present  editor.) 



NO.  OF 


393.  Mozart  to  his  father 

394.  Mozart  to  his  father 

395.  Mozart  to  his  father 

396.  Mozart  to  his  father 

397.  Mozart  to  his  father 

398.  Mozart  to  his  father 

399.  Mozart  to  his  father 

400.  Mozart  to  his  father 

401.  Mozart  to  his  father 

402.  Mozart  to  his  father 

403.  Mozart  to  his  father 

404.  Mozart  to  his  father 

405.  /Mozart  to  his  father 

406.  Mozart  to  his  father 

407.  Mozart  to  his  father 

408.  Mozart  to  his  father 

409.  Mozart  to  his  father 

410.  Mozart  to  his  father 

41 1.  Mozart  to  his  father 

412.  Mozart  to  his  father 

413.  Mozart  to  his  father 

414.  Mozart  to  his  father 


Vienna,  March  I7th  1059 
Vienna,  March  i8th-24th  1061 
Vienna,  March  24th-28th  1063 

Vienna,  April  4th  1070 

Vienna,  April  8th  1072 

Vienna,  April  nth  1073 

Vienna,  April  i8th  1077 

Vienna,  April  28th  1078 

Vienna,  May  9th  1081 

Vienna,  May  I2th  1084 

Vienna,  May  I2th  1086 

Vienna,  May  i6th  1088 

Vienna,  May  igth  1090 
Vienna,  May  26th  *  1093 

Vienna,  between  May  1096 
26th  and  June  2nd 

Vienna,  June  2nd  1098 

Vienna,  June  9th  1 100 

Vienna,  June  I3th  1104 

Vienna,  June  i6th  1106 

Vienna,  June  2Oth  mo 

Vienna,  June  27th  mi 

Vienna,  July  4th  1114 







Mozart  to  his  sister 


July  4th 



Mozart  to  his  father 

Reisenberg,  near  Vienna. 


July  1  3th 


Mozart  to  his  father 


July  25th 



Mozart  to  his  father 


August  ist 



Mozart  to  his  father 


August  8th 



Leopold  Mozart  to  J.  G.  I. 

Salzburg,  August  loth 


Breitkopf,  Leipzig 


Mozart  to  his  father 


August  22nd 




Mozart    to    his    father    with    a\ 
postscript  to  his  sister                 / 


August  29th 



Mozart  to  his  father 


September  5th 



Mozart  to  his  father 


September  I2th 



Mozart  to  his  sister  with  a  post-  \ 
script  to  his  father                      / 


September  I9th 



Mozart  to  his  father 


September  26th 



Mozart  to  his  father 


October  6th 



Mozart  to  his  father 


October  I3th 



Mozart  to  his  cousin,  Maria 


October  2ist 


Anna  Thekla 


Mozart  to  his  father 


October  24th 



Mozart  to  his  father 


November  3rd 



Mozart  to  his  father 


November  loth 



Mozart  to  his  father 


November  I7th 



Mozart  to  his  father 


November  24th 



Mozart  to  his  father 


December  5th 



Mozart  to  his  father                       \ 
Mozart  to  his  sister                        / 


December  I5th 



Mozart  to  his  sister 


December  I5th- 




Mozart  to  his  father 


December  22nd- 





Mozart  to  his  father 


January  9th 



Mozart  to  his  father 


January  I2th 



Mozart  to  his  father 


January  i6th 



Mozart  to  his  father 


January  23rd 



Mozart  to  his  father 


January  3oth 



Mozart  to  his  sister 


February  I3th 



Mozart  to  his  father 


March  23rd 




NO.  OF 





451  a. 













Mozart  to  his  father 

Mozart  to  his  sister  with  an 
enclosure  from  Constanze 

Mozart  to  Constanze  Weber 

Leopold  Mozart  to  J.  G.  I. 
Breitkopf,  Leipzig 

Mozart  to  his  father 

Mozart  to  his  father  with  a 
continuation  by  Constanze 

Mozart  to  his  father 

Mozart  to  his  father 

Mozart  to  his  sinter  and  Con- 
tanze  Weber  to  Nannerl 

Mozart  to  his  father 
Mozart  to  his  father 

Mozart  to  Baroness  von 

Mozart  to  his  father 
Mozart  to  his  father 

Leopold  Mozart  to  Baroness  von 
Waldstadten,  Vienna 

Mozart  to  his  father 
Mozart  to  his  father 
Mozart  to  his  father 

Leopold  Mozart  to  Baroness  von 
Waldstadten,  Vienna 

Mozart  to  his  father 

Mozart  to  Baroness  von 

Mozart  to  Baroness  von 

Leopold  Mozart  to  J,  G.  I. 
Breitkopf,  Leipzig 

Mozart  to  his  father 
Mozart  to  his  father 
Mozart  to  his  father 
Mozart  to  his  father 
Mozart  to  his  father 
Mozart  to  his  father 


Vienna,  April  loth 


Vienna,  April  2oth 


Vienna,  April  29th 
Salzburg,  April  29th 


Vienna,  May  8th 


Vienna,  May  25th 


Vienna,  May  29th 
Vienna,  July  2Oth 


Vienna,  July  24th  1206 

Vienna,  July  27th  1207 

Vienna,  July  3 ist  1209 

Vienna,  August  [  ?  2nd]  1210 

Vienna,  August  7th  1211 

Vienna,  August  i7th  1213 

Salzburg,  August  23rd  1216 

Vienna,  August  24th  1218 

Vienna,  August  3ist  1219 

Vienna,  September  nth  1221 
Salzburg,  September  I3th  1223 

Vienna,  September  2$th  1225 

Vienna,  September  28th  $227 

Vienna,  October  2nd  1228 

Salzburg,  October  4th  1230 

Vienna,  October  5th  1231 

Vienna,  October  I2th  1233 

Vienna,  October  iQth  1235 

Vienna,  October  26th  1236 

Vienna,  November  I3th  1237 

Vienna,  November  20th  1238 


NO.  OF 




Mozart  to  his  father 
Mozart  to  his  father 


Vienna,  December  2i$t      1239 
Vienna,  December  28th     1242 

Vienna,  January  4th  1243 

Vienna,  January  8th  1246 

Vienna,  January  22nd  1247 

Vienna,  February  $th  1249 

Vienna,  February  I5th  1252 

Vienna,  February  *5th  1253 


477.  Mozart  to  his  father 

478.  Mozart  to  his  father 

479.  Mozart  to  his  father 

480.  Mozart  to  his  father 

481.  Mozart  to  his  father 

482.  Mozart  to  Baroness  von 


483.  Mozart  to  his  father 

484.  Mozart  to  his  father 

485.  Mozart  to  his  father 

486.  Mozart  to  his  father 

487.  Mozart  to  J.  G.  Sieber,  Paris 

488.  Mozart  to  his  father 

489.  Mozart  to  his  father 

490.  Mozart  to  his  father 

491.  Mozart  to  his  father 

492.  Mozart  to  his  father 

493.  Mozart  to  his  father 

494.  Mozart  to  his  father 
*495.  Mozart  to  his  father 

496.  Mozart  to  his  father 

497.  Constanze   Mozart  to   Nannerl 
497a.       Mozart       and        Margarete 
497b.       Marchand,  with  a  postscript 

from  Mozart 

498.  Mozart  to  his  sister 

499.  Mozart  to  his  father 

500.  Mozart  to  his  father 

501.  Mozart  to  his  father 

502.  Mozart  to  his  father 


503.  Mozart  to  his  father  Vienna,  February  loth       1291 
*504.     Mozart  to  his  father                         Vienna,  February  20th      1293 

1  First  published  by  the  editor  in  Music  and  Letters,  April,  1937, 


Vienna,  March  I2th 


Vienna,  March  29th 


Vienna,  April  3rd 


Vienna,  April  uth 


Vienna,  April  26th 


Vienna,  May  3rd 


Vienna,  May  7th 


Vienna,  May  2ist 


Vienna,  June  7th 

\  266 

Vienna,  June  iSth 


Vienna,  June  2ist 


Vienna,  July  2nd 


Vienna,  July  5th 


Vienna,  July  I2th 


Vienna,  July  i9th  1277 

Salzburg,  July  3ist  1280 

Linz,  October  3 1  st  1 280 

Vienna,  December  6th  1282 

Vienna,  December  loth  1286 

Vienna,  December  24th  1288 



NO.  OF 

^•505.     Mozart  to  his  father 

506.  Mozart  to  his  father 

507.  Leopold  Mozart  to  Sebastian 

Winter,  Donaueschingen 

508.  Mozart  to  his  father 

509.  Leopold  Mozart  to  Sebastian 

Winter,  Donaueschingen 

510.  Mozart  to  his  father 

511.  Mozart  to  his  father 

512.  Mozart  to  his  father 

513.  Mozart  to  his  father 
**$14.  Mozart  to  his  father 

515.     Mozart  to  his  father 
**5i6.     Mozart  to  his  sister 

517.  Mozart  to  his  sister 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

518.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 

519.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

520.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 

*52i.     Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 


Vienna,  March  3rd  1295 

Vienna,  March  2oth  1297 

Salzburg,  April  3rd  1301 

Vienna,  April  loth  1302 

Salzburg,  April  22nd         1303 

Vienna,  April  24th  1304 

Vienna,  April  28th  1305 

Vienna,  May  8th  1306 

Vienna,  May  i$th  1306 

Vienna,  May  26th  1308 

Vienna,  June  9th- 1 2th  1311 

Vienna,  July  2ist  1313 

Vienna,  August  i8th  1314 
Salzburg,  August  3oth 

Salzburg,  August  3 1st 
Salzburg,  September  3rd 

Salzburg,  September  9th- 

Salzburg,  September          1316 
1 4th 

Salzburg,  September          1317 
1 7th 

Salzburg,  September  24th 
Salzburg,  October 
Salzburg,  November 
Salzburg,  November  I9th  1317 

Salzburg,  November          1318 

Salzburg,  December  3rd 
Salzburg,  December  7th 
Salzburg,  December  loth 


NO.  OF 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  December  I4th 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,       Salzburg,  December  i6th 
St.  Gilgen 


Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  January  7th 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  January  I4th 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  January  iQth- 
St.  Gilgen  2ist 

522.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  January  22nd     1319 

St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  January  25th 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  January  27th 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,       Munich,  February  2nd 

523.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Vienna,  February  I4th-     1320 

Salzburg  i6th 

524.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Vienna,  February  2ist-     1322 

Salzburg  22nd 

525.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Vienna,  March  I2th  1324 


Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Vienna,  March  I9th 

526*     Mozart  to  Professor  Anton  Vienna,  March  2ist  1325 

Klein,  Mannheim 

527.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Vienna,  March  25th-26th  1328 


Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Vienna,  April  2nd 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Vienna,  April  8th 

528.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Vienna,  April  i6th  1328 


Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Linz,  April  3Oth 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Munich,  May  5th 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  May  27th 
St.  Gilgen 



NO.  OF 


Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

529.  Mozart  to  Joseph  Haydn, 


Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter 
and  son-in-law,  St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

530.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  son-in-law, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter 
St.  Gilgen 

531.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 

532.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

533.  Mozart  to  Franz  Anton 


Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 



Salzburg,  June  2nd-3rd 

Salzburg,  June  Qth- 

Vienna,  September  ist       1329 
Salzburg,  September  2nd 
Salzburg,  September  9th 

Salzburg,  September  I4th- 

Salzburg,  September          1330 
i  6th-  I  7th 

Salzburg,  September  iyth 
Salzburg,  September  22nd 

Salzburg,  September  29th- 
October  ist 

Salzburg,  October  5th 

Salzburg,  October  6th- 

Salzburg,  October  I4th- 

Salzburg,  October  2Oth- 

Salzburg,  October  27th- 

Salzburg,  November  3rd-  1331 

Salzburg,  November  iith  1331 

Salzburg,  November  i6th- 

Salzburg,  November  i8th- 

Vienna,  November  20th     1332 

Salzburg,  November 

Salzburg,  November 


NO.  OF 

LETTER                       SENDER  AND   RECIPIENT  DATE                                                PAGE 

534.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  December  and-  1333 

St.  Gilgen  3rd 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  December  7th- 

St.  Gilgen  loth 

535.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  December           1334 

St.  Gilgen  i6th 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  December 

St.  Gilgen  22nd-23rd 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  December 

St.  Gilgen  29th-3Oth 


Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  January  4th- 

St.  Gilgen  5th 

536.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  January  I3th      1334 

St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  January  i4th 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  January  i8th 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  January  I9th- 

St.  Gilgen  2ist 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  January  27th 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburer,  January  27th- 

St.  Gilgen  28th 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  February  ist- 

St.  Gilgen  3rd 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  February  oth- 

St.  Gilgen  I0th 

*537.     Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Munich,  February 

St.  Gilgen  [?  x6th] 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Munich,  February  22nd- 

St.  Gilgen  23rd 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Munich,  March  1st 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  March  oth-nth 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  March  mh- 
St.  Gilgen                 • 

Leopold  Mozart  to  Artaria  and        Salzburg,  March  2  1st 
Co.,  Vienna 

538.     Le°P°^aMozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  March  23rd-      1335 



NO.  OF 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  March  28th 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  March  3ist- 
St.  Gilgen  April  ist 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,       Salzburg,  April  I3th 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  April  i8th- 
St.  Gilgen  22nd 

539.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  April  [?25th]      1336 

St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  May  $th-6th 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  May  1 2th- 1 3th 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,       Salzburg,  May  i8th-2Oth 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  May  22nd 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  May  26th 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  June  1 3th- 1 4th 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  June  i6th 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  June  zyth 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  July  2ist-22nd 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  July  28th-2Qth 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  August  3rd~4th 

St.  Gilgen 

540.  Mozart  to  Sebastian  Winter,  Vienna,  August  8th  1337 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  August  I  ith- 

St.  Gilgen  I2th 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  August  I2th 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  August  lyth- 

St.  Gilgen  19*^ 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  August  23rd 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  August  25th 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,  Salzburg,  September  ist-2nd 

St.  Gilgen 




NO.  OF 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 

541.  Mozart  to  Sebastian  Winter, 


Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 
Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 

542.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 

St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter, 
St.  Gilgen 


Salzburg,  September  3rd 

Salzburg,  September  6th- 

Salzburg,  September  isth- 


Vienna,  September  soth     1340 
Salzburg,  October  I2th 
Salzburg,  October  iyth 
Salzburg,  October  aoth 
Salzburg,  October  ayth 

Salzburg,  November  2nd- 

Salzburg,  November  yth 

Salzburg,  November  9th 

Salzburg,  November          1342 

Salzburg,  November  2Oth 
Salzburg,  November  24th 
Salzburg,  November  29th 

Salzburg,  December  ist- 

Salzburg,  December  8th 

Salzburg,  December  I4th- 

Salzburg,  December  I9th 
Salzburg,  December  22nd 
Salzburg,  December  29th 


NO.  OF 


Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  January  4th 
St.  Gilgen 

543.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  January  I2th      1343 

St.  Gilgen 

544.  Mozart  to  Baron  Gottfried  von       Prague,  January  I4th         1343 

Jacquin,  Vienna 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  January  i8th 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  January  igth 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  January  26th 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  February  2nd 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  February  5th 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  February  oth 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Munich,  February  I3th 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  February  24th 
St.  Gilgen 

545.  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  March  ist-2nd  1347 

St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  March  9th- 
St.  Gilgen  nth 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  March  I3th 
St.  Gilgen 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  March  i6th 
St.  Gilgen 

546.  Mozart  to  his  father  Vienna,  April  4th  1349 

Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter,      Salzburg,  May  roth-nth 
St.  Gilgen 

547.  Mozart  to  Baron  Gottfried  von       Vienna,  May  29th  1352 


548.  Mozart  to  his  sister  Vienna,  June  i6th  1353 

549.  Mozart  to  his  sister  '     Vienna,  August  1st  1353 

550.  Mozart  to  Baron  Gottfried  von       Prague,  October  I5th-       1354 

Jacquin,  Vienna  25th 

551.  Mozart  to  Baron  Gottfried  von       Prague,  November  4th-     1357 

Jacquin,  Vienna  9th 

'552.     Mozart  to  his  sister  Vienna,  December  I9th     1359 

1  First  published  by  Mr.  C.  B.  Oldman  in  the  Musical  Times,  July  1929. 




NO.  OF 



Mozart  to 




Mozart  to 




Mozart  to 




Mozart  to 




Mozart  to 

his  sister 



Mozart  to 

Franz  Hofdemel 


Mozart  to 

his  wife 


Mozart  to 

his  wife 


Mozart  to 

his  wife 


Mozart  to 

his  wife 


Mozart  to 

his  wife 


Mozart  to 

his  wife 


Mozart  to 

his  wife 


Mozart  to 

his  wife 


Mozart  to 




Mozart  to 




Mozart  to 



570.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

571.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

572.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

573.  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 


574.  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

575.  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

576.  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 





Mozart  to 
Mozart  to 
Mozart  to 

Mozart  to 

Mozart  to 
Mozart  to 
Mozart  to 
Mozart  to 

Michael  Puchberg 
Michael  Puchberg 
Michael  Puchberg 
the  Archduke 

Michael  Puchberg 
Michael  Puchberg 
Michael  Puchberg 
his  wife 


Vienna,  early  in  June  1360 

Vienna,  June  1 7th  1361 

Vienna,  June  27th  1363 

Vienna,  beginning  of  July  1364 

Vienna,  August  2nd  1365 

Vienna,  end  of  March  1367 

Budwitz,  April  8th  1368 

Prague,  April  loth  1368 

Dresden,  April  I3th  1370 

Dresden,  April  i6th  1372 

Leipzig,  May  i6th  1376 

Berlin,  May  I9th  1379 

Berlin,  May  23rd  1379 

Prague,  May  3ist  1382 

Vienna,  July  I2th~i4th  1383 

Vienna,  July  I7th  1385 

Vienna,  second  half  of  1387 

Vienna,  middle  of  August  1387 

Vienna,  end  of  August  1389 

Vienna,  Autumn  1390 

Vienna,  December  29th  1391 

Vienna,  January  2Oth  1392 

Vienna,  February  2oth  1393 

Vienna,  end  of  March  or  1393 
beginning  of  April 

Vienna,  April  8th  1395 

Vienna,  April  23rd  1396 

Vienna,  beginning  of  May  1 396 

Vienna,  first  half  of  May  1397 

Vienna,  May  I7th  1398 

Vienna,  June  I2th  1399 

Vienna,  August  I4th  1400 

Frankfurt  am  Main,  1400 
September  28th 


NO.  OF 



^^585.  Mozart  to  his  wife 

586.  Mozart  to  his  wife 

587.  Mozart  to  his  wife 

588.  Mozart  to  his  wife 

589.  Mozart  to  his  wife 

590.  Mozart  to  his  wife 

591.  Mozart  to  his  wife 


592.  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

593.  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

594.  Mozart  to  the  Municipal 

Council  of  Vienna 

595.  Mozart  to  Choir-master  Stoll 

at  Baden 

596.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

597.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

598.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

599.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

600.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 
**6oi.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

602.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

603.  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

604.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

605.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

606.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

607.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

608.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

609.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

610.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

611.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

612.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

613.  Mozart  to  Choir-master  Stoll 

at  Baden 

614.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 




Frankfurt  am  Main, 
September  3oth 


Frankfurt  am  Main, 
October  3rd 


Frankfurt  am  Main, 
October  8th 


Frankfurt  am  Main, 
October  I5th 


Mainz,  October  I7th 


Mannheim,  October  23rd 


Munich,  November  2nd 


Vienna,  April  I3th 


Vienna,  between  April 
2  ist  and  27th 


Vienna,  beginning  of 


Vienna,  beginning  of 


Vienna,  June  5th 


Vienna,  June  6th 


Vienna,  June  7th 


Vienna,  June  nth 


Vienna,  June  I2th 


Vienna  (undated) 


Vienna,  June  2  5th 


Vienna,  June  25th 


Vienna,  June  3Oth  or 
July  ist 


Vienna,  July  2nd 


Vienna,  July  3rd 


Vienna,  July  4th 


Vienna,  July  5th 


Vienna,  July  5th 


Vienna,  July  6th 


Vienna,  July  7th 


Vienna,  July  9th 


Vienna,  July  I2th 


Vienna,  October  7th-8th    1436 



NO.  OF 


615.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

6 1 6.  Mozart  to  his  wife  at  Baden 

Unnumbered.  Sophie  Haibel  to  G.  N. 
von  Nissen,  Salzburg 


Vienna,  October  [?8th~9th]  1439 
Vienna,  October  14th         1442 

Diakovar,  April  yth,  1825  1447 










Constanze  Mozart  to  Johann 
Anton  Andre",  Offenbach  am 

Constanze  Mozart  to  Johann 
Anton  Andre,  Offenbach  am 

Constanze  Mozart  to  Johann 
Anton  Andre,  Offenbach  am 

Constanze  Mozart  to  Johann 
Anton  Andre,  Offenbach  am 

Constanze  Mozart  to  Johann 
Anton  Andre",  Offenbach  am 

Constanze  Mozart  to  Johann 
Anton  Andre",  Offenbach  am 

Constanze  Mozart  to  Johann 
Anton  Andre",  Offenbach  am 

Constanze  Mozart  to  Johann 
Anton  Andre,  Offenbach  am 

Constanze  Mozart  to  Johann 
Anton  Andrd,  Offenbach  am 

Constanze  Mozart  to  Johann 
Anton  Andr6,  Offenbach  am 


Vienna,  February  2ist-    1459 

Vienna,  March  I2th  1467 

Vienna,  March  29th  1469 

Vienna,  May  sist 


Vienna,  September  loth     1483 

Vienna,  October  4th  1485 

Vienna,  October  22nd        1488 

Vienna,  [?  November  I2th]  1489 

Vienna,  November  i6th     1491 

Vienna,  November  26th     1494 


*XI.  Constanze    Mozart    to    Johann      Vienna,  January  26th         1501 
Anton  Andre,  Offenbach  am 

*XII.  Constanze    Mozart    to    Johann      Vienna  [?  February  1 8thl    1503 
Anton  Andr6,  Offenbach  am 



NO.  OF 


*XIII.  Constanze    Mozart    to    Johann       Vienna,  March  4th  1504 

Anton  Andre,   Offenbach  am 

*XIV.  Constanze    Mozart    to    Johann       Vienna,  March  22nd  1505 

Anton  Andr6,   Offenbach  am 


*XV.     Constanze    Nissen    to    Johann       Salzburg,  October  28th      1507 
Anton  Andre,   Offenbach  am 



*XVI.  Constanze    Nissen    to    Johann       Salzburg,  January  1st        1512 
Anton  Andr6,   Offenbach  am 



Abert  =  Hermann    Abert,    W.    A.    Mozart.     2    volumes.     Revised 

edition.     Leipzig,  1923-1924. 

AMZ  —  Allgemeine  Musikalische  Zeitung  (Oct.   1788-Dec.  1848). 

Bliimml  =Emil  Karl  Blumml,  Aus  Mozarts  Freundes-  und  Familien- 

kreis.     Vienna,  1923. 

Jahn  =Otto    Jahn,     Wolfgang    Amadeus    Mozart.     4    volumes. 

Leipzig,  1856-1859. 

Kochel  =Dr.  Ludwig  Ritter  von  Kochel,  Chronologisch-thematisches 

Verzeichnis  samtlicher  Tonwerke  Wolfgang  A  made*  Mozarts. 
3rd  edition,  revised  by  Alfred  Einstein.  Leipzig,  1937. 

Leitzmann  =  Albert  Leitzmann,  Wolfgang  Amadeus  Mozarts  Leben  in 
seinen  Briefen  und  Berichten  der  Zeitgenossen.  Leipzig, 

MJ  =  Mozart-Jahrbuch.      Herausgegeben  von   Hermann   Abert. 

Munich,  1923-1924,  and  Augsburg,  1929. 

MM  —Mozarteums  Mitteilungen,     Zentralausschuss  der  Mozart- 

gemeinde  in  Salzburg.     November,  I9i8-May,  1921. 

MMB  —Mitteilungen  filr  die  Mozartgemeinde  in  Berlin.     Heraus 

gegeben  von  Rudolf  Genee,  1895-1921. 

Niemetschek  =  Franz  Niemetschek,  Leben  des  K.  K.  Kapellmeisters  Wolf- 
gang  Gottlieb  Mozart.  Prague,  1798.  (Reprinted  Prague, 

Nissen  =Georg  Nikolaus  von  Nissen,  Biografhie   W.  A.  Mozarts. 

Leipzig,  1828. 

,Nohl  =  Ludwig  Nohl,  Mozarts  Brief e.     2nd  edition.     Leipzig,  1877. 

Nottebohm     =Gustav  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana.     Leipzig,  1880. 

Schiedermair  =  Ludwig  Schiedermair,  Die  Brief e  Mozarts  und  seiner 
Familie.  4  volumes.  Munich  and  Leipzig,  1914. 

Schurig  =  Arthur  Schurig,  Wolfgang  Amadeus  Mozart.  2  volumes. 

2nd  edition.  Leipzig,  1923. 

WSF  =T.  de  Wyzewa  et  G.  de  Saint- Foix,  W.  A.  Mozart.  Sa  vie 

musicale  et  son  ozuvre  de  Venfance  a  la  fileine  maturitet 
1756-1777.  2  volumes.  Paris,  1912.  The  third  volume  of 
this  epoch-making  study  of  Mozart's  musical  development, 
which  covers  the  years  1777-1783,  was  brought  out  by 
M.  de  Saint-Foix  in  1936. 

ZMW  =  Zeitschrift  fur  Musikwissenschaft. 



THE  following  table  has  been  compiled  from  information  contained  in 
Muret-Saunders's  German-English  Dictionary,  in  Professor  W.  H. 
Bruford's  Germany  in  the  Eighteenth  Century  (Cambridge,  1935), 
p.  329  f.,  and  in  the  letters  of  Leopold  Mozart,  who  frequently  quotes 
the  equivalent  values  of  foreign  coins  and  the  fluctuating  rates  of  ex 
change  between  the  various  German  states.  As  there  were  several 
standards  in  common  use  for  the  minting  of  silver  coins  during  the 
latter  half  of  the  eighteenth  century,  the  values  here  given  are  of 
necessity  only  approximate. 


Taking  the  South  German  kreutzer  (worth  4  pfennige,  slightly 
more  than  the  English  farthing)  as  the  standard,  the  following  equi 
valent  values  of  silver  coins  are  obtained: 

60  kreutzer  (or  16  groschen)  =  i  gulden,  about  two  shillings. 
90  kreutzer  (or  24  groschen)  =  i  reichsthaler,  about  three  shillings. 
120  kreutzer  (or  32  groschen)  =  i  laubthaler  or  federthaler,  about 
four  shillings. 

The  following  gold  coins  were  in  common  use  in  Germany  and 

i  ducat  (used  all  over  Europe)  =4!  gulden,  about  nine  shillings. 
i  max  d'or  (used  chiefly  in  Bavaria)  =  6 J-  gulden,  about  thirteen 

i  friedrich  d'or    (used    chiefly  in   Prussia)  =  8    gulden,   about 

sixteen  shillings. 

i  pistole  (used  all  over  Europe)  =  7 \  gulden,  about  fifteen  shillings. 
i  carolin  (used  chiefly  in  Southern  Germany)  =  9  gulden,  about 

eighteen  shillings. 
i  souverain  d'or  (used  chiefly  in  Austria)  =  13!  gulden,  about 

twenty-seven  shillings. 


i  Hard  =  about  one  farthing. 
20  sous  =  i  livre,  about  eleven  pence. 
i  louis  d'or  =  22  livres,  about  twenty  shillings. 



i  paolo  (a  silver  coin  of  Tuscany,  worth  originally  about  56 
centesimi,  and  still  used  as  the  equivalent  of  half  a  lira)  = 
about  sixpence. 

icigliato  (or,  more  commonly,  gigliato)  =  a  ducat,  about  nine 

i  zecchino  (a  Venetian  gold  coin)  =  about  ten  shillings. 

i  doppio- probably  a  doppio  zecchino,  about  twenty  shillings. 

*  =  about  twenty-eight  shillings. 

1  Leopold  Mozart  calls  this  coin  a  'reitter*.     See  p.  90. 




26.  Mozart  (1782)     ......    Frontispiece 

From  an  unfinished  portrait  by  Josef  Lange. 
Mozart  Museum,  Salzburg. 


27.  Emperor  Joseph  II  .  .  .  .  .1072 

From  an  engraving  by  L.  M. 

Gesellschaffc  der  Musikfreunde,  Vienna. 

28.  Stephanie  der  jiingere    ......     1088 

From  an  engraving  by  J.  E.  Mansfeld  after  a  portrait  by  Josef 

Nationalbibliothek,  Vienna. 

29.  Constanze  Mozart,  nee  Weber  (1782)  .  .  .     1168 

From  a  portrait  by  Josef  Lange. 

Hunterian  Museum,  University  of  Glasgow. 

30.  Lorenzo  Da  Ponte         ......     1201 

From  a  water-colour  painting  by  an  unknown  artist. 
Signor  Riccardo  Rossi,  Vittorio  Veneto. 

31.  Muzio  dementi  (1794)  •  •  -  •  .1216 

From  an  engraving  by  T.  Hardy. 
British  Museum. 

32.  Marianne  Mozart,  Freifrau  von  Berchtold  zu  Sonnenburg 

(1785)   •  •  •  ..-  •  •  •      I233 

From  a  portrait  by  an  unknown  artist. 
Mozart  Museum,  Salzburg. 

33.  Gottfried  Van  Swieten   .  .  .  .  .  .1264 

From  an  engraving  by  J.  Axmann  after  a  portrait  by  P.  Fendi. 
Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreunde,  Vienna. 

34.  Anna  Storace  in  the  character  of  Euphrosyne          .  .     1281 

From  an  engraving  by  Conde"  after  a  portrait  by  De  Wilde. 
British  Museum. 

35.  Joseph  Haydn  (1800)     ......      I3I3 

From  an  engraving  by  P.  N.  Gue"rin. 
Paul  Hirsch,  Esq.,  Cambridge. 

36.  Josef  and  Aloysia  Lange  (1785)          ....     1328 

From  an  engraving  by  Daniel  Berger  after  a  drawing  by  Josef 

Mozart  Museum,  Salzburg. 




37.  Emanuel  Schikaneder   ......     1344 

From  an  engraving  by  LoschenkohL 

Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreunde,  Vienna. 

38.  Antonio  Salieri  .......     1360 

From  an  engraving  by  C.  F,  Riedel. 
C.  B.  Oldman,  Esq.,  London. 

39.  Mozart  (1789) 1388 

From  a  silver  point  drawing  by  Doris  Stock 
Musikbibliothek  Peters,  Leipzig. 

40.  Constanze  Mozart  (1802)          .....     1453 

From  a  portrait  by  Hans  Hansen. 
Mozart  Museum,  Salzburg. 



5.  Letter  from  Mozart  to  his  father  (January  4th,  1783)      .     1242-3 



Early  in  March  Ij8l  Mozart,  as  a  member  of  the  Arch" 
bishop 's  household,  was  summoned  by  his  master  to  Vienna, 
where  he  was  to  spend  the  remaining  ten  years  of  his  life. 
The  first  months  were  marked  by  his  breach  with  the  Arch 
bishop  and  the  renewal  of  his  friendship  with  the  Weber 
family,  which  eventually  led  to  his  marriage  to  Constanze 
Weber.  This  is  the  period  of  Mozart's  masterpieces,  his 
piano  concertos,  his  operas,  his  symphonies  and  his  finest 
contributions  to  chamber  music.  Letters  393-616. 

VOL.  Ill 

(393)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 

MON  TRES   CHER  AMY!  VlENNE,  ce  17  de  mars,  1781 

Yesterday,  the  i6th,  I  arrived  here,1  thank  God,  all 
by  myself  in  a  post  chaise — at  nine  o'clock  in  the  morning 
— I  was  nearly  forgetting  to  mention  the  hour.  I  travelled 
in  the  mail  coach  as  far  as  Unterhaag — but  by  that  time 
I  was  so  sore  in  my  behind  and  its  surrounding  parts  that 
I  could  endure  it  no  longer.  So  I  was  intending  to  proceed 
by  the  ordinaire,  but  Herr  Escherich,  a  government 
official,  had  had  enough  of  the  mail  coach  too  and  gave 
me  his  company  as  far  as  Kemmelbach.  There  I  was  pro 
posing  to  wait  for  the  ordinaire,  but  the  postmaster  assured 
me  that  he  could  not  possibly  allow  me  to  travel  by  it, 
as  there  was  no  head  office  there.  So  I  was  obliged  to 
proceed  by  extra  post,  reached  St.  Polten  on  Thursday, 
the  1 5th,  at  seven  o'clock  in  the  evening,  as  tired  as  a 
dog,  slept  until  two  in  the  morning  and  then  drove  on 
straight  to  Vienna.  Where  do  you  think  I  am  writing  this 
letter?  In  the  Mesmers'  garden  in  the  Landstrasse.  The 
old  lady  is  not  at  home,  but  Fraulein  Franzl,  who  is  now 
Frau  von  Posch,2  is  here  and  asks  me  to  send  a  thousand 
greetings  to  you  and  my  sister.  Well,  upon  my  honour,  I 
hardly  recognised  her,  she  has  grown  so  plump  and  fat. 
She  has  three  children,  two  young  ladies  and  a  young 
gentleman.  The  eldest  young  lady,  who  is  called  Nannerl, 
is  four  years  old,  but  you  would  swear  that  she  was  six; 

1  Mozart  left  Munich  on  March  I2th,  having  been  summoned  to  Vienna 
by  the  Archbishop,  who  had  gone  there  at  the  end  of  January,  probably  in 
connection  with  the  death  of  the  Empress. 

2  Fraulein  Franzl,  whom  Dr.  Mesmer  had  cured,  had  married  his  stepson 
von  Posch. 


1*393  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  i?8i 

the  young  gentleman  is  three,  but  you  would  swear  that 
he  was  seven;  and  the  infant  of  nine  months  you  would 
take  to  be  two  years  old,  they  are  all  so  strong  and  robust. 
Now  for  the  Archbishop.  I  have  a  charming  room  in  the 
very  same  house  where  he  is  staying.  Brunetti  and  Cec- 
carelli  are  lodging  in  another.  Che  distinzione! l  My  neigh 
bour  is  Herr  von  Kleinmayr2 — who  loaded  me  on  my 
arrival  with  all  sorts  of  kindnesses.  He  is  indeed  a  charm 
ing  man.  We  lunch  about  twelve  'o'clock,  unfortunately 
somewhat  too  early  for  me.  Our  party  consists  of  the  two 
valets,  that  is,  the  body  and  soul  attendants  of  His  Worship, 
the  controleur,   Herr  Zetti,3  the  confectioner,4  the  two 
cooks,  Ceccarelli,  Brunetti  and — my  insignificant  self.  By 
the  way,  the  two  valets  sit  at  the  top  of  the  table,  but  at 
least  I  have  the  honour  of  being  placed  above  the  cooks.5 
Well,  I  almost  believe  myself  back  in  Salzburg!  A  good 
deal  of  silly,  coarse  joking  goes  on  at  table,  but  no  one 
cracks  jokes  with  me,  for  I  never  say  a  word,  or,  if  I  have 
to  speak,  I  always  do  so  with  the  utmost  gravity;  and  as 
soon  as  I  have  finished  my  lunch,  I  get  up  and  go  off.  We 
do  not  meet  for  supper,  but  we  each  receive  three  ducats 
—which  goes  a  long  way!  The  Archbishop  is  so  kind  as 
to  add  to  his  lustre  by  his  household,  robs  them  of  their 
chance  of  earning  and  pays  them  nothing.  We  had  a 
concert  yesterday  at  four  o'clock,  and  at  least  twenty 
persons  of  the  highest  rank  were  present.  Ceccarelli  has 
already  had  to  sing  at  Count  Palfy's.  To-day  we  are  to 
go  to  Prince  Galitzin,6  who  was  at  the  Archbishop's 

1  What  a  distinction! 

2  Private  secretary  to  the  Archbishop  and  chairman  of  the  court  council. 

3  Zetti  was  "Kammerfourier",  or  Private  Messenger,  to  the  Archbishop" 
^  E.  M.  Kolnberger. 

5  It  was  customary  in  the  eighteenth  century  for  court  musicians  to  be 
treated  in  the  same  way  as  other  servants  in  the  retinue  of  a  Prince  Arch 
bishop  or  any  other  great  lord. 

6  Russian  Ambassador  to  the  Viennese  court.  He  .had  filled  the  same  post 
in  Paris. 



yesterday.  Well,  I  must  wait  and  see  whether  I  shall  get 
anything.  If  I  get  nothing,  I  shall  go  to  the  Archbishop 
and  tell  him  with  absolute  frankness  that  if  he  will  not 
allow  me  to  earn  anything,  then  he  must  pay  me,  for  I 
cannot  live  at  my  own  expense.  Well,  I  must  close  this 
letter  which  I  shall  hand  in  at  the  post  office  on  my  way, 
for  I  must  be  off  to  Prince  Galitzin's.  I  kiss  your  hands 
a  thousand  times  and  embrace  my  sister  with  all  my 
heart  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


P.S.  —  Rossi,1  the  buffo  singer,  is  here.  I  have  been  to 
see  the  Fischers  —  I  cannot  describe  how  delighted  they 
were  to  see  me  —  the  whole  household  send  you  their 
greetings.  I  hear  that  concerts  are  being  given  in  Salz 
burg.  Goodness,  just  think  what  I  am  missing!  Adieu! 
My  address  is: 

Im  Deutschen  Hause, 

(394)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

VIENNA,  March  iZth-zqth,  1781 

Copie  du  billet  autographe  de  Sa  Majeste  PEmpereur 
au  Prince  de  Kaunitz-Rittberg  dans  une  boite  de  tous  les 
portraits  de  la  famille  Imperiale  du  14  mars  1781: 


Je  n'ai  pas  pu  resister  &  1'envie  de  vous  envoyer  cette 
tabatiere,  que  je  viens  de  recevoir  de  Bruxelles  et  qui  avait 

1  Rossi,  a  tenor,  had"  probably  taken  the  part  of  the   Podesta  in  the 
Munich  production  of  "La  finta  giardiniera",  1775.  See  Kochel,  p.  276, 

2  Mozart  was  allotted  quarters  in  the  Deutsches  Ordenshaus,  the  head 
quarters  of  the  Teutonic  Order,  in  the  Singerstrasse  no.  856  (at  present 
no.  7).  For  a  full  list  of  Mozart's  many  residences  in  Vienna  during  the  last 
ten  years  of  his  life,  see  Abert,  vol.  ii.  p.  1035  f. 


L.-394  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

ete  donnee  par  feue  Sa  Majeste  au  Prince  Charles.1  Quelque 
vilaine  incommode  qu'elle  soit,  il  m'a  paru  qu'elle  etait  faite 
uniquement  pour  sejourner  sur  votre  table  et  pour  vous 
rappeler  parfois  les  physionomies  de  personnes,  qui  toutes 
ensemble  et  chacune  en  particulier  vous  doivent  beaucoup 
de  reconnaissance  pour  les  services  essentiels  que  vous  leur 
avez  rendus.  Je  n'en  fais  qu'une  partie,  mais  je  ne  crains 
point  d'etre  leur  interprete,  assure  qu'ils  pensent  tous 
comme  moi  a  ce  sujet.  Adieu.  Pardonnez  cette  folie  a 
1'amitie  raisonnee  que  vous  me  connaissez  inviolablement 

pour  vous. 

Reponse  du  Prince  Kaunitz-Rittberg! 

Par  les  expressions  du  billet  autographe  dont  Votre 
Majeste  Impdriale  a  eu  la  bonte  d'accompagner  la  boite 
qu'elle  a  daigne  m'envoyer,  et  qui  contient  le  precieux 
receuil  des  portraits  de  toute  la  famille  Imp6riale,  elle  vient 
de  recompenser  de  la  fagon  du  monde  qui  pourrait  etre  la 
plus  agreable  a  mon  coeur  les  services  que  j'eu  pu  avoir  le 
bonheur  de  rendre  a  son  auguste  maison  depuis  quarante 
ans.  II  ne  me  reste  a  d6sirer  que  de  les  voir  honorer  des 
sentiments  que  Votre  Majest6  veut  bien  leur  accorder,  et  il 
ne  manque  plus  rien  moyennant  cela  a  mon  enti&re  satis 
faction,  qui  est  d'autant  plus  vive  que  les  traits  de  ce  genre 
ne  peuvent  manquer  de  transmettre  les  noms  de  Votre 
Majeste  a  la  posterite  dans  le  sens  de  ceux  de  Trajan,  de 
Marc-Aurele  et  de  Henri  Quatre,  dont  jusqu'a  nos  jours  on 
a  beni  la  memoire  et  prononc^  encore  les  noms  avec  autant 
de  veneration  que  d'attendrissement.  Je  ne  puis  en  t6moigner 
ma  reconnaissance  a  Votre  Majest£  Imperiale  qu'en  con 
tinuant  et  en  redoublant  meme,  s'il  est  possible,  de  z£le  pour 
son  service  et  d'attachement  pour  sa  personne.  J'y  prends 
bien  plus  d'interet  qu'a  moi-meme  et  comme  je  crois  qu'il 
ne  se  trouvera  peut-etre  jamais  T occasion  plus  propre  a 
donner  de  Votre  Majeste  Imperiale  I'opinion  que  je  desire 
que  toute  la  terre  puisse  prendre  d'elle  que  ne  Test  le  con- 
tenu  de  son  gracieux  billet,  que  je  ne  saurais  lui  cacher  que  je 

1  Brother  of  the  Emperor  Francis  I  and  Governor  of  the  Austrian  Nether 
lands.  He  died  in  1780. 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1.393 

ddsirais  fort  qu'elle  trouvat  bon  qu'il  ne  reste  pas  ignore.  Je 
ne  ferai  cependant  rien  a  cet  egard  avant  d'en  avoir  obtenu 
la  permission,  si  ce  n'est  un  fide-commis  dans  ma  famille  de 
la  boite  ainsi  que  de  ce  respectable  billet.  Je  supplie  Votre 
Majeste  Imperiale  de  vouloir  bien  accueillir  en  attendant 
avec  bonte  1' assurance  respectueuse  de  ma  vive  recon 
naissance  et  de  mon  attachement  sans  bornes  pour  sa  per- 
sonne  qui  ne  finira  pas  qu'avec  moi. 


As  I  have  just  had  the  opportunity  at  Madame 
Lamotte's  of  copying  out  these  two  delightful  billets,  I 
thought  I  ought  to  do  so.  Mademoiselle  Lamotte1  is  no 
longer  living  with  the  Countess  Schonborn.2  She  has 
written  to  us  and,  moreover,  has  replied  to  all  the  points 
about  Count  Rosenberg3  and  Baron  Kleinmayr.  She 
swears  that  she  has  done  so.  Further,  she  and  her  mamma 
send  a  thousand  greetings  to  you  both;  and  so  does  Herr 
von  Vogter,  who  was  at  Milan  and  who  is  to  leave  shortly 
for  Klagenfurt  with  the  Archduchess  Maria  Anna.4  I  kiss 
your  hands  a  thousand  times,  embrace  my  sister  most 
cordially  and  remain 5 

(395)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
MON    TRES    CHER    PERE!          VIENNA,  March  ZAfh-T&th,  1 78 1 

I   have  received  your  letter  of  the  2oth  and  am 
delighted  to  hear  that  both  of  you  have  reached  home  6 

1  Probably  the  wife  and  sister  of  Franz  Lamotte,  a  famous  violinist,  who 
had  been  in  the  service  of  the  Empress  Maria  Theresa.  See  p.  216,  n.  2. 

2  A  sister  of  the  Archbishop  of  Salzburg. 

3  Franz  Xaver  Wolf  Orsini- Rosenberg  (1723-1796),  who  had  been  appointed 
in  1779  Chief  Chamberlain  and  Director  of  the  Court  Theatre  in  Vienna. 

*  The  Archduchess  Maria  Anna  (1738-1787)  was  the  second  child  of  the 
Empress  Maria  Theresa. 

5  The  signature  and  date  have  been  cut  off  the  autograph. 

6  Mozart's  father  and  sister  had  remained  on  in  Munich  after  he  had  been 
summoned  by  the  Archbishop  to  Vienna. 



safely  and  are  in  very  good  health.  You  must  put  it  down 
to  my  pen  and  this  wretched  ink,  if  you  have  to  spell  out 
this  letter  rather  than  read  it.  Basta!  It  must  be  written — 
and  the  gentleman  who  cuts  my  pens,  Herr  von  Lirzer, 
has  let  me  down  this  time.  You  probably  know  him 
better  than  I  do.  I  cannot  describe  him  more  appropriately 
than  by  saying  that  he  is,  I  believe,  a  native  of  Salzburg 
and  that  up  to  the  present  I  have  never  seen  him  except 
once  or  twice  at  the  Robinigs'  so-called  eleven  o'clock 
music.  He,  however,  called  on  me  at  once  and  seems  to  be 
a  very  pleasant  and  (since  he  has  been  cutting  my  pens 
for  me)  a  very  civil  fellow.  I  take  him  to  be  a  secretary.  I 
have  also  had  a  surprise  visit  from  Gilowsky,  Katherl's 
brother.1  Why  a  surprise  visit? — Well,  because  I  had 
entirely  forgotten  that  he  was  in  Vienna.  How  quickly  a 
foreign  city  can  improve  a  man!  Gilowsky  will  certainly 
become  an  upright,  honest  fellow,  both  in  his  metier  and 
in  his  demeanour.  Meanwhile  you  will  have  received  the 
letters  exchanged  between  the  Emperor  and  Prince 
Kaunitz.2  What  you  say  about  the  (Archbishop)  is  to  a 
certain  extent  perfectly  true — I  mean,  as  to  the  manner  in 
which  I  tickle  his  (ambition).  But  of  what  use  is  all  this  to 
me?  I  can't  subsist  on  it.  Believe  me,  I  am  right  in  saying 
that  he  acts  as  a  screen  to  keep  me  from  the  notice  of 
others.  What  (distinction,)  pray,  does  he  confer  upon  me? 
Herr  von  Kleinmayr  and  Bonike3  have  (a  separate 
table)  with  the  illustrious  Count  (Arco).4  It  would  be 
some  distinction  if  (I  sat  at  that  table,)  but  there  is  none 
in  sitting  (with  the  valets,)  who,  when  they  are  not 

1  Franz  Wenzel  Gilowsky  (1757-1816),  who  became  a  doctor  in  Vienna. 
He  was  best  man  at  Mozart's  marriage  to  Constanze  Weber  in  1782. 
*  See  Letter  394. 

3  Johann  Michael  Bonike  was  private  secretary  to  the  Archbishop  and  a 
member  of  the  Ecclesiastical  Council. 

4  Count  Karl  Arco  (1743-1830),  one  of  the  principal  members  of  the 
Archbishop's  household.  He  was  the  son  of  Count  Georg  Anton  Felix  Arco, 
Chief  Chamberlain  to  the  Archbishop. 


ijSi  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1.395 

occupying  the  best  seats  <at  table,)  have  to  light  the 
chandeliers,  open  the  doors  and  wait  in  the  anteroom 
(when  /  am  within) — and  with  the  cooks  too!  Moreover, 
when  we  are  summoned  to  a  house  where  there  is  a  con 
cert,  Herr  Angerbauer  *  has  to  watch  outside  until  the 
Salzburg  gentlemen  arrive,  when  he  sends  a  lackey  to 
show  them  the  way  in.  On  hearing  Brunetti  tell  this  in 
the  course  of  a  conversation,  I  thought  to  myself,  "Just 
wait  till  I  come  along!".  So  the  other  day  when  we 
were  to  go  to  Prince  Galitzin's,  Brunetti  said  to  me  in  his 
usual  polite  manner:  "Tu,  bisogna  che  sii  qui  stasera  alle 
sette  per  andare  insieme  dal  Principe  Galitzin.  L'Anger- 
bauer  ci  condurra."  Ho  risposto:  "Va  bene — ma — se  in 
caso  mai  non  fossi  qui  alle  sette  in  punto,  ci  andate  pure, 
non  serve  aspettarmi — so  bene  dove  sta,  e  ci  verro 
sicuro"2 — I  went  there  alone  on  purpose,  because  I  really 
feel  ashamed  to  go  anywhere  with  them.  When  I  got 
upstairs,  I  found  Angerbauer  standing  there  to  direct  the 
lackey  to  show  m£  in.  But  I  took  no  notice,  either  of  the 
valet  or  the  lackey,  but  walked  straight  on  through  the, 
rooms  into  the  music  room,  for  all  the  doors  were  open, — 
and  went  straight  up  to  the  Prince,  paid  him  my  respects 
and  stood  there  talking  to  him.  I  had  completely  forgotten 
my  friends  Ceccarelli  and  Brunetti,  for  they  were  not  to 
be  seen.  They  were  leaning  against  the  wall  behind  the 
orchestra,  not  daring  to  come  forward  a  single  step.  If  a 
lady  or  a  gentleman  speaks  to  Ceccarelli,  he  always 
laughs:  and  if  anyone  at  all  addresses  Brunetti,  he  colours 
and  gives  the  dullest  answers.  Oh,  I  could  cover  whole 
sheets  if  I  were  to  describe  all  the  scenes  which  have  taken 
place  between  the  (Archbishop)  and  the  two  of  them  since 

1  Johann  Ulrich  Angerbauer,  one  of  the  Archbishop's  private  valets. 

2  "You  must  be  here  at  seven  o'clock  this  evening,  so  that  we  may  go 
together  to  Prince   Galitzin's.   Angerbauer  will  take  us  there."  Ijreplied: 
"All  right.  But  if  I'm  not  here  at  seven  o'clock  sharp,  just  go  ahead.  You 
need  not  wait  for  me.  I  know  where  he  lives  and  I  will  be  sure  to  be  there.'' 


L.395  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

I  have  been  here  and  indeed  before  I  came.  I  am  only 
surprised  that  he  is  not  ashamed  of  Brunetti.  Why,  I  am 
ashamed  on  his  account.  And  how  the  fellow  hates  being 
here!  The  whole  place  is  far  too  grand  for  him.  I  really 
think  he  spends  his  happiest  hours  at  table.  Prince 
Galitzin  asked  Ceccarelli  to  sing  to-day.  Next  time  it 
will  be  my  turn  to  perform.  I  am  going  this  evening 
with  Herr  von  Kleinmayr  to  Court  Councillor  Braun, 
a  good  friend  of  his,  who  is  supposed  to  be  one  of 
the  greatest  enthusiasts  for  the  clavier.  I  have  lunched 
twice  with  Countess  Thun1  and  go  there  almost  every 
day.  She  is  the  most  charming  and  most  lovable  lady 
I  have  ever  met;  and  I  am  very  high  in  her  favour. 
Her  husband  is  still  the  same  peculiar,  but  well-meaning 
and  honourable  gentleman.  I  have  also  lunched  with 
Count  Cobenzl.2  I  owe  this  to  his  aunt,  Countess  von 
Rumbeck,  sister  of  the  Cobenzl  in  the  Pagerie,  who 
was  at  Salzburg  with  her  husband.  Weil,  my  chief 
object  here  is  to  introduce  myself  to  (the  Emperor) 
in  some  becoming  way,  for  I  am  absolutely  determined 
that  he  shall  get  to  know  me.  I  should  love  to  run 
through  my  opera 3  for  him  and  then  play  a  lot  of  fugues, 
for  that  is  what  he  likes.  Oh,  had  I  but  known  that  I 
should  be  in  Vienna  during  Lent,  I  should  have  written 
a  short  oratorio  and  produced  it  in  the  theatre  for  my 
benefit,  as  they  all  do  here.  I  could  easily  have  written  it 
beforehand,  for  I  know  all  the  voices.  How  gladly  would 
I  give  a  public  concert,  as  is  the  custom  here.  But  I  know 
for  certain  that  I  should  never  get  permission  to  do  so — 
for  just  listen  to  this!  You  know  that  there  is  a  society 
in  Vienna  which  gives  concerts  for  the  benefit  of  the 

1  Countess  Wilhelmine  Thun  (1744-1800),  wife  of  Count  Franz  Josef 
Thun  (1734-1788),  and  the  mother  of  three  beautiful  daughters.  She  had 
been  a  pupil  of  Haydn  and  was  later  a  friend  of  Beethoven. 

*  Count  Johann  Philipp  von  Cobenzl,  Court  and  State  Chancellor  in 
Vienna.  3  "Idomeneo." 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1.395 

widows  of  musicians,1  at  which  every  professional 
musician  plays  gratis.  The  orchestra  is  a  hundred  and 
eighty  strong.2  No  virtuoso  who  has  any  love  for  his 
neighbour,  refuses  to  give  his  services,  if  the  society  asks 
him  to  do  so.  Besides,  in  this  way  he  can  win  the  favour 
both  of  the  Emperor  and  of  the  public.  Starzer  was  com 
missioned  to  invite  me  and  I  agreed  at  once,  adding, 
however,  that  I  must  first  obtain  the  consent  of  my 
Prince,  which  I  had  not  the  slightest  doubt  that  he  would 
give — as  it  was  a  matter  of  charity,  or  at  any  rate  a 
good  work,  for  which  I  should  get  no  fee.  He  would  not 
permit  me  to  take  part.  All  the  nobility  in  Vienna  have 
made  a  grievance  of  it.  I  am  only  sorry  for  the  following 
reason.  I  should  not  have  played  a  concerto,  but  (as  the 
Emperor  sits  in  the  proscenium  box)  I  should  have 
extemporised  ahd  played  a  fugue  and  then  the  variations 
on  "Je  suis  Lindor"3  on  Countess  Thun's  beautiful  Stein 
pianoforte,  which  she  would  have  lent  me.  Whenever  I 
have  played  this  programme  in  public,  I  have  always 
won  the  greatest  applause — because  the  items  set  one 
another  off  so  well,  and  because  everyone  has  something 
to  his  taste.  But  pazienza! 

Fiala  has  risen  two  thousand  times  higher  in  my 
estimation  for  refusing  to  play  for  less  than  a  ducat.  Has 
not  my  sister  been  asked  to  play  yet?  I  hope  she  will 
demand  two  ducats.  For,  as  we  have  always  been  utterly 
different  in  every  way  from  the  other  court  musicians,  I 
trust  we  shall  be  different  in  this  respect  too.  If  they 

1  The  "Wiener  Tonkunstlersozietat",   which  was  founded  in   1771   by 
Florian  Gassmann.  Since  1862  it  has  been  the  Haydnverein.  Mozart,  who 
wished  to  join  this  society  in  1785  and  who  had  several  times  performed 
gratis  for  its  benefit,  was  refused  admission  because  he  could  not  produce  a 
certificate  of  baptism.  See  Pohl,  Haydn,  vol.  ii.  p.  I34f-,  and  Hanslick, 
Geschichte  des  Konzertwesens  in  Wien,  1869,  p.  6  ff. 

2  This  figure  includes,  of  course,  the  choir. 

3  K.  354.  Twelve  clavier  variations,  composed  in  Paris  in  1778,  on  "Je  suis 
Lindor",  an  arietta  in  Beaumarchais's  "Le  Barbier  de  Seville". 


L.395  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

won't  pay,  they  can  do  without  her — but  if  they  want  her, 
then,  by  Heaven,  let  them  pay.    ' 

I  shall  go  to  Madame  Rosa  one  of  these  days  and  you 
will  certainly  be  pleased  with  your  clever  diplomat.  I 
shall  handle  the  matter  as  tactfully  as  dicLWeiser, x  when 
the  bell  was  tolled  for  his  wife's  mother. 

Herr  von  Zetti  offered  immediately  after  my  arrival  to 
deliver  my  letters.  He  will  send  them  off  with  the  parcel, 
I  do  not  require  the  two  quartets  2  nor  the  Baumgarten 
aria.3  A  propos.  What  about  (the  Elector's  present?)  Has 
anything  (been  sent  yet?)  Did  you  call  on  <the  Countess 
Baumgarten)  before  you  left  Munich? 

Please  give  my  greetings  to  all  my  good  friends,  and 
especially  to  Katherl,  Schachtner  and  Fiala.  Herr  von 
Kleinmayr,  Zetti,  Ceccarelli,  Brunetti,  the  controleur, 
the  two  valets,  Leutgeb4  and  Ramm,  who  leaves  on 
Sunday,  send  their  compliments  to  all.  A  propos,  Peter 
Vogtishere.  Well,  goodbye.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand 
times  and  embrace  my  sister  most  cordially  and  am  ever 
your  most  obedient  son 


Rossi,  the  buffo  singer,  is  here  too. 

March  28  tA.  I  could  not  finish  this  letter,  because  Herr 
von  Kleinmayr  fetched  me  in  his  carriage  to  go  to  a 
concert  at  Baron  Braun's.  So  I  can  now  add  that  (the 
Archbishop  has  given  me  permission  to  play  at  the 

1  A  former  mayor  of  Salzburg. 

*  Possibly  one  of  these  quartets  is  K.  370,  an  oboe  quartet  composed  at 
Munich  early  in  1781  for  Mozart's  friend  Ramm. 

3  K.  369.  "Misera,  dove  son!",  written  for  the  Countess  Baumgarten  on 
March  8th,  1781. 

4  Ignaz  Leutgeb,  horn-player  in  the  Salzburg  court  orchestra,  had  opened 
a  cheesemonger's  shop  in  a  suburb  of  Vienna  with  the  half  of  a  money  loan 
from  Leopold  Mozart.  He  continued  to  play  in  public,  and  he  and  Mozart 
became  fast  friends.   Mozart's  horn  concertos,  K.  412,  417,  447  and  495, 
composed  between  the  years  1782  and  1786,  were  written  for  Leutgeb. 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1.595 

concert  for  the  widows.)  For  Starzer  went  to  the  concert 
at  (Galitzin's)  and  he  and  <all  the  nobility  worried  the 
Archbishop  until  he  gave  his  consent.)  /  am  so  glad.  Since 
I  have  been  here  I  have  lunched  at  home  only  four  times. . 
The  hour  is  too  early  for  me — and  the  food  is  wretched. 
Only  when  the  weather  is  very  bad,  as  to-day,  par  exemple, 
I  stay  at  home. 

Do  write  and  tell  me  what  is  going  on  in  Salzburg,  for 
I  have  been  plagued  with  questions.  These  gentlemen 
are  far  more  anxious  for  news  of  Salzburg  than  I  am. 
Madame  Mara  is  here  and  gave  a  concert  in  the  theatre 
last  Tuesday.  Her  husband  dared  not  let  himself  be  seen, 
or  the  orchestra  would  not  have  accompanied  her;  for  he 
published  in  the  newspapers  that  there  was  no  one  in  all 
Vienna  fit  to  do  this.  Adieu.  Herr  von  Moll  paid  me  a 
visit  to-day  and  I  am  to  breakfast  with  him  to-morrow 
or  the  day  after  and  bring  my  opera1  with  me.  He  sends 
greetings  to  you  both.  As  soon  as  the  weather  improves,  I 
shall  call  on  Herr  von  Aurnhammer  and  his  fat  daughter.2 
From  these  remarks  you  will  see  that  I  have  received 
your  last  letter  of  the  24th.  Old  Prince  Colloredo  3  (at 
whose  house  we  held  a  concert)  gave  each  of  us  five  ducats. 
Countess  Rumbeck  is  now  my  pupil.  Herr  von  Mesmer 
(the  school  inspector)  and  his  wife  and  son  send  you  their 
greetings.  His  son  plays  magnifique,  but,  as  he  imagines 
that  he  knows  quite  enough  already,  he  is  lazy.  He  has 
also  considerable  talent  for  composition,  but  is  too  indolent 
to  devote  himself  to  it,  which  vexes  his  father.  Adieu. 

1  "Idomeneo." 

2  Fraulein  Josephine  Aurnhammer  became  Mozart's  pupil  on  the  clavier, 
and  he  wrote  for  her  his  sonata  for  two  pianos,  K.  448.  She  married  in  1796 
and,  as  Frau  Bosenhonig,  was  still  performing  in  public  in  1813.  She  herself 
composed  several  series  of  pianoforte  variations. 

3  Prince  Rudolf  Colloredo,  father  of  the  Archbishop  of  Salzburg. 



(396)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
MoN   TRES   CHER   P&RE!  VlENNE,  ce  4  d'avril,  1781 

My  letter  to-day  must  be  very  short,  but  Brunetti 
returns  to  Salzburg  on  Sunday  and  then  I  shall  be  able 
to  write  you  a  longer  one. 

You  want  to  know  how  we  are  getting  on  in  Vienna  — 
or  rather,  I  hope,  how  I  am  getting  on;  for  the  other  two 
I  do  not  count  as  having  anything  to  do  with  me.  I  told 
you  in  a  recent  letter  that  (the  Archbishop)  is  a  great  ^ 
hindrance  to  me  here,  for  he  has  done  me  out  of  at  least  >> 
a  hundred  ducats,  which  I  could  certainly  have  made  f 
by  giving  <a  concert  in  the  theatre.)  Why,  the  ladies 
themselves  offered  of  their  own  accord  to  distribute  the 
tickets.  I  can  say  with  truth  that  I  was  very  well  pleased^ 
with  the  Viennese  public  yesterday,  when  I  played  at  the 
concert  for  the  widows  *  in  the  Kartnerthor  theatre.  I  had 
to  begin  all  over  again,  because  there  was  no  end  to  the 
applause.  Well,  how  much  do  you  suppose  I  should  mak£ 
if  I  were  to  give  a  concert  of  my  own,  now  that  the  public<C 
has  got  to  know  me?  But  this  <arch-booby>  of  ours  will 
not  allow  it.  He  does  not  want  his  people  to  have  any'' 
profit  —  only  loss.  Still,  he  will  not  be  able  to  achieve  this 
in  my  case,  for  if  I  have  two  pupils  I  am  better  off  in 
Vienna  than  in  Salzburg.  Nor  do  I  need  his  board  and^ 
lodging.  Now  listen  to  this.  Brunetti  said  to-day  at  table 
that  Arco  had  told  him  on  behalf  of  the  Archbishop  that 
he  (Brunetti)  was  to  inform  us  that  we  were  to  receive  the 
money  for  our  mail  coach  fares  and  to  leave  before  Sunday. 
On  the  other  hand,  whoever  wanted  to  stay  on  (oh,  how 
judicious!}  could  do  so,  but  would  have  to  live  at  his  own 

1  See  p.  1067,  n.  i.  Mozart  played  a  piano  concerto  and  one  of  his  sym 
phonies,  possibly  K.  338,  was  performed.  See  E.  Hanslick,  Geschichte  des 
Konzertwesens  in  Wien,  p.  32.  l 



expense,  as  he  would  no  longer  get  .board  and  lodging 
from  the  Archbishop.   Brunetti,  qui  ne  demande  pas 
mieux,  smacked  his  lips.  Ceccarelli,  who  would  like  to 
remain,  but  who  is  not  so  well  known  as  I  am  and  does 
not  know  his  way  about  so  well  as  ,1  do,  is  going  to  make 
a  push  to  get  something.  If  he  does  not  succeed,  well,  in 
God's  name,  he  must  be  off,  for  there  is  not  a  house  in 
Vienna  where  he  can  get  either  a  meal  or  a  room  without 
paying  for  it.  When  they  asked  me  what  I  intended  to  do, 
I  replied:  "/  do  not  know  as  yet  that  /  have  to  leave,  for 
£jQ  until  Count  Arco  tells  me  so  himself,  /  shall  not  believe  it. 
-  When  he  does,  /  shall  then  disclose  my  intentions.  Put 
that  in  your  pipe  and  smoke  it!'  Bonike  was  present  and 
&  grinned.   Oh  indeed,  <I  shall  certainly  fool  the  Arch- 
\j-bishop  to  the  top  of  his  bent  and  how  I  shall  enjoy  doing 
f\  it!>  I  shall  do  it  with  the  greatest  politesse — (and  he  will 
<7\  not  be  able  to  dodge  me.)  Enough  of  this.  In  my  next 
letter  I  shall  be  able  to  tell  you  more.  Rest  assured  that 
unless  I  am  in  a  good  position  and  can  see  clearly  that  it 
jr)  is  to  my  advantage  to  do  so,  I  shall  certainly  not  remain 
^  in  Vienna.  But  if  it  is  to  my  advantage,  why  should  I  not 
profit  by  it?  Meanwhile,  (you  are  drawing  two  salaries 
and  have  not  got  to  feed  me.)  If  I  stay  here,  I  can  promise 
that  I  shall  soon  (be  able  to  send  home  some  money.) 
1  am  speaking  seriously,  and  if  things  turn  out  otherwise, 
_>!  shall  return  to  Salzburg.  Well,  adieu.  You  shall  have 
^the  full  story  in  my  next  letter.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand 
times  and  embrace  my  sister  with  all  my  heart,  and  I  hope 
fythat  she  has  replied  to  Mile  Hepp.  Adieu,  ever  your  most 
^obedient  son 


My  compliments  to  all — all — all. 

P.S. — I  assure  you  that  this  is  a  splendid  place — and 


1.597  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

for  my  metier  the  best  one  in  the  world.  Everyone  will 
tell  you  the  same.  Moreover,  I  like  being  here  and  there-, 
fore  I  am  making  all  the  profit  out  of  it  that  I  can. 
Believe  me,  my  sole  purpose  is  to  make  as  much  money 
as  possible;  for  after  good  health  it  is  the  best  thing  to 
have.  Think  no  more  of  my  follies,  of  which  I  have 
repented  long  ago  from  the  bottom  of  my  heart.  Mis 
fortune  brings  wisdom,  and  my  thoughts  now  turn  in 
a  very  different  direction.  Adieu.  You  will  have  a  full 
account  in  my  next  letter. 

(397)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TR£S  CHER  P£RE!  VIENNE,  ce  8  d'aprile,  1781 

<I  began  a  longer  and  more  interesting  letter  to  you, 
but  I  wrote  too  much  about  Brunetti  in  it,  and  was  afraid 
that  his  curiosity  might  tempt  him  to  open  the  letter, 
because  Ceccarelli  is  with  me.)  I  shall  send  it  by  the  next 
post  and  in  it  I  shall  write  more  fully  than  I  can  to-day. 
Meanwhile  you  will  have  received  my  other  letter.1  I  told 
you  about  the  applause  in  the  theatre,  but  I  must  add  that 
what  delighted  and  surprised  me  most  of  all  was  the 
amazing  silence — and  also  the  cries  of  " Bravo!"  while  I 
was  playing.  This  is  certainly  honour  enough  in  Vienna, 
where  there  are  such  numbers  and  numbers  of  good 
pianists.  To-day  (for  I  am  writing  at  eleven  o'clock  at 
night)  we  had  a  concert,  where  three  of  my  compositions 
were  performed — new  ones,  of  course;  a  rondo  for  a  con 
certo  for  Brunetti;2  a  sonata  with  violin  accompaniment 
for  myself,3  which  I  composed  last  night  between  eleven 
and  twelve  (but  in  order  to  be  able  to  finish  it,  I  only 

1  Letter  396.  z  K.  373.  Rondo  for  violin  and  orchestra  in  C  major. 

3  K.  379.  See  Kochel,  p.  457. 



From  an  engraving  by  L.  M. 
(Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreunde,  Vienna) 

1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.3g8 

wrote  out  the  accompaniment  for  Brunetti  and  retained 
my  own  part  in  my  head);  and  then  a  rondo  for  Ceccarelli,1 
which  he  had  to  repeat.  I  must  now  beg  you  to  send  me  a 
letter  as  soon  as  possible  and  to  give  me  your  fatherly  and 
most  friendly  advice  on  the  following  matter.  <It  is  said 
that  we  are  to  return  to  Salzburg  in  a  fortnight.  I  can  stay 
on  here,  and  that  too  not  to  my  loss,  but  to  my  advan 
tage.)  So  I  am  (thinking  of  asking  the  Archbishop  to 
allow  me  to  remain  in  Vienna.)  Dearest  father,  (I  love 
you  dearly;  that  you  must  realise,  from  the  fact  that  for 
your  sake  I  renounce  all  my  wishes  and  desires.  For,  were 
it  not  for  you,  I  swear  to  you  on  my  honour  that)  I  should 
not  hesitate  for  a  moment  (to  leave  the  Archbishop's 
service.)  I  should  (give  a  grand  concert,  take  four  pupils, 
and  in  a  year  I  should  have  got  on  so  well  in  Vienna  that 
I  could  make  at  least  a  thousand  thalers  a  year.)  I  assure 
you  that  I  often  (find  it  difficult  to  throw  away  my  luck 
as  I  am  doing.)  As  you  say,  I  am  still  (young.)  True — 
but  (to  waste  one's  youth  in  inactivity  in  such  a  beggarly 
place  is  really  very  sad — and  it  is  such  a  loss.)  I  should 
like  to  have  your  kind  and  fatherly  advice  about  this,  and 
very  soon, — for  I  must  tell  him  what  I  am  going  to  do. 
But  do  have  confidence  in  me,  for  I  am  more  prudent  now. 
Farewell.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace 
my  sister  with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient 


(398)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg\ 

MON  TR£S  CHER  P£RE!  VIENNE,  ce  n  d'avril,  1781 

Te  Deum  Laudamus  that  at  last  that  coarse  and 

dirty  Brunetti  has  left,  who  is  a  disgrace  to  his  master,  to 

himself  and  to  the  whole  orchestra — or  so  say  Ceccarelli 

1  K.  374.  A  recitative  and  aria,  "A  questo  seno  deh  vieni". 
VOL.  Ill  1073  C 


and  I .  There  is  not  a  word  of  truth  in  all  the  Vienna 
news  which  you  have  heard,  except  that  Ceccarelli  is  to 
sing  in  the  opera  at  Venice  during  the  next  carnival. 
Great  Heavens!  A  thousand  devils!  I  hope  that  this  is 
not  swearing,  for  if  so,  I  must  at  once  go  and  confess 
again.  For  I  have  just  returned  from  confession,  as 
to-morrow  (Maundy  Thursday)  the  Archbishop  in  his 
sublime  person  is  to  feed l  the  whole  court  personnel. 
Ceccarelli  and  I  went  off  to-day  after  lunch  to  the 
Theatines2  to  find  Father  Froschauer,  who  can  speak 
Italian.  A  pater  or  frater,  who  happened  to  be  standing 
on  the  altar  and  trimming  the  lights,  assured  us,  how 
ever,  that  the  Father  and  another  one  who  knows  Italian 
had  not  lunched  at  home  and  would  not  return  until 
four  o'clock.  So  this  time  I  went  on  alone  and  was 
shown  upstairs  into  a  room  where  there  was  a  priest; 
while  Ceccarelli  waited  for  me  below  in  the  courtyard. 
What  did  please  me  was  that  when  I  told  the  reverend 
chandelier-cleaner  that  eight  years  ago3  I  had  played 
a  violin  concerto  in  that  very  choir,  he  immediately 
mentioned  my  name.  But  now  to  return  to  my  swearing, 
I  must  tell  you  that  it  is  only  a  pendant  to. my  last  letter, 
to  which  I  hope  to  receive  a  reply  by  the  next  post.  In 
short,  next  Sunday  week,  April  22nd,  Ceccarelli  and  I 
are  to  go  home.  When  I  think  that  I  must  leave  Vienna 
without  bringing  home  at  least  a  thousand  gulden,  my 
heart  is  sore  indeed.  So,  for  the  sake  of  a  (malevolent 
Prince)  who  (plagues  me)  every  day  and  only  pays  me  a 
(lousy  salary  of  four  hundred  gulden,)  I  am  to  (kick 
away  a  thousand?)  For  I  should  (certainly)  make  that 
sum  if  I  (were  to  give  a  concert.)  When  we  had  our  first 
grand  concert  in  this  house,  (the  Archbishop  sent  each  of 

1  Intentionally  irreverent  for  "administer  the  sacrament". 

2  The  order  of  the  Theatines  or  Cajetans  was  dissolved  in  Vienna  in  1784. 

3  During  the  Mozarts'  visit  to  Vienna  in  the  summer  of  1773. 


ij8i  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1.398 

us  four  ducats,)  At  the  last  concert  for  which  I  composed 
<a  new  rondo  for  Brunetti,)1  a  (new  sonata)  for  myself,2 
and  (also  a  new  rondo  for  Ceccarelli,)3  I  received  (no 
thing).  But  what  made  me  almost  (desperate)  was  that 
the  very  same  (evening)  we  had  this  (foul)  concert  I  was 
invited  to  Countess  Thun's,  but  of  course  could  not  go; 
and  who  should  be  there  but  {the  Emperor!)  Adam- 
berger  4  and  Madame  Weigl 5  were  there  and  received 
fifty  ducats  each!  Besides,  what  an  opportunity!  I  cannot, 
of  course,  arrange  for  (the  Emperor  to  be  told  that  if 
he  wishes  to  hear  me  he  must  hurry  up,)  as  (I  am  leaving) 
Vienna  in  a  few  days.  One  has  to  (wait  for)  things  like 
that.  Besides,  I  (neither  can  nor  will  remain  here  unless 
I  give  a  concert.)  Still,  even  if  I  have  only  two  (pupils,) 
I  am  better  off  here  than  in  Salzburg.  But  if  I  had  1000 
or  1 200  gulden  (in  my  pocket,  I  should  be  a  little  more 
solicited)  and  therefore  (exact  better  terms.)  That  is  what 
he  (will  not  allow,  the  inhuman  villain.)  I  must  (call 
him  that,  for  he  is  a  villain  and  all  the  nobility  call  him 
so.)  But  enough  of  this.  Oh,  how  I  hope  to  hear  by  the 
next  post  whether  I  am  to  go  on  (burying  my  youth  and 
my  talents  in  Salzburg,  or  whether  I  may  make  my 
fortune  as  best  I  can,  and  not  wait  until  it  is  too  late.)  It 
is  true  (that  I  cannot  make  my  fortune)  in  a  fortnight  or 
three  weeks,  any  more  than  I  (can  make  it  in  a  thousand 
years  in  Salzburg.)  Still,  it  is  more  pleasant  to  wait  (with 
a  thousand  gulden  a  year)  than  with  (four  hundred.)6  For 

1  K.  373-  *  K.  379-  3  K.  374. 

4  Johann  Valentin  Adamberger  (1743-1804),  a  famous  tenor  and  a  success 
ful  teacher.  He  was  born  in  Munich,  studied  under  Valesi  in  Italy,  where  he 
assumed  the  name  of  Adamonti,  and  made  his  first  appearance  at  the  German 
National  Theatre  in  Vienna  in  1780. 

5  Madame  Weigl,  the  prima  donna  of  the  German  National  Theatre,  was 
the  wife  of  Joseph  Weigl  (1740-1820),  'cellist  in  Prince  Esterhazy's  orchestra 
at  Eisenstadt  and  later  in  the  court  orchestra  in  Vienna.  Her  son,  Joseph 
Weigl  (1766-1846),  became  a  famous  operatic  composer. 

6  Mozart's  yearly  salary  as  court  organist  in  Salzburg  was  450  gulden. 


1.39*  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

if  I  wish  to  do  so,  I  am  quite  certain  of  making  that  sum 
— ( I  have  only  to  say  that  I  am  staying  on  here) — and  I 
am  not  (including  in  my  calculations  what  I  may  com 
pose.)  Besides,  think  of  the  contrast — (Vienna  and  Salz 
burg!)  When  (Bonno  dies,  Salieri  will  be  Kapellmeister,)1 
and  then  (Starzer)  will  take  the  place  of  (Salieri)  in  con 
ducting  the  practices;  and  so  far  (no  one)  has  been 
mentioned  to  take  the  place  of  (Starzer.)  Basta; — I  leave 
it  entirely  to  you,  my  most  beloved  father! — You  ask 
whether  I  have  been  to  see  Bonno?  Why,  it  was  at  his 
house  that  we  went  through  my  symphony 2  for  the  second 
time.  I  forgot  to  tell  you  the  other  day  that  at  the  concert 
the  symphony3  went  magnifique  and  had  the  greatest 
success.  There  were  forty  violins,  the  wind-instruments 
were  all  doubled,  there  were  ten  violas,  ten  double 
basses,  eight  violoncellos  and  six  bassoons. 

The  whole  Bonno  household  send  their  greetings  to 
you.  They  are  truly  delighted  to  see  me  again.  He  is  just 
the  same  worthy  and  honourable  man.  Fraulein  Nanette 
is  married  and  I  have  lunched  with  her  twice.  She  lives 
near  me.  A  thousand  compliments  from  the  Fischers,  on 
whom  I  called  on  my  way  home  from  the  Theatines. 
Farewell;  and  remember  that  your  son's  sole  object  is  to 
establish  himself  permanently — for — (he  can  get  four 
hundred  gulden  anywhere.)  Adieu.  I  kiss  your  hands  a 
thousand  times  and  embrace  my  dear  sister  with  all  my 
heart  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 

W.  A.  MZT. 

P.S.— Be  so  kind  as  to  tell  M.  D'Yppold  that  I  shall 
answer  his  letter  by  the  next  post  and  that  I  received  the 
letter  of  his  good  friend. — Adieu. 

1  This  did  happen.  Salieri  succeeded  Bonno  on  the  latter's  death  in  1788. 

2  Possibly  K.  338  in  C  major,  composed  in  1780.  See  Kochel,  p.  427. 

3  No  doubt  the  same  symphony,  K.  338. 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  399 

My  compliments  to  all  who  are  not  too  dreadfully 
(Salzburgish.)  Court  Councillor  Gilowsky  too  has 
played  a  Salzburg  trick  on  Katherl. 

(399)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VIENNA,  April  i8M,  1781 

I  can't  write  much  to-day  either,  as  it  is  almost  six 
o'clock  and  I  must  give  this  letter  to  Zetti  directly.  I  have 
just  come  from  Herr,  Frau  and  Fraulein  von  Aurn- 
hammer,  with  whom  I  have  been  lunching  and  where  we 
all  drank  your  health.  In  regard  to  your  long  letter  (you 
know  the  one  I  mean)  I. can  only  say  that  you  are  both 
right  and  wrong;  but  the  points  where  you  are  right  far 
outweigh  the  points  where  you  are  wrong.  Therefore  I 
shall  certainly  return  and  with  the  greatest  pleasure,  too, 
as  I  am  fully  convinced  that  you  will  never  prevent  me 
from  making  my  fortune.  Up  to  this  moment  I  have  not 
heard  a  word  about  the  date  of  my  departure.  I  shall 
certainly  not  leave  on  Sunday,  for  from  the  very  first  I 
declared  that  I  would  not  travel  by  the  mail  coach.  For 
my  part  I  shall  travel  by  the  ordinaire.  If  Ceccarelli  wants 
to  bear  me  company,  it  will  be  all  the  pleasanter  for  me, 
for  then  we  can  take  an  extra  post-chaise.  The  whole 
difference  <so  small  as  to  be  laughable)  consists  in  a  few 
gulden;  for  I  should  travel  day  and  night,  and  thus  spend 
very  little  on  the  road.  I  have  noticed  that  it  is  almost 
dearer  by  the  diligence,  or  at  all  events  about  the  same, 
as  one  has  to  pay  all  the  expenses  of  the  conductor.  There 
is  no  hope  of  doing  anything  in  Linz,  for  Ceccarelli  told 
me  that  he  only  scraped  together  forty  gulden  and  had  to 
give  more  than  thirty  to  the  orchestra.  Moreover  it  would 
not  be  {creditable)  to  perform  (in  such  a  small  town,)  nor 


L.400  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

would  it  be  worth  the  trouble  for  such  ^{bagatelle) — much 
better  for  me  to  go  straight  home,  unless  <the  nobility)  were 
to  get  up  something  to  make  it  worth  while.  Still,  you  can 
get  me  some  (addresses)  there.  Well,  I  must  close,  or  else  I 
shall  miss  the  parcel.  <  As  for  Schachtner's  operetta,1)  there 
is  nothing  to  be  done — for  the  same  reason  which  I  have 
often  mentioned.  Stephanie  junior2  is  going  to  give  me  a 
new  libretto,  a  good  one,  as  he  says;  and,  if  in  the  mean 
time  I  have  left  Vienna,  he  is  to  send  it  to  me.  I  could  not 
contradict  (Stephanie.)  I  merely  said  that  save  for  the 
long  dialogues,  which  could  easily  be  altered,  the  piece 3 
was  very  good,  but  not  suitable  for  Vienna,  where  people 
prefer  comic  pieces.  Farewell.  I  am  ever  your  most 
obedient  son 

W.  A.  MZT. 

I  embrace  my  sister  with  all  my  heart  and  send  my 
greetings  to  all  my  good  friends. 

(400)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
MON  TRES    CHER    PERE!  VlENNE,  ce   2$   d'avril,    Ij8l 

You  are  looking  forward  to  my  return  with  great  joy, 
my  dearest  father!  That  is  the  only  thing  that  can  make 
me  decide  to  leave  Vienna.  I  am  writing  all  this  in  our 
plain  language,4  because  the  whole  world  knows  and 
should  know  that  the  Archbishop  of  Salzburg  has  only 

1  "Zaide." 

2  Gottlieb  Stephanie  (1741-1800)  first  served  in  the  army  and  then  went 
on  the  stage,  and  finally  became  Director  of  the  German  Opera  in  Vienna. 
He  arranged  the  text  of  Mozart's  opera  "Die  Entfiihrung  aus  dem  Serail", 
1782,  and  wrote  the  libretto  for  his  one-act  opera  "Der  Schauspieldirektor", 
1786.  His  elder  brother  was  Christian  Gottlob  Stephanie,  an  actor  in  Vienna. 

3  "Zaide."  *  Mozart  means  that  he  is  not  using  cypher. 


I78i  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1.400 

you  to  thank,  my  most  beloved  father,  that  he  did  not  lose 
me  yesterday  for  ever  (I  mean,  as  far  as  he  himself  is  con 
cerned).  We  had  a  grand  concert  here  yesterday,  probably 
the  last  of  them.  It  was  a  great  success,  and  in  spite  of  all 
the  obstacles  put  in  my  way  by  His  Archiepiscopal  Grace, 
I  still  had  a  better  orchestra  than  Brunetti.  Ceccarelli  will 
tell  you  about  it.  I  had  a  great  deal  of  worry  over  arrang 
ing  this.  Oh,  it  is  far  easier  to  talk  than  to  write  about  it. 
If,  however,  anything  similar  should  happen  again,  which 
I  hope  may  not  be  the  case,  I  can  assure  you  that  I  shall 
lose  all  patience;  and  certainly  you  will  forgive  me  for 
doing  so.  And  I  beg  you,  dearest  father,  to  allow  me  to 
return  to  Vienna  during  Lent  towards  the  end  of  the  next 
carnival.  This  depends  on  you  alone  and  not  on  the  Arch 
bishop.  For  if  he  does  not  grant  me  permission,  I  shall  go 
all  the  same;  and  this  visit  will  certainly  not  do  me  any 
harm!  Oh,  if  he  could  only  read  this,  I  should  be  delighted. 
But  what  I  ask,  you  must  promise  me  in  your  next  letter, 
for  it  is  only  on  this  condition  that  I  shall  return  to  Salz 
burg;  but  it  must  be  a  definite  promise,  so  that  I  may 
give  my  word  to  the  ladies  here.  Stephanie  is  going  to  give 
me  a  German  opera  to  compose.  So  I  await  your  reply. 
Up  to  the  present  Gilowsky  has  not  brought  me  any 
fichu.  If  he  does,  I  shall  not  fail  to  lay  it  nice  and  flat 
among  the  linen  in  the  trunk,  so  that  it  may  not  be 
crushed  or  spoilt.  And  I  shall  not  forget  the  ribbons. 

I  cannot  yet  say  when  I  shall  leave  or  how.  It  is  really 
very  tiresome  that  no  information  can  ever  be  got  out 
of  these  people.  All  of  a  sudden  we  shall  be  told, 
"Aliens,  off  with  you!"  One  moment  we  are  told  that  a 
carriage  is  being  got  ready  in  which  the  controleur, 
Ceccarelli  and  I  are  to  travel  home;  the  next  moment  we 
are  told  that  we  are  to  return  by  the  diligence;  and  again 
we  are  told  that  each  will  be  given  the  diligence  fare  and 
may  travel  as  he  likes — an  arrangement  which  indeed  I 


L.  400  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  17*1 

should  much  prefer.  One  moment  we  are  told  that  we  are 
to  leave  in  a  week;  the  next  moment  it  is  in  a  fortnight  or 
three  weeks;  and  then  again,  even  sooner.  Good  God!  We 
don't  know  what  to  believe;  we  simply  can't  make  any 
plans.  But  by  the  next  post  I  hope  to  be  able  to  let  you 
know — %  peu  prfa.  Well,  I  must  close,  for  I  must  be  off 
to  the  Countess  Schonborn.  After  the  concert  yesterday 
the  ladies  kept  me  at  the  piano  for  a  whole  hour.  I  believe 
that  if  I  had  not  stolen  away  I  should  be  sitting  there  still. 
I  thought  I  had  really  played  enough  for  nothing.  Adieu. 
I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  my 
sister  with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient 


P.S. — My  greetings  to  all  my  good  friends.  I  embrace 
young  Marchand l  most  cordially.  Please  ask  my  sister, 
when  she  happens  to  be  writing  to  Mile  Hepp,  to  be  so 
good  as  to  give  her  a  thousand  compliments  from  me 
and  to  tell  her  that  the  reason  why  I  have  not  written 
to  her  for  so  long  is  that  I  should  have  had  to  tell  her  not 
to  reply  until  I  wrote  to  her  again.  Thus,  as  I  could 
not  say  anything  else  in  my  second  letter,  I  should 
never  have  received  a  letter  from  her  in  Vienna — (my 
future  plans  being  so  uncertain) — and  that  would  have 
been  intolerable  to  me.  Whereas,  as  things  are,  I  have  no 
right  to  expect  one.  I  shall  write  to  her  before  I  leave. 

1  Heinrich  Marchand  (1770-  ?  ),  son  of  Theobald  Marchand  (1741- 
1800),  theatrical  manager  in  Munich.  In  1781  Leopold  Mozart  took  him 
and  his  sister  Margarete,  aged  fourteen,  into  his  house  and  gave  them  their 
musical  education.  Margarete,  who  in  1790  married  Franz  Danzi  (1763- 
1826),  the  'cellist  and  composer,  became  an  excellent  operatic  singer  at 
Munich.  Heinrich  became  a  fine  violinist  and  clavierist  a.nd  later  obtained 
an  appointment  at  Regensburg. 



(401)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON    TRES    CHER    P^RE!  VlENNE,  ce  9  de  maj,  1781 

I  am  still  seething  with  rage!  And  you,  my  dearest 
and  most  beloved  father,  are  doubtless  in  the  same  con 
dition.  My  patience  has  been  so  long  tried  that  at  last  it 
has  given  out.  I  am  no  longer  so  unfortunate  as  to  be  in 
Salzburg  service.  To-day  is  a  happy  day  for  me.  Just  listen. 
Twice  already  that  —  I  don't  know  what  to  call  him  — 
has  said  to  my  face  the  greatest  sottises  and  impertin 
ences  ,  which  I  have  not  repeated  to  you,  as  I  wished  to 
spare  your  feelings,  and  for  which  I  only  refrained  from 
taking  my  revenge  on  the  spot  because  you,  my  most 
beloved  father,  were  ever  before  my  eyes.  He  called  me  a 
(rascal)  and  a  (dissolute  fellow)  and  told  me  to  be  off. 
And  I  —  endured  it  all,  although  I  felt  that  not  only  my 
honour  but  yours  also  was  being  attacked.  But,  as  you 
would  have  it  so,  I  was  silent.  Now  listen  to  this.  A  week 
ago  the  footman  came  up  unexpectedly  and  told  me  to 
clear  out  that  very  instant.  All  the  others  had  been  in 
formed  of  the  day  of  their  departure,  but  not  I.  Well,  I 
shoved  everything  into  my  trunk  in  haste,  and  old 
Madame  Weber1  has  been  good  enough  to  take  me  into 
her  house,  where  I  have  a  pretty  room.  Moreover,  I  am 

1  The  widow  of  Fridolin  Weber.  Her  second  daughter  Aloysia  had  obtained 
in  September  1779  an  appointment  at  the  German  Opera  in  Vienna,  and  the 
whole  family  had  migrated  from  Munich  to  the  Imperial  capital.  Fridolin 
Weber  died  during  the  following  month,  and  Aloysia  in  1780  married  the 
actor  Josef  Lange.  Frau  Weber,  who  had  moved  with  her  family  to  a  house 
Am  Peter,  called  the  "Auge  Gottes",  where  they  occupied  the  second  floor, 
decided  to  let  some  vacant  rooms  to  lodgers.  Mozart  went  to  live  there  on 
May  2nd,  1781.  For  a  detailed  account  of  Frau  Weber's  life  and  Mozart's 
relations  with  her,  see  Blumml,  pp.  10-20.  See  also  a  short  article  in  MM, 
November  1918,  pp.  9-12,  and  an  excellent  character-study  by  Arthur 
Schurig,  Konstanze  Mozart  ',  1922,  p.  xxi  ff. 



living  with  people  who  are  obliging  and  who  supply  me 
with  all  the  things  which  one  often  requires  in  a  hurry  and 
which  one  cannot  have  when  one  is  living  alone.  I 
decided  to  travel  home  by  the  ordinaire  on  Wednesday, 
that  is,  to-day,  May  gth.  But  as  I  could  not  collect  the 
money  still  due  to  me  within  that  time,  I  postponed  my 
departure  until  Saturday.  When  I  presented  myself  to 
day,  the  valets  informed  me  that  the  Archbishop  wanted  to 
give  me  a  parcel  to  take  charge  of.  I  asked  whether  it  was 
urgent.  They  told  me,  "Yes,  it  is  of  the  greatest  import 
ance".  "Well,"  said  I,  "I  am  sorry  that  I  cannot  have  the 
privilege  of  serving  His  Grace,  for  (on  account  of  the  reason 
mentioned  above)  I  cannot  leave  before  Saturday.  I  have 
left  this  house,  and  must  live  at  my  own  expense.  So  it  is 
evident  that  I  cannot  leave  Vienna  until  I  am  in  a  position 
to  do  so.  For  surely  no  one  will  ask  me  to  ruin  myself." 
Kleinmayr,  Moll,  Bonike  and  the  two  valets,  all  said  that 
I  was  perfectly  right.  When  I  went  in  to  the  Archbishop — 
that  reminds  me,  I  must  tell  you  first  of  all  that  (Schlauka1) 
advised  me  to  (make  the  excuse)  that  the  (ordinaire  was 
already  full,)  a  reason  which  would  carry  more  weight 
with  him  than  if  I  gave  him  the  true  one, — well,  when  I 
entered  the  room,  his  first  words  were: — Archbishop*.  "Well, 
young  fellow,  when  are  you  going  off?"  /:  "I  intended 
to  go  to-night,  but  all  the  seats  were  already  engaged." 
Then  he  rushed  full  steam  ahead,  without  pausing  for 
breath — I  was  the  <most  dissolute  fellow  he  knew — no 
one)  served  him  so  badly  as  I  did — I  had  better  leave  to 
day  or  else  he  would  write  home  and  have  my  {salary) 
stopped.  I  couldn't  get  a  word  in  edgeways,  for  he 
blazed  away  like  a  fire.  I  listened  to  it  all  very  calmly.  He 
lied  to  my  face  that  my  salary  was  five  hundred  gulden,2 

1   One  of  the  Archbishop's  valets. 

a  According  to  Mozart's  certificate  of  appointment  as  court  organist  his 
salary  was  450  gulden.  See  Abert,  vol.  ii.  p.  906.  , 

1082  TV-''  • 

1  .6 

1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1.401 

called  me  (a  scoundrel,  a  rascal,  a  vagabond.)  Oh,  I 
really  cannot  tell  you  all  he  said.  At  last  my  blood  began 
to  boil,  I  could  no  longer  contain  myself  and  I  said,  "So 
Your  Grace  is  not  satisfied  with  me?"  "What,  you  dare  to 
threaten  me — you  (scoundrel?)  There  is  the  (door!)  Look 
out,  for  I  will  have  nothing  more  to  do  with  such  (a 
miserable  wretch.)"  At  last  I  said:  "Nor  I  with  you!" 
"Well,  be  off!"1  When  leaving  the  room,  I  said  "This  is 
final.  You  shall  have  it  to-morrow  in  writing."  Tell  me 
now,  most  beloved  father,  did  I  not  say  the  word  too  late 
rather  than  too  soon?  Just  listen  for  a  moment.  My  honour 
is  more  precious  to  me  than  anything  else  and  I  know  that 
it  is  so  to  you  also.  Do  not  be  the  least  bit  anxious  about 
me.  I  am  so  sure  of  my  success  in  Vienna  that  I  would 
have  resigned  even  without  the  slightest  reason;  and 
now  that  I  have  a  very  good  reason — and  that  too  thrice 
over — I  cannot  make  a  virtue  of  it.  Au  contraire,  I  had 
twice  played  the  coward  and  I  could  not  do  so  a  third 

As  long  as  (the  Archbishop)  remains  here,  I  shall  not 
(give  a  concert.)  You  are  altogether  mistaken  if  you  think 
that  I  shall  (get  a  bad  name  with  the  Emperor  and  the 
nobility,)  for  (the  Archbishop)  is  detested  here  and  (most 
of  all  by  the  Emperor.)  In  fact,  he  is  furious  because  the 
Emperor  did  not  invite  him  to  Laxenburg.  By  the  next 
post  I  shall  send  you  a  little  (money)  to  show  you  that  I 
am  not  starving.  Now  please  be  cheerful,  for  my  good 
luck  is  just  beginning,  and  I  trust  that  my  good  luck  will 
be  yours  also.  Write  to  me  (in  cypher)  that  you  are 
pleased — and  indeed  you  may  well  be  so — (but  in  public 
rail  at  me  as  much  as  you  like,  so  that  none  of  the  blame 
may  fall  on  you.  But  if,  in  spite  of  this,  the  Archbishop 
should  be  the  slightest  bit  impertinent  to  you,)  come  at 

1  Throughout  this  conversation,  as  reported  by  Mozart,  the  Archbishop 
used  the  contemptuous  form  of  address  "Er". 


L.402  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

once  with  my  (sister  to  Vienna,  for  I  give  you  my  word  of 
honour  that  there  is  enough  for  all  three  of  us  to  live  on.) 
Still,  I  should  prefer  it  if  you  could  (hold  out)  for  another 
year.  Do  not  send  any  more  letters  to  the  Deutsches  Haus,1 
nor  enclose  them  in  their  parcels — I  want  to  hear  nothing 
more  about  Salzburg.  I  hate  the  Archbishop  to  madness. 
Adieu.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace 
my  dear  sister  with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your 
obedient  son 


Just  address  your  letters: 

To  be  delivered  Auf  dem  Peter,  im  Auge  Gottes, 

2nd  Floor.2 

(Please  inform  me  soon  of  your  approval,  for  that  is  the 
only  thing  which  is  still  wanting  to  my  present  happiness.) 

(402)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  12  de  may,  1781 

You  will  know  from  my  last  letter  that  I  have  asked 
the  Prince  for  my  discharge,  because  he  himself  has  told 
me  to  go.3  For  already  in  the  two  previous  audiences  he 
said  to  me:  "Clear  out  of  this,  if  you  will  not  serve  me 
properly".  He  will  deny  it,  of  course,  but  all  the  same  it  is 
as  true  as  that  God  is  in  His  Heaven.  Is  it  any  wonder 
then  if,  after  being  roused  to  fury  by  "knave,  scoundrel, 

1  Mozart's  quarters  while  he  was  in  the  Archbishop's  service. 

2  Frau  Weber's  apartments,  where  she  let  vacant  rooms  to  lodgers.  The 
house  "Zum  Auge  Gottes"  still  exists.  It  is  Am  Peter  no.  n.  See  Abert, 
vol.  ii.  p.  1035. 

3  For  a  good  study  of  the  reign  of  4rc,hbishop  Hieronymus  Cplloredo,  who, 
despite  the  autocratic  and  somewhat  ruthless  methods  he  adopted  to  carry  out 
his  reforms,  appears  to  have  had  certain  redeeming  qualities,  see  Hans  Wid- 
mann,  GeschichteSalzburgs(Gvt\&t  1914),  vol.  iii.  pp.  460-556.  For  an  account 
of  the  Mozarts'  relations  with  the  Archbishop,  see  Abert,  vol.  i.  p.  357  f. 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  402 

rascal,  dissolute  fellow",  and  other  similar  dignified  ex 
pressions  uttered  by  a  Prince,  I  at  last  took  u  Clear  out  of 
this"  in  its  literal  sense?  On  the  following  day  I  gave 
Count  Arco  a  petition  to  present  to  His  Grace,  and  I 
returned  my  travelling  expenses,  which  consisted  of  fifteen 
gulden,  forty  kreutzer  for  the  diligence,  and  two  ducats 
for  my  keep.  He  refused  to  take  either  and  assured  me 
that  I  could  not  resign  without  your  consent,  my  father. 
"That  is  your  duty,"  said  he.  I  retorted  that  I  knew  my 
duty  to  my  father  as  well  as  he  did  and  possibly  better, 
and  that  I  should  be  very  sorry  if  I  had  to  learn  it  first 
from  him.  "Very  well,"  he  replied,  "if  he  is  satisfied,  you 
can  ask  for  your  discharge;  if  not,  you  can  ask  for  it  all 
the  same."  A  pretty  distinction!  All  the  edifying  things 
which  the  Archbishop  said  to  me  during  my  three 
audiences,  particularly  during  the  last  one,  all  the  sub 
sequent  remarks  which  this  fine  servant  of  God  made  to 
me,  had  such  an  excellent  effect  on  my  health  that  in  the 
evening  I  was  obliged  to  leave  the  opera  in  the  middle  of 
the  first  act  and  go  home  and  lie  down.  For  I  was  very 
feverish,  I  was  trembling  in  every  limb,  and  I  was 
staggering  along  the  street  like  a  drunkard.  I  also  stayed 
at  home  the  following  day,  yesterday,  and  spent  the  morn 
ing  in  bed,  as  I  had  taken  tamarind  water. 

The  Count  has  also  been  so  kind  as  to  write  very 
flattering  things  about  me  to  his  father,1  all  of  which  you 
will  probably  have  had  to  swallow  by  now.  They  will 
certainly  contain  some  astounding  passages.  But  who 
ever  writes  a  comedy  and  wants  to  win  applause,  must 
exaggerate  a  little  and  not  stick  too  closely  to  the  truth. 
Besides,  you  must  remember  how  very  anxious  these 
gentlemen  are  to  serve  the  Archbishop. 

Well,  without  losing  my  temper  (for  my  health  and  my 
life  are  very  precious  to  me  and  I  am  only  sorry  when 

1  Count  Georg  Anton  Felix  Arco,  Chief  Chamberlain  to  the  Archbishop. 


L. 403  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

circumstances  force  me  to  get  angry)  I  just  want  to  set 
down  the  chief  accusation  which  was  brought  against  me 
in  respect  of  my  service.  I  did  not  know  that  I  was  a  valet 
— and  that  was  the  last  straw.  I  ought  to  have  idled  away 
a  couple  of  hours  every  morning  in  the  antechamber.  True, 
I  was  often  told  that  I  ought  to  present  myself,  but  I  could 
never  remember  that  this  was  part  of  my  duty,  and  I  only 
turned  up  punctually  whenever  the  Archbishop  sent  for  me. 

I  will  now  confide  to  you  very  briefly  my  inflexible 
determination,  but  so  that  the  whole  world  may  hear 
it.  If  I  were  offered  a  salary  of  2000  gulden  by  the 
Archbishop  of  Salzburg  and  only  1000  gulden  somewhere 
else,  I  should  still  take  the  second  offer.  For  instead  of  the 
extra  1000  gulden  I  should  enjoy  good  health  and  peace 
of  mind.  I  trust,  therefore,  by  all  the  fatherly  love  which 
you  have  lavished  on  me  so  richly  from  my  childhood  and 
for  which  I  can  never  thank  you  enough  (though  indeed  I 
can  show  it  least  of  all  in  Salzburg),  that,  if  you  wish  to 
see  your  son  well  and  happy,  you  will  say  nothing  to  me 
about  this  affair  and  that  you  will  bury  it  in  the  deepest 
oblivion.  For  one  word  about  it  would  suffice  to  embitter 
me  again  and — if  you  will  only  admit  it — to  fill  you  too 
with  bitterness. 

Now  farewell,  and  be  glad  that  your  son  is  no  coward. 
I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times,  embrace  my  sister 
with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


(403)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

\Autografh  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TRES  CHER  P£RE!  VlENNE,  ce  12  de  may,  1781 

In  the  letter  you  received  by  post  I  spoke  to  you  as 

<if  we  were  in  the  presence  of  the  Archbishop,  but  now 


I78i  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1.403 

I  am  going  to  talk  to  you,  my  dearest  father,  as  if  we 
were  quite  alone.)  I  shall  say  nothing  whatever  about  all 
the  injustice  with  which  the  Archbishop  has  treated  me 
from  the  very  beginning  of  his  reign  l  until  now,  of  the 
incessant  abuse,  of  all  the  impertinences  and  sottises  which 
he  has  uttered  to  my  face,  of  my  undeniable  right  to 
leave  him — for  that  cannot  be  disputed.  I  shall  only  speak 
of  what  would  have  induced  me  to  leave  him  even  without 
any  cause  of  offence.  I  have  here  the  finest  and  most  useful 
acquaintances  in  the  world.  I  am  liked  and  respected  by 
the  greatest  families.  All  possible  honour  is  shown  me  and 
I  am  paid  into  the  bargain.  So  why  should  I  pine  away 
in  Salzburg  for  the  sake  of  400  gulden,2  linger  on  without 
remuneration  or  encouragement  and  be  of  no  use  to  you 
in  any  way,  when  I  can  certainly  help  you  here?  What 
would  be  the  end  of  it?  Always  the  same.  I  should  have 
to  endure  one  insult  after  another  or  go  away  again.  I 
need  say  no  more,  for  you  know  it  yourself.  But  this  I 
must  tell  you,  (that  everyone  in  Vienna  has  already  heard 
my  story.  All  the  nobility  are  urging  me  not  to  let  myself 
be  made  a  fool  of.)  Dearest  father,  people  (will  come  to 
you  with  fair  words,  but  they  are  serpents  and  vipers.) 
All  base  people  are  thus — disgustingly  proud  and 
haughty,  (yet  always  ready  to  crawl.)  How  horrible! 
The  two  (private  valets  have  seen  through  the  whole 
swinishness),  and  Schlauka  in  particular  said  to  someone: 
"As  for  me,  (I  really  cannot  think  that  Mozart  is  wrong — 
in  fact,  I  think  he  is  quite  right.  I  should  like  to  have  seen 
the  Archbishop  treat  me  in  the  same  way.  Why,  he  spoke 
to  him  as  if  he  were  some  beggarly  fellow.)  I  heard  him — 
(infamous  it  was!"  The  Archbishop  acknowledges  that  he 
has  been  unjust,)  but  has  he  not  had  frequent  occasion  to 
(acknowledge  it?)  Has  he  (reformed?)  Not  a  bit.  $o  let  us 
have  done  with  him.  If  I  had  (not  been  afraid  of  injuring 
1  April  1772.  *  Seep,  1082,  n.  2. 


L.404  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

you,)  things  would  have  been  <on  a  very  different  footing) 
long  ago.  But  after  all  what  can  he  <do  to  you? — Nothing. 
Once  you  know  that  all  is  going  well  with  me,  you  can 
easily  dispense  with  the  Archbishop's  favour.  He  cannot 
deprive  you  of  your  salary,  and  besides  you  always  do 
your  duty.)  I  pledge  myself  (to  succeed.)  Otherwise  I 
(should  never  have  taken  this  step,)  although  I  must 
confess  that  after  that  insult,  I  should  have  gone  off  even 
if  I  had  had  to  beg.  For  who  will  let  himself  be  bullied, 
especially  when  he  can  do  far  better?  So,  if  you  (are 
afraid,  pretend  to  be  angry  with  me,  scold  me  roundly  in 
your  letters,  provided  that  we  two  know  how  things  really 
are  between  us.  But  do  not  let  yourself  be  won  over  by 
flatteries — and  be  on  your  guard.)  Adieu.  I  kiss  your 
hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  my  dear  sister  with 
all  my  heart.  By  the  next  occasion  I  shall  send  you  the 
portrait,1  the  ribbons,  the  fichu  and  everything  else.  Adieu. 
I  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


My  compliments  to  all  Salzburg,  and  especially  to 
Katherl  and  Marchand. 

(404)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  1 6  de  may,  1781 

I  could  hardly  have  supposed  otherwise  than  that  in 
the  heat  of  the  moment  you  would  have  written  just  such 
a  letter  as  I  have  been  obliged  to  read,  for  the  event  must 
have  taken  you  by  surprise  (especially  as  you  were 
actually  expecting  my  arrival).  But  by  this  time  you  must 

1  If  this  is  a  portrait  of  Mozart,  it  has  completely  disappeared.  Possibly 
it  was  a  portrait  of  his  father,  painted  by  Madame  Rosa.  See  Letter  413. 



From  an  engraving  by  J.  E.  Mansfeld  after  a  portrait  by  Josef  Lange 
(Nationalbibliothek,  Vienna) 

1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  404 

have  considered  the  matter  more  carefully  and,  as  a  man 
of  honour,  you  must  feel  the  insult  more  strongly,  and 
must  know  and  realise  that  (what  you  have  thought  likely 
to  happen,  has  happened  already.  It  is  always  more  diffi 
cult  to  get  away  in  Salzburg,  for  there  he  is  lord  and 
master,  but  here  he  is — a  nobody,  an  underling,  just  as  I 
am  in  his  eyes.)  Besides,  pray  believe  me  when  I  say  that 
I  know  you  and  know  (the  strength  of  my  affection)  for 
you.  Even  if  (the  Archbishop  had  given  me  another  two 
hundred  gulden,) — and  I — I  had  agreed — we  should 
have  had  the  (same  old  story)  over  again.  Believe  me, 
most  beloved  father,  I  need  all  my  manliness  to  write  to 
you  what  common  sense  dictates.  God  knows  how  hard  it 
is  for  me  to  leave  you;  but,  even  if  I  had  to  beg,  I  could 
never  serve  such  a  master  again;  for,  as  long  as  I  live,  I 
shall  never  forget  what  has  happened,  I  implore  you,  I 
adjure  you,  by  all  you  hold  dear  in  this  world,  to  strengthen 
me  in  this  resolution  instead  of  trying  to  dissuade  me  from 
it,  for  if  you  do  you  will  only  make  me  unproductive.  (My 
desire  and  my  hope  is  to  gain  honour,  fame  and  money,) 
and  I  have  every  confidence  that  I  shall  be  (more  useful  to 
you  in  Vienna  than  if  I  were  to  return  to  Salzburg.  The 
road  to  Prague)1  is  now  less  closed  to  me  than  (if  I  were  in 
Salzburg.)  What  you  (say  about  the  Webers,)  I  do  assure 
you  is  not  true.  I  was  a  fool,  I  admit,  about  Aloysia 
Lange,2  but  what  does  not  a  man  do  (when  he  is  in  love?) 
Indeed  I  loved  her  truly,  and  even  now  I  feel  that  she  is 
not  a  matter  of  indifference  to  me.  It  is,  therefore,  a  good 
thing,  for  me  that  her  husband  is  a  jealous  fool  and  lets 
her  go  nowhere,  so  that  I  seldom  have  an  opportunity  of 

1  Through  his  friendship  with  the  Duscheks  Mozart  had  already  established 
a  connection  with  Prague,  which  was  renowned  for  its  musical  activities. 

*  Aloysia  Weber  had  married  in  October  1780  Josef  Lange  (1751-1831), 
an  excellent  actor  and  a  talented  portrait-painter.  For  an  interesting  account 
of  Lange's  connection  with  the  Webers  see  Bliimml,  p.  21  f. 

VOL.  Ill  1089     *  D 

L.  405  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

seeing  her.  Believe  me  when  I  say  that  (old  Madame 
Weber  is  a  very  obliging  woman)  and  that  I  cannot  do 
enough  for  her  in  return  for  her  kindness,  as  unfortun 
ately  I  have  no  time  to  do  so.  Well,  I  am  longing  for  a 
letter  from  you,  my  dearest  and  most  beloved  father. 
Cheer  up  your  son,  for  it  is  only  the  thought  of  dis 
pleasing  you  that  can  make  him  unhappy  in  his  very 
promising  circumstances.  Adieu.  A  thousand  farewells. 
I  am  ever,  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  as, 
your  most  obedient  son 

W.  A.  MZT. 

P.S. — If  you  should  imagine  that  I  am  staying  here 
merely  out  of  hatred  for  Salzburg  and  an  unreasonable 
love  for  Vienna,  then  make  enquiries.  Herr  von  (Strack,1) 
a  very  good  friend  of  mine,  will,  as  a  man  of  honour, 
certainly  tell  you  the  truth. 

(405)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON   TRES   CHER    P&RE!  VlENNE,  ce  1 9  de  may,  1781 

I  too  do  not  know  how  to  begin  this  letter,2  my 
dearest  father,  for  I  have  not  yet  recovered  from  my 
astonishment  and  shall  never  be  able  to  do  so,  if  you 
continue  to  think  and  to  write  as  you  do.  I  must  confess 
that  there  is  not  a  single  touch  in  your  letter  by  which  I 
recognise  my  father!  I  see  a  father,  indeed,  but  not  that 
most  beloved  and  most  loving  father,  who  cares  for  his 
own  honour  and  for  that  of  his  children — in  short,  not  my 
father.  But  it  must  have  been  a  dream.  You  are  awake 
now  and  need  no  reply  from  me  to  your  points  in  order  to 

1  Joseph  von  Strack,  an  influential  chamberlain  of  the  Emperor  Joseph  II. 
*  Mozart  is  obviously  quoting  the  opening  sentence  of  his  father's  last 


ij8i  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  405 

be  fully  convinced  that — now  more  than  ever — I  can 
never  abandon  my  resolve.  Yet,  because  in  certain 
passages  my  honour  and  my  character  are  most  cruelly 
assailed,  I  must  reply  to  these  points.  You  say  that  you 
can  never  approve  of  my  having  tendered  my  resignation 
while  I  was  in  Vienna.1  I  should  have  thought  that  if  I 
wished  to  do  so  (although  at  the  time  I  did  not,  or  I 
should  have  done  so  on  the  first  occasion)  the  most 
sensible  thing  was  to  do  it  in  a  place  where  I  had  a  good 
standing  and  the  finest  prospects  in  the  world.  It  is  pos 
sible  that  you  will  not  approve  this  in  the  presence  of 
the  Archbishop,  but  to  me  you  cannot  but  applaud  my 
action.  You  say  that  the  only  way  to  save  my  honour  is 
to  abandon  my  resolve.  How  can  you  perpetrate  such  a 
contradiction!  When  you  wrote  this  you  surely  did  not 
bear  in  mind  that  such  a  recantation  would  prove  me  to  be 
the  basest  fellow  in  the  world.  All  Vienna  knows  that 
I  have  left  the  Archbishop,  and  all  Vienna  knows  the 
reason!  Everyone  knows  that  it  was  because  my  honour 
was  insulted — and,  what  is  more,  insulted  three  times. 
And  am  I  publicly  to  prove  the  contrary?  Am  I  to  make 
myself  out  to  be  a  cowardly  sneak  and  the  Archbishop  a 
worthy  prince?  No  one  would  like  to  do  the  former,  and  I 
least  of  all;  and  the  latter  God  alone  can  accomplish,  if  it 
be  His  will  to  enlighten  him.  You  say  that  I  have  never 
shown  you  any  affection  and  therefore  ought  now  to  show 
it  for  the  first  time.  Can  you  really  say  this?  You  add  that 
I  will  never  sacrifice  any  of  my  pleasures  for  your  sake. 
But  what  pleasures  have  I  here?  The  pleasure  of  taking 
trouble  and  pains  to  fill  my  purse?  You  seem  to  think  that 

1  From  now  on  Mozart,  feeling  that  he  has  completely  shaken  off  the  Arch 
bishop's  fetters,  ceases  to  use  cypher,  except  on  very  rare  occasions.  That  the 
Archbishop  still  continued  to  read  his  letters  is  evident  from  occasional 
references  in  Leopold  Mozart's  letters  to  Nannerl  after  her  marriage  in 
1784.  See  Deutsch-Paumgartner:  Leopold  Mozarts  Brief e  an  seine  TochUr, 
1936,  p.  241  f. 


L.  405  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

I  am  revelling  in  pleasures  and  amusements.  Oh,  how 
you  deceive  yourself  indeed!  That  is,  as  to  the  present — 
for  at  present  I  have  only  just  as  much  money  as  I  need. 
But  the  subscription  for  my  six  sonatas1  has  been  started 
and  then  I  shall  have  some  money.  It  is  all  right,  too, 
about  the  opera,2  and  in  Advent  I  am  to  give  a  concert; 
then  things  will  continue  to  improve,  for  in  the  winter 
season  a  fine  sum  can  be  made  here.  If  you  call  it 
pleasure  to  be  rid  of  a  prince,  who  does  not  pay  a 
fellow  and  bullies  him  to  death,  then  it  is  true  that  my 
pleasure  is  great.  If  I  were  to  do  nothing  but  think  and 
work  from  early  morning  till  late  at  night,  I  would  gladly 
do  so,  rather  than  depend  upon  the  favour  of  such  a — I 
dare  not  call  him  by  his  right  name.  I  have  been  forced 
to  take  this  step,  so  I  cannot  deviate  from  my  course  by 
a  hair's  breadth — it  is  quite  impossible!  All  that  I  can 
say  to  you  is  this,  that  on  your  account — but  solely  on 
your  account,  my  father — I  am  very  sorry  that  I  was 
driven  to  take  this  step,  and  that  I  wish  that  the  Arch 
bishop  had  acted  more  judiciously,  if  only  in  order  that 
I  might  have  been  able  to  devote  my  whole  life  to  you. 
To  please  you,  my  most  beloved  father,  I  would  sacrifice 
my  happiness,  my  health  and  my  life.  But  my  honour — 
that  I  prize,  and  you  too  must  prize  it,  above  everything. 
You  may  show  this  to  Count  Arco  and  to  all  Salzburg 
too.  After  that  insult,  that  threefold  insult,  were  the 
Archbishop  to  offer  me  1200  gulden  in  person,  I  would 
not  accept  them.  I  am  no  skunk,  no  rascal;  and,  had  it 
not  been  for  you,  I  should  not  have  waited  for  him  to  say 
to  me  for  the  third  time,  "Clear  out  of  this" ,  without 
taking  him  at  his  word!  What  am  I  saying?  Waited!  Why, 

1  K.  296,  written  in  1778  at  Mannheim  for  Mozart's  pupil  Therese 
Pierron  Serrarius,  and  K.  376-380,  four  of  which  were  written  in  1781. 
These  are  violin  and  clavier  sonatas,  which  Mozart  subsequently  dedicated 
to  his  pupil  Josephine  Aurnhammer.  They  were  published  in  November 
1781  by  Artaria  and  Co.  3  See  p.  1078. 


ij8i  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  406 

I  should  have  said  it,  and  not  he\  I  am  only  surprised  that 
the  Archbishop  should  have  behaved  with  so  little  dis 
cretion,  particularly  in  a  place  like  Vienna!  Well,  he  will 
see  that  he  has  made  a  mistake.  Prince  Breuner  and 
Count  Arco  need  the  Archbishop,  but  I  do  not;  and  if 
the  worst  comes  to  the  worst  and  he  forgets  all  the  duties 
of  a  prince — of  a  spiritual  prince — then  come  and  join  me 
in  Vienna.  You  can  get  four  hundred  gulden  anywhere. 
Just  imagine  how  he  would  disgrace  himself  in  the  eyes 
of  the  Emperor,  who  already  hates  him,  if  he  were  to  do 
that!  My  sister  too  would  get  on  much  better  in  Vienna 
than  in  Salzburg.  There  are  many  distinguished  families 
here  who  hesitate  to  engage  a  male  teacher,  but  would 
give  handsome  terms  to  a  woman.  Well,  all  these  things 
may  happen  some  day.  By  the  next  occasion,  it  may 
be  when  Herr  von  Kleinmayr,  Bonike  or  Zetti  go  to 
Salzburg,  I  shall  send  you  a  sum  with  which  to  pay  the 
debt  to  which  you  refer.  The  controleur,  who  left  to-day, 
will  bring  the  lawn  for  my  sister.  Dearest,  most  beloved 
father,  ask  of  me  what  you  will,  only  not  that — anything 
but  that — the  mere  thought  of  it  makes  me  tremble  with 
rage.  Adieu.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and 
embrace  my  sister  with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your 
most  obedient  son 


(406)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 
VIENNA,  May  26th.  VIENNE,  ce  6  de  may,  1781  * 

MON    TRES    CHER    P^Rs! 

You  are  quite  right,  and  I  am  quite  right  too,  my 
dearest  father!  I  know  and  am  aware  of  all  my  faults;  but 

1  The  double  dating  of  the  autograph  is  explained  by  the  fact  that  Mozart 
used  a  sheet  of  paper  on  which  he  had  begun  a  letter  to  his  father  on  May  6th. 


L.  406  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

— is  it  impossible  for  a  man  to  reform?  May  he  not  have 
reformed  already?  The  more  I  consider  the  whole  ques 
tion,  the  more  I  realise  that  the  best  way  for  me  to  serve 
myself  and  you,  my  most  beloved  father,  as  well  as  my 
dear  sister,  is  to  stay  in  Vienna.  It  seems  as  if  good 
fortune  is  about  to  welcome  me  here,  and  now  I  feel  that 
I  must  stay.  Indeed,  I  felt  that  when  I  left  Munich.  With 
out  knowing  why,  I  looked  forward  most  eagerly  to 
Vienna.  You  must  be  patient  for  a  little  while  longer  and 
then  I  shall  be  able  to  prove  to  you  how  useful  Vienna  is 
going  to  be  to  us  all.  Believe  me  when  I  say  that  I  have 
changed  completely.  Apart  from  my  health  I  now  think 
that  there  is  nothing  so  indispensable  as  money.  I  am 
certainly  no  skinflint  and  it  would  be  very  difficult  for  me 
to  become  one.  Yet  people  here  think  that  I  am  more  dis 
posed  to  be  mean  than  to  spend  freely — and  surely  that 
is  enough  to  begin  with.  As  for  pupils,  I  can  have  as  many 
as  I  want,  but  I  do  not  choose  to  take  many.  I  intend  to 
be  paid  better  than  others,  and  so  I  prefer  to  have  fewer 
pupils.  It  is  advisable  to  get  on  your  high  horse  a  little 
at  first,  otherwise  you  are  done  for  and  must  follow  the 
common  highway  with  the  rest.  The  subscription I  is 
going  on  well;  and  as  for  the  opera  I  don't  know  why  I 
should  hesitate.  Count  Rosenberg,2  on  the  two  occasions 
when  I  called  on  him,  received  me  most  politely;  and  he 
heard  my  opera3  at  Countess  Thun's,  when  Van  Swieten4 

1  For  his  violin  and  clavier  sonatas.  See  p.  1092,  n.  i. 

2  Cp.  p.  1063,  n.  3. 

3  "Idomeneo". 

4  Baron  Gottfried  van  Swieten  (1734-1803),  son  of  the  Empress  Maria 
Theresa's  famous  private  physician   Gerhard  van  Swieten,   was  born  in 
Leyden  and  taken  to  Vienna  in  1745.  In  *768  he  accompanied  the  Duke  of 
Braganza  on  his  many  travels,  then  entered  the  Austrian  diplomatic  service 
and  was  Imperial  Ambassador  at  Brussels,  Paris,  Warsaw,  and  from  1771  to 
1778  in  Berlin,  where  he  had  ample  opportunity  of  indulging  his  great  love 
of  music.  In  1778  he  returned  to  Vienna  and  was  made  Director  of  the  Court 
Library,  and  in  1781  President  of  the  Court  Commission  on  Education.  His 
house  was  the  meeting-place  of  writers,  artists  and  musicians,  and  it  was 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z.  406 

and  Herr  von  Sonnenfels1  were  also  present.  And  as 
(Stephanie)  is  a  good  friend  of  mine,  everything  is  pro 
gressing  satisfactorily.  Believe  me  when  I  say  that  I  do 
not  like  to  be  idle  but  to  work.  I  confess  that  in  Salzburg 
work  was  a  burden  to  me  and  that  I  could  hardly  ever 
settle  down  to  it.  But  why?  Because  I  was  never  happy. 
You  yourself  must  admit  that  in  Salzburg — for  me  at 
least — there  is  not  a  farthing's  worth  of  entertainment.  / 
refuse  to  associate  with  a  good  many  people  there — and 
most  of  the  others  do  not  think  me  good  enough.  Besides, 
there  is  no  stimulus  for  my  talent!  When  I  play  or  when 
any  of  my  compositions  are  performed,  it  is  just  as  if  the 
audience  were  all  tables  and  chairs.  If  only  there  were 
even  a  tolerably  good  theatre  in  Salzburg!  For  in  Vienna 
my  sole  amusement  is  the  theatre.  It  is  true  that  in 
Munich,  without  wishing  to  do  so,  I  put  myself  in  a 
false  light  as  far  as  you  were  concerned,  for  I  amused 
myself  too  much.  But  I  swear  to  you  on  my  honour  that 
until  the  first  performance  of  my  opera 2 1  had  never  been 
to  a  theatre,  or  gone  anywhere  but  to  the  Cannabichs'. 
It  is  true  that  during  the  last  few  days  I  had  to  compose 
the  greater  and  most  difficult  part  of  my  opera;  yet  this 
was  not  from  laziness  or  negligence — but  because  I  had 
spent  a  fortnight  without  writing  a  note,  simply  because 
I  found  it  impossible  to  do  so.  Of  course  I  composed  a 
lot,  but  wrote  down  nothing.  I  admit  that  I  lost  a  great 
deal  of  time  in  this  way,  but  I  do  not  regret  it.  That  I  was 
afterwards  too  gay  was  only  due  to  youthful  folly.  I 
thought  to  myself,  where  are  you  going  to?  To  Salzburg! 

there  that  Mozart  deepened  his  knowledge  particularly  of  Handel  and 
Johann  Sebastian  Bach.  See  Abert,  vol.  ii.  p.  86,  and  an  article  by  R. 
Bernhardt  in  Der  Bar,  1929-1930,  pp.  74-166. 

1  Josef  von  Sonnenfels  (1733-1817),  Professor  at  the  University  of  Vienna, 
was  a  well-known  dramatist  and  writer  and  a  leader  of  the  "Aufklarung" 
in  Austria.  He  is  commonly  known  as  the  "Austrian  Lessing". 

2  "Idomeneo",  the  first  performance  of  which  was  on  January  29th,  1781. 


L.  407  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

Well,  you  must  have  a  good  time.  It  is  quite  certain  that 
when  I  am  in  Salzburg  I  long  for  a  hundred  amuse 
ments,  but  here  not  for  a  single  one.  For  just  to  be  in 
Vienna  is  in  itself  entertainment  enough.  Do  have  con 
fidence  in  me;  I  am  no  longer  a  fool,  and  still  less  can  you 
believe  that  I  am  either  a  godless  or  an  ungrateful  son. 
So  rely  absolutely  on  my  brains  and  my  good  heart,  and 
you  will  never  regret  it.  Why,  where  could  I  have  learnt 
the  value  of  money,  when  up  to  the  present  I  have  had 
so  little  to  handle?  All  I  know  is  that  once  when  I  had 
twenty  ducats,  I  considered  myself  wealthy.  Necessity 
alone  teaches  one  to  value  money. 

Farewell,  dearest,  most  beloved  father!  My  duty  now 
is  to  make  good  and  to  replace  by  my  care  and  industry 
what  you  think  you  have  lost  by  this  affair.  This  I  shall 
certainly  do  and  with  a  thousand  thrills  of  delight.  Adieu. 
I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  my  sister 
with  all  my  heart,  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


P.S. — So  soon  as  one  of  the  Archbishop's  people  goes 
to  Salzburg,  I  shall  send  the  portrait.  Ho  fatto  fare  la 
soprascritta  da  un  altro  espressamente,  perche  non  si  pu6 
sapere I — for  who  would  trust  a  knave? 

My  greetings  to  all  my  acquaintances. 

(407)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

VIENNA,  between  May  26th  and  June  2nd>  1781 

The  day  before  yesterday  Count  Arco  sent  me  a 
message  to  call  on  him  at  noon,  saying  that  he  would 

1  I  have  got  somebody  else  to  write  the  address  on  purpose,  for  you  never 
can  tell. 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  407 

expect  me  at  that  hour.  He  has  often  sent  me  this  kind 
of  message,  and  so  has  Schlauka.  But  as  I  detest  dis 
cussions,  in  which  every  word  to  which  I  have  to  listen 
is  a  lie,  I  have  always  avoided  going.  And  this  time  too  I 
should  have  done  the  same,  if  he  had  not  added  that  he 
had  had  a  letter  from  you.  I  therefore  went.  It  would  be 
impossible  to  repeat  the  whole  conversation,  which  was 
conducted  in  a  very  calm  tone  and,  at  my  urgent  request, 
without  irritation  on  either  side.  In  short,  he  put  every 
thing  before  me  in  so  friendly  a  manner  that  really  I  could 
have  sworn  that  what  he  said  came  altogether  from  his 
heart.  I  think,  however,  that  he  would  not  be  prepared  to 
swear  that  the  same  was  true  of  myself.  In  answer  to  his 
plausible  speeches  I  told  him  the  whole  truth  with  all 
possible  calmness  and  courtesy  and  in  the  most  charming 
manner  in  the  world;  and  he  could  not  find  a  word  to  say 
against  it.  The  result  was  that  I  tried  to  make  him  take 
my  memorandum  and  my  travelling  expenses,  both  of 
which  I  had  brought  with  me.  But  he  assured  me  that  it 
would  be  too  distressing  for  him  to  interfere  in  this  matter 
and  that  I  had  better  give  the  document  to  one  of  the 
valets;  and  as  for  the  money,  he  would  not  take  it  until  the 
whole  affair  was  settled.  The  Archbishop  runs  me  down 
to  everyone  here  and  has  not  the  sense  to  see  that  such  a 
proceeding  does  him  no  credit;  for  I  am  more  highly 
respected  in  Vienna  than  he  is.  He  is  only  known  as  a 
presumptuous,  conceited  ecclesiastic,  who  despises  every 
one  here,  whereas  I  am  considered  a  very  amiable  person. 
It  is  true  that  I  become  proud  when  I  see  that  someone  is 
trying  to  treat  me  with  contempt  and  en  bagatelle]  and 
that  is  the  way  in  which  the  Archbishop  invariably  treats 
me;  whereas  by  kind  words  he  could  have  made  me  do 
as  he  pleased.  I  told  this  too  to  the  Count  and  added 
among  other  things  that  the  Archbishop  did  not  deserve 
the  good  opinion  you  had  of  him.  And  towards  the  end  I 


L.  408  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

said:  "Besides,  what  good  would  it  do,  if  I  were  to  go 
home  now?  In  a  few  months'  time  and  even  if  I  did  not 
receive  any  fresh  insult,  I  should  still  ask  for  my  discharge, 
for  I  cannot  and  will  not  serve  any  longer  for  such  a 
salary/'  "And  pray  why  not?"  "Because",  said  I,  "I 
could  never  live  happily  and  contentedly  in  a  place  where 
I  am  so  badly  paid  that  I  am  constantly  thinking,  'Ah,  if 
only  I  were  there!  or  there!'  But  if  I  were  paid  such  a 
salary  that  I  should  not  be  tempted  to  think  of  other 
places,  then  I  should  be  perfectly  satisfied.  And  if  the 
Archbishop  chooses  to  pay  me  that  salary,  well,  then,  I 
am  ready  to  set  off  to-day."  But  how  delighted  I  am  that 
the  Archbishop  does  not  take  me  at  my  word!  For  there 
is  no  doubt,  as  you  will  see,  that  my  being  here  is  both  to 
your  advantage  and  to  my  own.  Now  farewell,  my  dearest, 
most  beloved  father.  All  will  go  well  yet.  I  am  not  writing 
in  a  dream,  for  my  own  welfare  also  depends  on  it.  Adieu. 
I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  my 
dearest  sister  most  cordially  and  am  ever  your  most 
obedient  son 


P.S. — My  compliments  to  all  my  good  friends. 

(408)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg\ 

MON  TR£S  CHER  P^Rs!  VlENNE,  ce  2  de  juin,  1781 

You  will  have  gathered  from  my  last  letter  that  I 
have  spoken  to  Count  Arco  himself.  Praise  and  thanks  be 
to  God  that  everything  has  passed  off  so  well!  Do  not  be 
anxious;  you  have  nothing  whatever  (to  fear)  from  (the 
Archbishop,)  for  Count  Arco  did  not  say  a  single  word 
to  suggest  that  I  ought  to  take  care  or  the  affair  {might 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  408 

injure  you.}  When  he  told  me  that  you  had  written  to  him 
and  had  complained  bitterly  about  me,  I  immediately 
interrupted  him  and  said:  "And  have  /  not  heard  from 
him  too?  He  has  written  to  me  in  such  a  strain  that  /  have 
often  thought  I  should  go  crazy.  But>  however  much  I  re 
flect,  I  simply  cannot,  etc''  Upon  which  he  said:  "Believe 
me,  you  allow  yourself  to  be  far  too  easily  dazzled  in 
Vienna.  A  man's  reputation  here  lasts  a  very  short  time. 
At  first,  it  is  true,  you  are  overwhelmed  with  praises  and 
make  a  great  deal  of  money  into  the  bargain — but  how 
long  does  that  last?  After  a  few  months  the  Viennese  want 
something  new/'  "You  are  right,  Count/'  I  replied. 
"But  do  you  suppose  that  I  mean  to  settle  in  Vienna? 
Not  at  all.  I  know  where  I  shall  go.  That  this  affair  should 
have  occurred  in  Vienna  is  the  Archbishop's  fault  and  not 
mine.  If  he  knew  how  to  treat  people  of  talent,  it  would 
never  have  happened.  I  am  the  best-tempered  fellow  in 
the  world,  Count  Arco,  provided  that  people  are  the  same 
with  me."  "Well,"  he  said,  "the  Archbishop  considers 
you  a  dreadfully  conceited  person."  "I  daresay  he  does," 
I  rejoined,  "and  indeed  I  am  so  towards  him.  I  treat 
people  as  they  treat  me.  When  I  see  that  someone  despises 
me  and  treats  me  with  contempt,  I  can  be  as  proud  as  a 
peacock."  Among  other  things  he  asked  me  whether  I  did 
not  think  that  he  too  often  had  to  swallow  very  disagree 
able  words.  I  shrugged  my  shoulders  and  said:  "You  no 
doubt  have  your  reasons  for  putting  up  with  it,  and  I — 
have  my  reasons  for  refusing  to  do  so".  All  the  rest  you 
will  know  from  my  last  letter.  Do  not  doubt,  dearest  and 
most  beloved  father,  that  everything  will  certainly  turn 
out  for  my  good  and  consequently  for  yours  also.  It  is 
perfectly  true  that  the  Viennese  are  apt  to  change  their 
affections,  but  only  in  the  theatre]  and  my  special  line  is 
too  popular  not  to  enable  me  to  support  myself.  Vienna 
is  certainly  the  land  of  the  clavier!  And,  even  granted  that 


L.  409  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

they  do  get  tired  of  me,  they  will  not  do  so  for  a  few  years, 
certainly  not  before  then.  In  the  meantime  I  shall  have 
gained  both  honour  and  money.  There  are  many  other 
places;  and  who  can  tell  what  opportunities  may  not  occur 
before  then?  Through  Herr  von  Zetti,  to  whom  I  have 
already  spoken,  I  am  sending  you  a  small  sum.  You  must 
be  content  with  very  little  this  time,  for  I  cannot  let  you 
have  more  than  thirty  ducats.  Had  I  foreseen  this  event, 
I  should  have  taken  the  pupils  who  wanted  to  come  to 
me.  But  at  that  time  I  thought  I  should  be  leaving  in  a 
week,  and  now  they  are  in  the  country.  The  portrait  will 
also  follow.1  If  Zetti  cannot  take  it,  I  shall  send  it  by  the 
mail  coach.  Now  farewell,  dearest,  most  beloved  father.  I 
kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  my  sister 
with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


My  greetings  to  all  my  good  friends.  I  shall  reply  to 
Ceccarelli  shortly. 

(409)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VIENNE,  ce  9  dejuiny  1781 

Well,  Count  Arco  has  made  a  nice  mess  of  things! 
So  that  is  the  way  to  persuade  people  and  to  attract  them! 
To  refuse  petitions  from  innate  stupidity,  not  to  say  a 
word  to  your  master  from  lack  of  courage  and  love  of 
toadyism,  to  keep  a  fellow  dangling  about  for  four  weeks, 
and  finally,  when  he  is  obliged  to  present  the  petition  in 
person,  instead  of  at  least  granting  him  admittance,  to 
throw  him  out  of  the  room  and  give  him  a  kick  on  his 
behind — that  is  the  Count,  who,  according  to  your  last 

1  See  p.  1088,  n.  i. 
1 100 

Ij8i  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1. 409 

letter,  has  my  interest  so  much  at  heart — and  that  is  the 
court  where  I  ought  to  go  on  serving — the  place  where 
whoever  wants  to  make  a  written  application,  instead  of 
having  its  delivery  facilitated,  is  treated  in  this  fashion! 
The  scene  took  place  in  the  antechamber.  So  the  only 
thing  to  do  was  to  decamp  and  take  to  my  heels — for, 
although  Arco  had  already  done  so,  I  did  not  wish  to 
show  disrespect  to  the  Prince's  apartments.  I  have  written 
three  memoranda,  which  I  have  handed  in  five  times;  and 
each  time  they  have  been  thrown  back  at  me.  I  have  care 
fully  preserved  them,  and  whoever  wishes  to  read  them 
may  do  so  and  convince  himself  that  they  do  not  contain 
the  slightest  personal  remark.  When  at  last  I  was  handed 
back  my  memorandum  in  the  evening  through  Herr  von 
Kleinmayr  (for  that  is  his  office),  I  was  beside  myself  with 
rage,  as  the  Archbishop's  departure  was  fixed  for  the 
following  day.  I  could  not  let  him  leave  thus  and,  as  I 
had  heard  from  Arco  (or  so  at  least  he  had  told  me)  that 
the  Prince  knew  nothing  about  it,  I  realised  how  angry 
he  would  be  with  me  for  staying  on  so  long  and  then  at 
the  very  last  moment  appearing  with  a  petition  of  this 
kind.  I  therefore  wrote  another  memorandum,  in  which  I 
explained  to  the  Archbishop  that  it  was  now  four  weeks 
since  I  had  drawn  up  a  petition,  but,  finding  myself  for 
some  unknown  reason  always  put  off,  I  was  now  obliged 
to  present  it  to  him  in  person,  though  at  the  very  last 
moment.  This  memorandum  procured  me  my  dismissal 
from  his  service  in  the  most  pleasant  way  imaginable. 
For  who  knows  whether  the  whole  thing  was  not  done  at 
the  command  of  the  Archbishop  himself?  If  Herr  von 
Kleinmayr  still  wishes  to  maintain  the  character  of  an 
honest  man,  he  can  testify,  as  can  also  the  Archbishop's 
servants,  that  his  command  was  carried  out.  So  now  I 
need  not  send  in  any  petition,  for  the  affair  is  at  an  end. 
I  do  not  want  to  write  anything  more  on  the  subject,  and 


Z.  409  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

if  the  Archbishop  were  to  offer  me  a  salary  of  1200  gulden, 
I  would  not  accept  it  after  such  treatment.  How  easy  it 
would  have  been  to  persuade  me  to  remain!  By  kindness, 
but  not  by  insolence  and  rudeness.  I  sent  a  message  to 
Count  Arco  saying  that  I  had  nothing  more  to  say  to  him. 
For  he  went  for  me  50  rudely  when  I  first  saw  him  and 
treated  me  as  if  I  were  a  rogue,  which  he  had  no  right 
to  do.  And — by  Heaven!  as  I  have  already  told  you,  I 
would  not  have  gone  to  him  the  last  time,  if  in  his  message 
he  had  not  added  that  he  had  had  a  letter  from  you.  Well, 
that  will  be  the  last  time.  What  is  it  to  him  if  I  wish  to 
get  my  discharge?  And  if  he  was  really  so  well  disposed 
towards  me,  he  ought  to  have  reasoned  quietly  with  me — 
or  have  let  things  take  their  course,  rather  than  throw 
such  words  about  as  "clown"  and  "knave"  and  hoof  a 
fellow  out  of  the  room  with  a  kick  on  his  arse;  but  I  am. 
forgetting  that  this  was  probably  done  by  order  of  our 
worthy  Prince  Archbishop. 

I  shall  reply  very  briefly  to  your  letter,  for  I  am  so  sick 
of  the  whole  affair  that  I  never  want  to  hear  anything 
more  about  it.  In  view  of  the  original  cause  of  my  leaving 
(which  you  know  well),  no  father  would  dream  of  being 
angry  with  his  son;  on  the  contrary,  he  would  be  angry  if 
his  son  had  not  left.  Still  less  ought  you  to  have  been  angry, 
{as  you  knew  that  even  without  any  particular  cause  I 
definitely  wanted  to  leave.  Really,  you  cannot  be  in 
earnest;)  and  I  am  therefore  led  to  suppose  that  (you  are 
driven  to  adopt  this  attitude  on  account  of  the  court.) 
B  ut  I  beg  you,  most  beloved  father,  <not  to  cringe  too  much; 
for  the  Archbishop  cannot  do  you  any  harm.)  Let  him 
try!  I  almost  wish  he  would;  for  that  would  be  a  deed,  a 
fresh  deed,  (which  would  ruin  him  completely  with  the 
Emperor,  who,  as  it  is,  not  only  does  not  like  him,  but 
positively  detests  him.)  If  after  (such  treatment  you  were 
to  come  to  Vienna  and  tell  the  story  to  the  Emperor,) 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z.  409 

you  would  at  all  events  receive  (from  him  the  salary  you 
are  drawing  at  present,)  for  in  such  cases  (the  Emperor) 
behaves  most  admirably.  Your  comparison  of  me  to 
Madame  Lange  I  positively  amazed  me  and  made  me 
feel  distressed  for  the  rest  of  the  day.  That  girl  lived  on  her 
parents  as  long  as  she  could  earn  nothing  for  herself.  But 
as  soon  as  the  time  came  when  she  could  show  them  her 
gratitude  (remember  that  her  father  died  before  she  had 
earned  anything  in  Vienna),2  she  deserted  her  poor 
mother,  attached  herself  to  an  actor  and  married  him — and 
her  mother  has  never  had  a  farthing  from  her.  Good  God! 
He  knows  that  my  sole  aim  is  to  help  you  and  to  help  us 
all.  Must  I  repeat  it  a  hundred  times  that  I  can  be  of  more 
use  to  you  here  than  in  Salzburg?  I  implore  you,  dearest, 
most  beloved  father,  for  the  future  to  spare  me  such  letters. 
I  entreat  you  to  do  so,  for  they  only  irritate  my  mind  and 
disturb  my  heart  and  spirit;  and  I,  who  must  now  keep  on 
composing,  need  a  cheerful  mind  and  a  calm  disposition. 
The  Emperor  is  not  here,  nor  is  Count  Rosenberg.  The 
latter  has  commissioned  Schroder3  (the  eminent  actor) 
to  look  around  for  a  good  libretto  and  to  give  it  to  me  to 

Herr  von  Zetti  has  had  to  leave  unexpectedly  by  com 
mand  and  has  set  off  so  very  early  that  I  can  neither  send 
the  portrait,  nor  the  ribbons  for  my  sister,  nor  the  other 
thing  you  know  of 4  until  to-morrow  week  by  the  mail 

Now  farewell,  dearest,  most  beloved  father!  I  kiss  your 
hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  my  dear  sister  most 
cordially  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


1  Aloysia  Weber.  See  p.  1089,  n.  2. 

2  Cp.  p.  1081,  n.  i. 

3  Friedrich  Ludwig  Schroder  (1744-1816),  the  famous  Viennese  actor, 
who  translated,  adapted  and  produced  Shakespeare's  plays. 

4  The  thirty  ducats.  See  p.  uoo. 


Z.  410  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

(410)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
MON   TR&S   CHER   P£RE!  VlENNE,  ce  13  de  Juin,  1781 

Most  beloved  of  all  fathers!  How  gladly  would  I  not 
continue  to  sacrifice  my  best  years  to  you  in  a  place  where 
I  am  so  badly  paid — if  my  salary  were  the  only  drawback! 
But  to  be  badly  paid  and  to  be  scoffed  at,  despised  and 
bullied  into  the  bargain — is  really  too  much.   For  the 
Archbishop's  concert  I  composed  a  sonata  for  myself,  a 
rondo  for  Brunetti  and  one  for  Ceccarelli.1  At  each  concert 
I  played  twice  and  the  last  time  when  the  concert  was  over 
I  went  on  playing  variations2  (for  which  the  Archbishop 
gave  me  the  theme)  for  a  whole  hour  and  with  such 
general  applause  that  if  the  Archbishop  had  any  vestige 
of  humanity,  he  must  have  felt  delighted.  But,  instead 
of  showing  me — or  not  showing  me,  for  all  I  care — his 
pleasure  and  satisfaction,  he  treats  me  like  a  street  urchin 
and  tells  me  to  my  face  to  clear  out,  adding  that  he  can 
-get  hundreds  to  serve  him  better  than  I — and  why?  Just 
because  I  could  not  set  off  from  Vienna  on  the  very  day 
which  he  had  chosen.  I  had  to  leave  his  house,  live  at  my 
own  expense  and  yet  not  be  at  liberty  to  delay  my  de 
parture  until  my  purse  should  permit  me  to  travel.  Besides, 
I  was  not  needed  in  Salzburg  and  the  whole  difference 
was  a  matter  of  two  days.  The  Archbishop  on  two  occa 
sions  said  the  most  insulting  things  to  me  and  I  never 
said  a  word  in  reply.  Nay,  what  is  more,  I  played  at  his 
concert  with  the  same  zeal  and  assiduity  as  if  nothing  had 
happened;  and  instead  of  acknowledging  my  readiness  to 

1  K.  379.  373  and  374.  See  p.  1072  f. 

2  During  the  summer  of  1781  Mozart  wrote  three  sets  of  clavier  variations, 
two  with  violin  accompaniment,  K.  359,  360  and  352.  Possibly  it  was  the 
theme  of  one  of  these  that  the  Archbishop  suggested. 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  410 

serve  him  and  my  endeavour  to  please  him,  he  behaves 
for  the  third  time,  and  at  the  very  moment  when  I  am 
expecting  something  quite  different,  in  the  most  disgrace 
ful  way  imaginable;  and,  moreover,  that  I  should  not  be 
in  the  wrong,  but  absolutely  in  the  right,  he  acts  as  if  he 
were  resolved  to  get  rid  of  me  by  force.  Well,  if  he  does 
not  want  me,  that  is  exactly  what  I  wish.   Instead  of 
taking  my  petition  or  procuring   me   an   audience  or 
advising  me  to  send  in  the  document  later  or  persuading 
me  to  let  the  matter  lie  and  to  consider  things  more  care 
fully, — enfin,  whatever  he  wanted — Count  Arco  hurls  me 
out  of  the  room  and  gives  me  a  kick  on  my  behind.  Well, 
that  means  in  our  language  that  Salzburg  is  no  longer  the 
place  for  me,  except  to  give  me  a  favourable  opportunity 
of  returning  the  Count's  kick,  even  if  it  should  have  to  be 
in  the  public  street.  I  am  not  demanding  any  satisfaction 
from  the  Archbishop,  for  he  cannot  procure  it  for  me  in 
the  way  in  which  I  intend  to  obtain  it  myself.  But  one  of 
these  days  I  shall  write  to  the  Count  and  tell  him  what 
he  may  confidently  expect  from  me,  as  soon  as  my  good 
fortune  allows  me  to  meet  him,  wherever  it  may  be, — 
provided  it  is  not  in  a  place  that  I  am  bound  to  respect. 
Do  not  be  anxious,  most  beloved  father,  about  the  welfare 
of  my  soul.  I  am  as  liable  to  err  as  any  young  man,  but  for 
my  own  consolation  I  could  wish  that  all  were  as  free 
from  sin  as  I  am.  Probably  you  believe  things  of  me  of 
which  I  am  not  guilty.  My  chief  fault  is  that— judging  by 
appearances — I  do  not  always  act  as  I  should.  It  is  not 
true  that  I  boasted  of  eating  meat  on  all  fast-days;  but  I 
did  say  that  I  did  not  scruple  to  do  so  or  consider  it  a  sin, 
for  I  take  fasting  to  mean  abstaining,  that  is,  eating  less 
than  usual.  I  attend  mass  every  Sunday  and  every  holy 
day  and,  if  I  can  manage  it,  on  weekdays  also,  and  that 
you  know,  my  father.  The  only  association  which  I  had 
with  the  person  of  ill  repute  was  at  the  ball,   and   I 
VOL.  m  1105  E 

Z.  411  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

talked  to  her  long  before  I  knew  what  she  was,  and  solely 
because  I  wanted  to  be  sure  of  having  a  partner  for  the 
contredanse.  Afterwards  I  could  not  desert  her  all  at  once 
without  giving  her  the  reason;  and  who  would  say  such  a 
thing  to  a  person's  face?  But  in  the  end  did  I  not  on 
several  occasions  leave  her  in  the  lurch  and  dance  with 
others?  On  this  account  too  I  was  positively  delighted 
when  the  carnival  was  over.  Moreover,  no  one,  unless 
he  is  a  liar,  can  say  that  I  ever  saw  her  anywhere 
else,  or  went  to  her  house.  Do  rest  assured  that  I  really 
hold  to  my  religion;  and  should  I  ever  have  the  misfortune 
(which  God  forbid!)  to  fall  into  evil  courses,  I  shall 
absolve  you,  my  most  beloved  father,  from  all  responsi 
bility.  For  in  that  case  I  alone  should  be  the  villain,  as 
I  have  you  to  thank  for  all  good  things  and  for  both  my 
temporal  and  spiritual  welfare  and  salvation.  Well,  I 
must  close,  or  I  shall  miss  the  post.  I  kiss  your  hands  a 
thousand  times  and  embrace  my  sister  most  cordially  and 
am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


P.S. — My  greetings  to  young  Marchand,  to  Katherl 
and  to  all  my  good  friends. 

(411)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

\Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 

MON  TR£S  CHER  P£RE!  VIENNE,  ce  ibdejuin,  1781 

To-morrow  the  portrait  and  the  ribbons  for  my  sister 
will  sail  off  to  Salzburg.  I  do  not  know  whether  the  ribbons 
will  be  to  her  taste;  but  I  assure  her  that  they  are  in  the 
latest  fashion.  If  she  would  like  to  have  some  more  or 
perhaps  some  which  are  not  painted,  she  has  only  to  let 
me  know,  and  if  there  is  anything  else  which  she  thinks 



can  be  got  better  in  Vienna,  she  has  only  to  write  to  me. 
I  hope  that  she  did  not  pay  for  the  fichu,  as  it  was  paid  for 
already.  I  forgot  to  mention  this  when  writing,  probably 
because  I  had  so  much  to  tell  you  about  that  accursed 
affair.  I  shall  remit  the  money  in  the  way  you  have 

Well,  at  last  I  can  tell  you  something  more  about 
Vienna.  Up  to  the  present  I  have  had  to  fill  my  letters 
with  that  swinish  story.  Thank  God,  it  is  over.  The  present 
season  is,  as  you  know,  the  worst  for  anyone  who  wants  to 
make  money.  The  most  distinguished  families  are  in  the 
country.  So  all  I  can  do  is  to  work  hard  in  preparation  for 
the  winter,  when  I  shall  have  less  time  to  compose.  As 
soon  as  the  sonatas  are  finished,1  I  shall  look  about  for  a 
short  Italian  cantata  and  set  it  to  music,2  so  that  it  may  be 
produced  at  the  theatre  in  Advent — for  my  benefit,  of 
course.  There  is  a  little  cunning  in  this,  for  then  I  can 
give  it  twice  and  make  the  same  profit  each  time,  since, 
when  it  is  performed  for  the  second  time,  I  shall  play 
something  on  a  pianoforte.  At  present  I  have  only  one 
pupil,  Countess  Rumbeck,3  Cobenzl's  cousin.  I  could  have 
many  more,  it  is  true,  if  I  chose  to  lower  my  terms,  but  by 
doing  so,  I  should  lose  credit.  My  terms  are  six  ducats  for 
twelve  lessons  and  even  then  I  make  it  clearly  understood 
that  I  am  giving  them  as  a  favour.  I  would  rather  have 
three  pupils  who  pay  me  well  than  six  who  pay  badly. 
With  this  one  pupil  I  can  just  make  both  ends  meet,  and 
that  is  enough  for  the  present.  I  simply  mention  this  in 
order  that  you  may  not  think  me  guilty  of  selfishness  in 
sending  you  only  thirty  ducats.  Believe  me,  I  would 
gladly  deprive  myself  of  everything,  if  only  I  had  it! 

1  K.  376,  377  and  380. 

>  2  According  to  Mozart's  letter  of  August  ist,  1781  (see  p.  1123),  Rossi 
provided  the  words  for  this  cantata.  Nothing  more  is  known  of  this  com 
position.  See  Kochel,  p.  474. 

3  Countess  Maria  Karoline  Thiennes  De  Rumbeck  (1755-1812). 

Z.  411  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

But  things  are  bound  to  improve.  We  must  never  let 
people  know  how  we  really  stand  financially. 

Well,  let  us  talk  about  the  theatre.  I  think  I  mentioned 
the  other  day  that  before  his  departure  Count  Rosenberg 
commissioned  Schroder  to  hunt  up  a  libretto  for  me.  It 
has  now  been  found,  and  Stephanie  junior,  who  is  manager 
of  the  opera,  has  got  it.  Bergopzoomer,  a  really  good 
friend  of  Schroder's  and  of  mine,  gave  me  the  hint  at  once. 
So  off  I  went  to  Stephanie,  en  forme  de  visite.  For  we 
thought  it  possible  that  his  partiality  for  Umlauf l  might 
make  him  play  me  false.  This  suspicion  proved,  however, 
quite  unfounded.  For  I  heard  afterwards  that  he  had 
commissioned  someone  to  ask  me  to  go  and  see  him,  as 
there  was  something  he  wished  to  discuss  with  me.  And 
the  moment  I  entered  his  room,  he  said:  "Ah,  you  are 
just  the  very  person  I  wanted  to  see".  The  opera  is  in  four 
acts;  and  he  tells  me  that  the  first  act  is  exceedingly  fine, 
but  that  the  rest  is  on  a  much  lower  level.  If  Schroder 
allows  us  to  alter  it  as  we  think  advisable,  a  good  libretto 
can  be  made  out  of  it.  He  does  not  want  to  give  it  to  the 
management  in  its  present  state,  that  is,  until  he  has 
discussed  it  with  Schroder,  as  he  knows  in  advance  that 
it  would  be  rejected.  So  the  two  of  them  can  settle  the 
matter  between  them.  After  what  Stephanie  told  me,  I 
did  not  express  any  desire  to  read  it.  For,  if  I  do  not  like 
it,  I  must  say  so  plainly,  or  I  should  be  the  victim. 
Besides,  I  do  not  want  to  lose  the  favour  of  Schroder, 
who  has  the  greatest  respect  for  me.  Therefore  I  can 
always  make  the  excuse  that  I  have  not  read  it. 

Well,  I  must  now  explain  why  we  were  suspicious  of 
Stephanie.  I  regret  to  say  that  the  fellow  has  the  worst 

1  Ignaz  Umlauf  (1746-1796),  a  popular  operatic  composer.  In  1772  he 
joined  the  orchestra  at  the  Viennese  Opera  as  viola-player  and  in  1778,  after 
the  great  success  of  his  light  opera  "Die  Bergknappen",  he  was  made 
musical  director  of  the  Opera.  In  1789  he  was  appointed  deputy  to  Salieri 
as  conductor  of  the  Imperial  court  orchestra. 


ij8i  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  411 

reputation  in  Vienna,  for  he  is  said  to  be  rude,  false  and 
slanderous  and  to  treat  people  most  unjustly.  But  I  pay  no 
attention  to  these  reports.  There  may  be  some  truth  in 
them,  for  everyone  abuses  him.  On  the  other  hand,  he  is  in 
great  favour  with  the  Emperor.  He  was  most  friendly  to 
me  the  very  first  time  we  met,  and  said:  "We  are  old 
friends  already  and  I  shall  be  delighted  if  it  be  in  my 
power  to  render  you  any  service".  I  believe  and  hope 
too  that  he  himself  may  write  an  opera  libretto  for  me. 
Whether  he  has  written  his  plays  alone  or  with  the  help 
of  others,  whether  he  has  plagiarised  or  created,  he  still 
understands  the  stage,  and  his  plays  are  invariably 
popular.  I  have  only  seen  two  new  pieces  of  his,  and  these 
are  certainly  excellent,  the  first  being  "Das  Loch  in  der 
Tiire",1  and  the  second  "Der  Oberamtmann  und  die 
Soldaten".2  Meanwhile  I  am  going  to  set  the  cantata  to 
music;  for  even  if  I  had  a  libretto,  I  would  not  put  pen  to 
paper,  as  Count  Rosenberg  is  not  here;  and  if  at  the  last 
moment  he  did  not  approve  of  it,  I  should  have  had  the 
honour  of  composing  for  nothing*  None  of  that  for  me, 
thank  you!  I  have  not  the  slightest  doubt  about  the 
success  of  the  opera,  provided  the  text  is  a  good  one.  For 
do  you  really  suppose  that  I  should  write  an  opera  comique 
in  the  same  style  as  an  opera  seria?  There  should  be  as 
little  frivolity  in  an  opera  seria  and  as  much  seriousness 
and  solidity  as  there  should  be  little  seriousness  in  an 
opera  buffa,  and  the  more  frivolity  and  gaiety.  That 
people  like  to  have  a  little  comic  music  in  an  opera  seria, 
I  cannot  help.  But  in  Vienna  they  make  the  proper 
distinction  on  this  point.  I  do  certainly  find  that  in 
music  the  Merry  Andrew  has  not  yet  been  banished,  and 
in  this  respect  the  French  are  right.  I  hope  to  receive  my 

1  A  comedy  by  Gottlieb  Stephanie. 

2  "Der  Oberamtmann  und  die  Soldaten"  was  a  free  adaptation  by  Gottlieb 
Stephanie  of  a  similar  piece  by  Calderon.  It  was  set  to  music  later  by  Umlauf 
and  performed  in  1782. 


L.  412  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

clothes  safely  by  the  next  mail  coach.  I  do  not  know  when 
it  goes,  but  as  I  think  this  letter  will  reach  you  first,  I  beg 
you  to  keep  the  stick  for  me.  People  carry  sticks  here,  but 
for  what  purpose?  To  walk  with,  and  for  that  purpose 
any  little  stick  will  do.  So  please  use  the  stick  instead 
of  me,  and  always  carry  it  if  you  can.  Who  knows 
whether  in  your  hand  it  may  not  avenge  its  former  master 
on  Arco?  I  mean,  of  course,  accidentaliter ',  or  by  chance. 
That  arrogant  jackass  will  certainly  get  a  very  palpable 
reply  from  me,  even  if  he  has  to  wait  twenty  years  for  it. 
For  to  see  him  and  to  return  his  kick  will  be  one  and  the 
same  thing,  unless  I  am  so  unlucky  as  to  meet  him  first  in 
some  sacred  place. 

Well,  adieu.  Farewell.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand 
times  and  embrace  my  sister  with  all  my  heart  and  am 
ever  your  most  obedient  son 

W.  A.  MZT. 

My  greetings  everywhere. 

(412)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

\Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON    TRES    CHER    P&RE!  VlENNE,  ce  2O  de  juin, 

I  have  received  the  parcel,  and  hope  that  by  now 
you  have  got  the  portrait  and  the  ribbons.  I  do  not  know 
why  you  did  not  pack  everything  together  in  a  trunk  or  a 
chest,  for  it  costs  more  to  send  things  one  by  one,  as  you 
have  to  pay  for  each  article  separately,  than  to  send  one 
big  package.  I  can  well  believe  that  the  court  flunkeys 
are  eyeing  you  askance,  but  why  should  you  worry  about 
such  miserable  menials?  The  more  hostile  these  people  are 
to  you,  the  more  proudly,  and  contemptuously  you  must 
treat  them. 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  413 

As  for  Arco,  I  have  but  to  consult  my  own  feelings  and 
judgment  and  therefore  do  not  need  the  advice  of  a  lady 
or  a -person  of  rank  to  help  me  to  do  what  is  right  and 
fitting,  and  neither  too  much  nor  too  little.  It  is  the  heart 
that  ennobles  a  man;  and  though  I  am  no  count,  yet  I 
have  probably  more  honour  in  me  than  many  a  count. 
Whether  a  man  be  count  or  valet,  the  moment  he  insults 
me,  he  is  a  scoundrel.  I  intend  at  first  to  tell  him  quite 
reasonably  how  badly  and  clumsily  he  has  played  his 
part.  But  in  conclusion  I  shall  feel  bound  to  assure  him  in 
writing  that  he  may  confidently  expect  from  me  a  kick  on 
his  behind  and  a  few  boxes  on  the  ear  in  addition.  For 
when  I  am  insulted,  I  must  have  my  revenge;  and  if  I  do 
no  more  than  was  done  to  me,  I  shall  only  be  getting  even 
with  him  and  not  punishing  him.  Besides,  I  should  be 
placing  myself  on  a  level  with  him,  and  really  I  am  too 
proud  to  measure  myself  with  such  a  stupid  booby. 

Unless  I  have  something  particularly  important  to  tell 
you,  I  shall  only  write  to  you  once  a  week,  as  I  am  very 
busy  just  now.  I  must  close  this  letter,  as  I  have  some 
variations  to  finish  for  my  pupil.1  Adieu.  I  kiss  your  hands 
a  thousand  times  and  embrace  my  sister  with  all  my  heart 
and  am  ever  2 

(413)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
MON    TRES    CHER   PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  27  de  juin>  1781 

As  for  Madame  Rosa  I  must  tell  you  that  I  called  on 
her  three  times  until  at  last  I  had  the  good  fortune  to  find 
her  at  home.  You  would  hardly  recognise  her,  she  has  got 

*  Countess  Rumbeck.  The  variations  to  which  Mozart  refers  are  one  of 
the  sets  K.  359,  360,  352,  which  were  composed  in  the  summer  of  1781. 
2  The  signature  has  been  cut  off  the  autograph. 


Z.  413  MOZART  TO  HJS  FATHER  i78i 

so  thin.  When  I  asked  her  about  the  portrait,  she  offered 
to  make  me  a  present  of  it,  adding  that  she  did  not  require 
it  and  that  she  would  send  it  to  me  on  the  following  day. 
But  three  weeks  went  by  and  no  portrait  came.  Again 
I  went  to  her  house  three  times  in  vain.  Finally,  however, 
I  went  there  one  day  very  early  in  the  morning  when  she 
and  her  plebeian  spouse  were  still  at  breakfast.  Well, 
instead  of  wanting  to  give  me  the  portrait  free,  she  had 
suddenly  decided  not  to  let  me  have  it  at  all.  Thereupon 
it  occurred  to  me  that  in  such  cases  the  best  way  to  treat 
Italians  is  to  be  extremely  rude.  So  I  told  her  that  she 
was  as  cracked  as  ever,  but  that,  just  to  pander  to  her 
ingrained  failings,  I  did  not  choose  to  play  in  my  father's 
eyes  the  part  of  a  fool,  who  says  black  one  day  and  white 
the  next;   and  that   I  could  assure  her  that  I  did  not 
require  the  portrait.  Whereupon  she  spoke  very  civilly 
and  promised  to  send  it  the  next  day,  which  she  did. 
You  must,  however,  return  it  in  due  course. 

I  have  this  moment  come  from  Herr  von  Hippe,  Prince 
Kaunitz's  private  secretary,  who  is  an  extremely  amiable 
man  and  a  very  good  friend  of  mine.  He  first  came  to 
visit  me,  and  I  then  played  to  him.  We  have  two  harpsi 
chords  in  the  house  where  I  am  lodging,  one  for  galanterie 
playing  and  the  other  an  instrument  which  is  strung  with 
the  low  octave  throughout,  like  the  one  we  had  in  London, 
and  consequently  sounds  like  an  organ.  So  on  this  one  I 
improvised  and  played  fugues.  I  go  to  Herr  von  Aurn- 
hammer  almost  every  afternoon.  The  young  lady  is  a 
fright,  but  plays  enchantingly,  though  in  cantabile  play 
ing  she  has  not  got  the  real  delicate  singing  style.  She 
clips  everything.  She  has  told  me  (as  a  great  secret)  of  her 
plan,  which  is  to  work  hard  for  two  or  three  years  more 
and  then  go  to  Paris  and  make  music  her  profession.  She 
said:  "/  am  no  beauty — au  contraire,  I  am  ugly.  I  have 
no  desire  to  marry  some  chancery  official  with  an  income 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  413 

of  three  or  four  hundred  gulden  and  I  have  no  chance  of 
getting  anyone  else.  So  I  prefer  to  remain  as  I  am  and  to 
live  by  my  talent/'  And  there  she  is  right.  She  begged  me 
to  assist  her  in  carrying  out  her  project,  which  she  prefers 
not  to  mention  beforehand  to  anyone  else. 

I  shall  send  you  the  Opera1  as  soon  as  possible.  Countess 
Thun  still  has  it  and  at  present  she  is  in  the  country. 
Please  have  the  sonata  in  Bb  a  quatre  mains2  and  the  two 
concertos  for  two  claviers3  copied  for  me  and  send  them  to 
me  as  soon  as  possible.  I  should  be  very  glad,  too,  to 
receive  my  masses4  by  degrees. 

Gluck  has  had  a  stroke  and  his  health  is  in  a  very  pre 
carious  state.5  Tell  me  whether  it  is  true  that  Becke  was 
almost  bitten  to  death  by  a  dog  in  Munich?  Well,  I  must 
close,  for  I  must  go  off  to  lunch  with  the  Aurnhammers. 
Adieu.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace 
my  dear  sister  with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your  most 
obedient  son 


Madame  Bernasconi6  is  here  and  is  drawing  a  salary  of 
five  hundred  ducats  because  she  sings  all  her  arias  a  good 
comma  higher  than  others.  This  is  really  a  great  achieve 
ment,  for  she  always  keeps  in  tune.  She  has  now  promised 
to  sing  a  quarter  of  a  tone  higher  still,  but  on  condition 
that  she  is  paid  twice  as  much.  Adieu. 

1  "Idomeneo."  *  K.  358,  composed  in  1774- 

*  K.  365,  composed  in  1779,  and  K.  242,  a  concerto  for  three  claviers, 

composed  in  1776,  which  Mozart  himself  had  arranged  for  two.  See  Kochel, 

p.  309  f. 
+  Probably  K.  275,  composed  in  1777,  K.  317,  composed  in  I779>  ai*d 

K.  337,  composed  in  1780. 

5  Gluck  had  had  several  apoplectic  seizures  in  1779  and  again  in  May 

6  Antonia  Bernasconi,  who  had  sung  in  Mozart's  "Mitridate",  produced 
at  Milan,  December  1770. 


Z.  414  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

(414)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 
MON   TRES    CHER   PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  ^juillet,  1781 

I  have  not  written  to  Count  Arco  and  shall  not  do  so, 
as  you  ask  me  to  desist  for  the  sake  of  your  peace  of  mind. 
It  is  just  as  I  suspected.  You  really  are  too  timid,  and  yet 
you  have  nothing  whatever  to  fear;  for  you — you  your 
self  are  as  much  insulted  as  I  am.  I  do  not  ask  you  to 
make  a  row  or  even  to  put  forward  the  slightest  complaint. 
But  the  Archbishop  and  the  whole  pack  of  them  must  be 
afraid  of  speaking  to  you  on  the  subject.  For  you,  my 
father,  need  have  no  scruples  in  saying  boldly  (if  you  are 
driven  to  it)  that  you  would  be  ashamed  of  having  brought 
up  a  son  who  would  allow  himself  to  be  so  grossly  in 
sulted  by  such  an  infamous  scoundrel  as  Arco;  and  you 
may  assure  them  all  that  if  I  had  the  good  fortune  to  meet 
him  to-day,  I  should  treat  him  as  he  deserves  and  he 
would  certainly  remember  me  as  long  as  he  lived.  All  I 
insist  on,  and  nothing  else,  is  that  you  should  show  the 
whole  world  that  you  are  not  afraid.  Be  silent,  if  you 
choose;  but  when  necessary,  speak — and  speak  in  such 
a  way  that  people  will  remember  it.  The  Archbishop 
secretly  offered  1000  gulden  to  Kozeluch,1  who,  however, 
has  declined,  saying  that  he  was  better  off  in  Vienna  and 
that  unless  he  could  improve  his  position,  he  would  never 
leave.  But  to  his  friends  he  added:  "What  deters  me  most 
of  all  is  that  affair  with  Mozart.  If  the  Archbishop  lets 

1  Leopold  Kozeluch  (1752-1818),  a  Czech,  was  trained  in  Prague,  and  in 
1778  went  to  Vienna  as  clavier  teacher  to  the  Archduchess  Elizabeth.  He 
soon  gained  a  reputation  as  a  clavier-player  and  composer  of  grand  operas, 
symphonies  and  clavier  music.  He  became  one  of  the  most  bitter  enemies 
and  detractors  of  Mozart,  whom  he  succeeded  in  1792  in  his  post  of  chamber 
composer  to  the  Emperor  at  almost  twice  the  salary  which  his  predecessor 
had  received. 


Ij8i  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  414 

such  a  man  go,  what  on  earth  would  he  not  do  to  me?"  So 
you  see  how  he  knows  me  and  appreciates  my  talents.  I 
have  received  the  chest  with  the  clothes.  If  M.  Marchall  or 
the  Syndic  of  the  Chapter  comes  to  Vienna,  I  should  be 
delighted  if  you  would  send  me  my  favourite  watch.  I  will 
return  yours,  if  you  will  let  me  have  the  small  one  too, 
which  I  should  particularly  like  to  have.  I  wrote  to  you 
the  other  day  about  the  masses.1  I  badly  need  the  three 
cassations2 — those  in  F  and  Bk  would  do  me  for  the  time 
being — but  you  might  have  the  one  in  D  copied  for  me 
some  time  and  sent  on  later,  for  the  charge  for  copying  is 
so  very  heavy  in  Vienna;  in  addition  to  which  they  copy 
most  atrociously.  Well,  although  I  am  in  a  great  hurry,  I 
must  say  a  few  words  about  Marchand,3  as  far  as  I  know 
him.  When  his  father  corrected  the  younger  boy  at  table, 
he  took  up  a  knife  and  said:  "Look  here,  Papa.  If  you  say 
another  word,  I  shall  cut  off  my  finger  at  the  joint  and 
then  I  shall  be  a  cripple  on  your  hands  and  you  will  have 
to  feed  me."  Both  boys  have  frequently  run  down  their 
father  to  other  people.  You  will  no  doubt  remember  Mile 
Boudet4  who  lives  in  their  house?  Well,  old  Marchand 
being  rather  partial  to  her,  these  rascals  made  infamous 
remarks  about  it.  When  Hennerle5  was  eight  years  old 
he  said  to  a  certain  girl:  "Indeed  I  would  far  sooner 
sleep  in  your  arms  than  find  myself  hugging  the  pillow 
when  I  wake  up".  He  also  made  her  a  formal  declara 
tion  of  love  and  a  proposal  of  marriage,  adding:  "I  cannot 
exactly  marry  you  at  present,  but  when  my  father  dies,  I 
shall  have  money,  for  he  is  not  absolutely  destitute,  and 
then  we  shall  live  together  very  comfortably.  Meanwhile 

1  Seep.  1113,  n.  4. 

2  Probably  K.  247  and  287,  written  in  1776  and  1777,  and  K.  334,  written 
in  1779- 

3  Theobald   Marchand,  theatrical  manager  in   Munich  and  father  of 
Margarete  (singer),  Heinrich  (violinist)  and  David  ('cellist)  Marchand. 

4  Marianne  Boudet,  who  in  1782  married  Martin  Lang  (1755-    ?     ), 
horn-player  in  the  Munich  court  orchestra.  s  Little  Heinrich. 


L.  415  MOZART  TO  HIS  SISTER  1781 

let  us  love  one  another  and  enjoy  our  love  to  the  full  For 
what  you  allow  me  to  do  now,  you  will  not  be  able  to 
permit  later  on/'  I  know  too  that  in  Mannheim  no  one 
ever  allowed  their  boys  to  go  where  the  Marchands  were. 
For  they  were  caught — helping  one  another.  Well,  it  is  a 
great  pity  for  the  lad  himself;  but  you,  my  father,  will  be 
able  to  reform  him  completely,  of  that  I  am  quite  sure.  As 
their  father  and  mother  are  on  the  stage,  they  hear  nothing 
all  day  long  (and  nothing  else  is  ever  read  out  to  them) 
but  tales  of  love,  despair,  murder  and  death.  Besides,  the 
father  has  too  little  stability  for  his  age.  So  they  have  no 
good  examples  at  home.  Well,  I  must  stop,  or  my  letter 
will  reach  Peisser  too  late.  Farewell.  I  kiss  your  hands  a 
thousand  times  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


P.S. — My  greetings  to  all  my  good  friends.  Do  tell  me 
the  story  about  my  sister's  cap.  You  mentioned  something 
about  it  in  a  letter.  Adieu. 

(415)  Mozart  to  his  Sister 

[Copy  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin\ 
MA   TR&S    CHERE    ScEURJ  VlENNE,  ce  4  de  juillet,  1781 

I  am  delighted  that  the  ribbons  are  to  your  taste.  I 
shall  find  out  the  price  of  the  ribbons,  both  the  painted  and 
the  unpainted.  At  present  I  do  not  know  it,  as  Frau  von 
Aurnhammer,  who  was  so  kind  as  to  procure  them  for  me, 
refused  to  take  any  payment,  but  begged  me  to  send  you 
all  sorts  of  nice  messages,  although  she  does  not  know 
you,  and  to  tell  you  that  she  will  be  very  glad  at  any  time 
to  be  able  to  do  you  a  kindness.  I  have  already  conveyed 
to  her  your  greetings  in  return.  Dearest  sister!  I  wrote  the 
other  day  to  our  dear  father  that  if  there  is  anything  in 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  SISTER  L.  415 

Vienna  which  you  would  like  to  have,  whatever  it  may  be, 
I  should  be  delighted  to  do  this  service  for  you.1  I  now 
repeat  this,  adding  that  it  would  distress  me  very  greatly 
if  I  were  to  hear  that  you  were  commissioning  someone 
else  in  Vienna.  I  am  heartily  glad  when  you  are  well. 
Praise  and  thanks  be  to  God,  I  too  am  in  good  health  and 
in  excellent  spirits.  My  sole  entertainment  is  the  theatre. 
How  I  wish  that  you  could  see  a  tragedy  acted  here! 
Generally  speaking,  I  do  not  know  of  any  theatre  where 
all  kinds  of  plays  are  really  well  performed.  But  they 
are  here.  Every  part,  even  the  most  unimportant  and 
poorest  part,  is  well  cast  and  understudied.  I  should  very 
much  like  to  know  how  things  are  progressing  between 
you  and  a  certain  good  friend,  you  know  whom  I  mean.2 
Do  write  to  me  about  thisl  Or  have  I  lost  your  confidence 
in  this  matter?  In  any  case,  please  write  to  me  often,  I 
mean,  when  you  have  nothing  better  to  do,  for  I  should 
dearly  love  to  hear  some  news  occasionally — and  you  are 
the  living  chronicle  of  Salzburg,  for  you  write  down  every 
single  thing  that  occurs;  so,  to  please  me,  you  might  write 
it  down  a  second  time.  But  you  must  not  be  angry  with 
me,  if  now  and  then  I  keep  you  waiting  a  long  time  for  a 

As  for  something  new  for  the  clavier  I  may  tell  you 
that  I  am  having  four  sonatas  engraved.  Those  in  C  and 
Bb  are  among  them3  and  only  the  other  two  are  new.  Then 
I  have  written  variations  on  three  airs,4  which  I  could 
send  you,  of  course;  but  I  think  it  is  hardly  worth  the 
trouble  and  I  would  rather  wait  until  I  have  more  to  send. 
Well,  I  suppose  the  marksmen's  feast  will  soon  be  held?  I 
beg  you  solemniter  to  drink  the  health  of  a  loyal  marks- 

1  See  p.  1106  f.  2  Franz  D'Yppold,  Cp.  p.  1021,  n.  I. 

3  The  violin  and  clavier  sonatas,  K.  296  in  C  major,  composed  in  1778,  and 
K.  378  in  Bb,  composed  in  1779. 
*  K.  359,  360,  352. 



man.  When  it  is  my  turn  again  to  provide  the  target, 
please  let  me  know  and  I  shall  have  one  painted.  Now 
farewell,  dearest,  most  beloved  sister,  and  rest  assured  that 
I  shall  ever  remain  your  true  friend  and  sincere  brother 


(416)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

REISENBERG,  near  VIENNA,  ce  13  dejuillet,  1781 

MON    TRES    CHER    ?ERE! 

I  cannot  write  very  much,  as  Count  Cobenzl  is  driv 
ing  off  to  town  this  very  moment  and  I  must  give  him  this 
letter  if  I  wish  it  to  be  posted.  I  am  writing  to  you  at  an 
hour's  distance  from  Vienna,  at  a  place  called  Reisenberg. 
I  once  spent  a  night  here,  and  now  I  am  staying  for  a  few 
days.  The  little  house  is  nothing  much,  but  the  country — 
the  forest — in  which  my  host  has  built  a  grotto  which 
looks  just  as  if  Nature  herself  had  fashioned  it!  Indeed 
the  surroundings  are  magnificent  and  very  delightful.  I 
have  received  your  last  letter.  I  have  long  been  intending 
to  leave  the  Webers  and  I  shall  certainly  do  so.  But  I 
swear  to  you  that  I  have  not  heard  a  word  about  going  to 
live  with  Herr  von  Aurnhammer.  It  is  true  that  I  might 
have  lodged  with  Mesmer,  the  writing-master,  but  really 
I  prefer  to  stay  with  the  Webers.  Mesmer  has  Righini1 
(formerly  opera  buffa  singer  and  now  a  composer)  in  his 
house  and  is  his  great  friend  and  protector;  but  Frau 
Mesmer  is  still  more  so.  Until  I  find  a  good,  cheap  and 
comfortable  lodging  I  shall  not  leave  my  present  one;  and 
even  then  I  shall  have  to  make  up  some  story  to  tell  the 

1  Vincenzo  Righini  (1756-1812),  born  at  Bologna,  first  became  a  singer  and 
later  studied  composition  under  Padre  Martini.  He  was  a  prolific  composer 
of  operas  and  church  music.  One  of  his  operas,  "II  convitato  di  pietra",  a 
forerunner  of  Mozart's  "Don  Giovanni",  was  produced  in  Vienna  in  1777. 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  417 

good  woman,  for  really  I  have  no  reason  to  leave.  Herr 
von  <Moll>  has,  I  know  not  why,  a  very  malicious  tongue, 
which  particularly  surprises  me  in  his  case.  He  says  that 
he  hopes  that  I  shall  think  better  of  it  and  soon  return  to 
Salzburg,  for  I  shall  hardly  find  things  so  easy  here  as 
I  do  there,  and  that,  as  it  is,  I  am  here  only  on  account 
of  the  Viennese  women.  Fraulein  von  Aurnhammer  re 
peated  this  to  me.  But  everywhere  he  gets  very  strange 
replies  on  this  point.  I  can  pretty  well  guess  why  he  talks 
in  this  strain.  He  is  a  very  strong  supporter  of  Kozeluch. 
Oh!  how  silly  it  all  is! 

The  story  about  Herr  von  Molk  greatly  astonished  me. 
I  have  always  thought  him  capable  of  anything, — but  I 
never  could  have  believed  he  was  a  scoundrel,  I  pity  the 
poor  family  from  my  heart.  Write  to  me  soon  and  send 
me  lots  of  news.  I  must  stop,  as  the  Count  is  going  off. 
Farewell.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace 
my  dear  sister  with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your  most 
obedient  son 


(417)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VIENNE,  ce  2$  de  juillet,  1781 

I  repeat  that  I  have  long  been  thinking  of  moving  to 
another  lodging,  and  that  too  solely  because  people  are 
gossiping.  I  am  very  sorry  that  I  am  obliged  to  do  this 
on  account  of  silly  talk,  in  which  there  is  not  a  word  of 
truth.  I  should  very  much  like  to  know  what  pleasure 
certain  people  can  find  in  spreading  entirely  groundless 
reports.  Because  I  am  living  with  them,1  therefore  I  am 
going  to  marry  the  daughter.2  There  has  been  no  talk  of 

1  i.e.  Frau  Weber  and  her  daughters.  2  Constanze  Weber. 



our  being  in  love.  They  have  skipped  that  stage.  No,  I  just 
take  rooms  in  the  house  and  marry.  If  ever  there  was  a 
time  when  I  thought  less  of  getting  married,  it  is  most 
certainly  now!  For  (although  the  last  thing  I  want  is  a 
rich  wife)  even  if  I  could  now  make  my  fortune  by  a 
marriage,  I  could  not  possibly  pay  court  to  anyone,  for 
my  mind  is  running  on  very  different  matters.  God  has 
not  given  me  my  talent  that  I  might  attach  it  to  a  wife 
and  waste  my  youth  in  idleness.  I  am  just  beginning  to 
live,  and  am  I  to  embitter  my  own  life?  To  be  sure,  I  have 
nothing  against  matrimony,  but  at  the  moment  it  would 
be  a  misfortune  for  me.  Well,  there  is  no  other  way; 
although  it  is  absolutely  untrue,  I  must  at  least  avoid 
even  the  appearance  of  such  a  thing — even  though  this 
appearance  rests  on  nothing  but  the  fact  that  I  am  living 
here.  People  who  do  not  come  to  the  house  cannot  even 
tell  whether  I  associate  with  her  as  much  as  with  the  rest 
of  God's  creatures,  for  the  children  seldom  go  out;  indeed 
they  go  nowhere  except  to  the  theatre,  where  I  never 
accompany  them,  as  I  am  generally  not  at  home  when 
the  play  begins.  We  went  to  the  Prater  a  few  times,  but 
the  mother  came  too,  and,  as  I  was  in  the  house,  I  could 
not  refuse  to  accompany  them.  Nor  had  I  at  that  time 
heard  anything  of  these  foolish  rumours.  I  must  also  tell 
you  that  I  was  only  allowed  to  pay  my  own  share.  Fur 
ther,  when  the  mother  heard  this  talk  herself  and  also 
heard  it  from  me,  she  herself,  let  me  tell  you,  objected  to 
our  going  about  together  and  advised  me  to  move  to 
another  house  in  order  to  avoid  further  unpleasantness. 
For  she  said  that  she  would  not  like  to  be  the  innocent 
cause  of  any  misfortune  to  me.  So  this  is  the  only  reason 
why  for  some  little  time  (since  people  began  to  gossip)  I 
have  been  intending  to  leave.  So  far  as  truth  goes,  I  have 
no  reason,  but  these  chattering  tongues  are  driving  me 
away.  Were  it  not  for  these  reports,  I  should  hardly  think 



of  leaving,  for,  although  I  could  easily  get  a  nicer  room, 
I  could  hardly  find  such  comfort  and  such  friendly  and 
obliging  people.  I  will  not  say  that,  living  in  the  same 
house  with  the  Mademoiselle  to  whom  people  have 
already  married  me,  I  am  ill-bred  and  do  not  speak  to 
her;  but  I  am  not  in  love  with  her.  I  fool  about  and  have 
fun  with  her  when  time  permits  (which  is  only  in  the 
evenings  when  I  take  supper  at  home,  for  in  the  morning 
I  write  in  my  room  and  in  the  afternoon  I  am  rarely  in 
the  house)  and — that  is  all.  If  I  had  to  marry  all  those 
with  whom  I  have  jested,  I  should  have  two  hundred 
wives  at  least.  Now  for  the  money  question.  My  pupil l 
remained  three  weeks  in  the  country,  so  I  made  nothing, 
while  my  own  expenses  went  on.  Therefore  I  could  not 
send  you  thirty  ducats — only  twenty.  But  as  I  was  very 
hopeful  about  the  subscriptions,  I  thought  I  would  wait 
until  I  should  be  able  to  send  you  the  promised  sum. 
Countess  Thun,  however,  has  just  told  me  that  it  is  use 
less  to  think  of  subscriptions  before  the  autumn,  because 
all  the  people  with  money  are  in  the  country.  So  far  she  has 
only  found  ten  subscribers  and  my  pupil  only  seven.  In 
the  meantime  I  am  having  six  sonatas  engraved.  Artaria, 
the  music  engraver,  has  already  discussed  the  matter  with 
me.2  As  soon  as  they  are  sold  and  I  get  some  money,  I 
shall  send  it  to  you.  I  must  beg  my  dear  sister  to  forgive 
me  for  not  having  sent  her  a  letter  of  congratulation  on 
her  name-day.  A  letter  I  began  is  lying  on  my  desk.  After 
I  had  begun  it  on  Saturday,  Countess  Rumbeck  sent  her 
servant  to  say  that  they  were  all  going  to  the  country  and 
would  I  not  go  with  them?  So,  because  I  do  not  like  to 
refuse  anything  to  Cobenzl,  I  left  the  letter  lying  there, 
hastily  put  my  things  together  and  went  with  them.  I 

1  The  Countess  Rumbeck. 

2  See  p.  1092,  n.  i.  They  were  published  by  Artaria  and  Co.  in  November 

VOL.  Ill  1 121  F 

Z.  418  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

thought  to  myself — my  sister  will  not  make  a  grievance 
of  it.  I  now  wish  her  on  the  octave  of  her  name-day  * 
every  possible  good  and  every  blessing  which  a  sincere 
and  loving  brother  can  wish  his  sister  with  his  whole 
heart;  and  I  kiss  her  most  tenderly.  I  drove  in  to 
Vienna  to-day  with  the  Count  and  to-morrow  I  am 
driving  out  with  him  again.  Now  farewell,  dearest,  most 
beloved  father.  Believe  and  trust  your  son,  who  cherishes 
the  most  kindly  feelings  towards  all  right-minded  people. 
Why  then  should  he  not  cherish  them  towards  his  dear 
father  and  sister?  Believe  in  him  and  rely  on  him  more 
than  on  certain  individuals,  who  have  nothing  better  to 
do  than  to  slander  honest  folk.  Well,  adieu.  I  kiss  your 
hands  a  thousand  times  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient 


(418)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

\Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
MON    TRES    CHER    PlERE!  VIENNA,  ce  I   (Faotit,  1 78 1 

I  fetched  at  once  the  sonata  for  four  hands,2  as  Frau 
von  Schindl  lives  just  opposite  the  "Auge  Gottes".  If 
Madame  Duschek  happens  to  be  in  Salzburg,  please  give 
her  my  most  friendly  greetings  and  ask  her  whether, 
before  she  left  Prague,  a  gentleman  called  on  her  and 
brought  her  a  letter  from  me.  If  not,  I  shall  write  to  him 
at  once  and  tell  him  to  forward  it  to  Salzburg.  This  was 
Rossi  of  Munich,  who  asked  me  to  help  him  with  a  letter 
of  introduction.  He  took  with  him  from  here  some  ex 
cellent  letters  to  Prague.  If  my  letter  only  concerned  his 
introduction,  I  should  certainly  let  him  dispose  of  it; 
but  in  it  I  also  asked  Mme  Duschek  to  assist  me  in  the 

1  July  26th.  *  K.  358,  composed  in  1774. 

1 122 

1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  418 

matter  of  subscriptions  for  my  six  sonatas.1 1  was  particu 
larly  glad  to  render  this  service  to  Rossi,  as  he  has  written 
the  poem  for  the  cantata  which  I  want  to  produce  for  my 
benefit  in  Advent.2 

Well,  the  day  before  yesterday  Stephanie  junior  gave 
me  a  libretto  to  compose.3  I  must  confess  that,  however 
badly  he  may  treat  other  people,  about  which  I  know 
nothing,  he  is  an  excellent  friend  to  me.  The  libretto  is 
quite  good.  The  subject  is  Turkish4  and  the  title  is:  Bel- 
monte  und  Konstanze,  or  Die  Verfiikrung  aus  dem 
Serail.  I  intend  to  write  the  ouverture,  the  chorus  in 
Act  I  and  the  final  chorus  in  the  style  of  Turkish  music. 
Mile  Cavalieri,5  Mile  Teiber,6  M.  Fischer,7  M.  Adam- 
berger,8  M.  Dauer9  and  M.  Walter10  are  to  sing  in  it.  I 
am  so  delighted  at  having  to  compose  this  opera  that  I 

1  See  p.  1092,  n.  i.  2  See  p.  1107,  n.  2. 

3  The  original  text  was  by  Christoph  Friedrich  Bretzner  (1748-1807),  a 
Leipzig  merchant,  whose  light-opera  libretti  were  very   popular,    several 
having  been  collected  and  published  in  1779.  "Belmonte  und  Constanze" 
was  written  in  1780,  set  to  music  by  the  successful  operatic  composer  Johann 
Andre  (1741-1799),  and  performed  in  May  1781  at  the  Dobbelin  Theatre  in 
Berlin.  Gottlieb  Stephanie,  chiefly  at  Mozart's  instigation,  made  considerable 
alterations  and  additions  to  this  text.  For  a  full  discussion  of  this  revision  see 
Abert,  vol.  i.  p.  931  ff. 

4  Bretzner's  text  was  not  by  any  means  an  original  work.  Several  opera 
libretti  had  already  been  written  on  subjects  connected  with  life  in  a  Turkish 
seraglio,  notably  Dancourt's  "Pilgrimme  von  Mekka"  (set  to  music  by  Gluck, 
1764),  Martinelli's  "Laschiavaliberata"  (set  to  music  by  Jommelli,  1768,  and 
Schuster,  1777)  and  Grossmann's  "Adelheit  von  Veltheim",  which  appeared 
in  1780  and  was  set  to  music  in  1781  by  Neefe,  who  was  Beethoven's  teacher 
at  Bonn. 

5  Katharina  Cavalieri  (1761-1801),  an  Austrian  by  birth,  was  trained  in 
Vienna  by  Salieri.  She  made  her  first  appearance  in  Italian  opera  in  1775. 
She  took  the  part  of  Constanze. 

6  Therese  Teiber  (1765-    ?    ),  daughter  of  a  violinist  in  the  Vienna  court 
orchestra.  She  married  Ferdinand  Arnold,  a  well-known  tenor.  She  took  the 
part  of  Blonde. 

7  Karl  Ludwig  Fischer  (1745-1825),  one  of  the  finest  bass  singers  of  his 
day.  He  created  the  part  of  Osmin. 

8  See  p.  1075,  n.  4.  Adamberger  took  the  part  of  Belmonte. 

9  Dauer  (1746-1812),  a  fine  tenor  and  an  excellent  actor.  He  took  the  part 
of  Pedrillo.  I0  Walter  probably  took  the  spoken  part  of  Bassa  Selim. 


Z.  418  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

have  already  finished  Cavalieri's  first  aria,  Adamberger's 
and  the  trio  which  closes  Act  I.  The  time  is  short,  it 
is  true,  for  it  is  to  be  performed  in  the  middle  of  Sep 
tember;  l  but  the  circumstances  connected  with  the  date 
of  performance  and,  in  general,  all  my  other  prospects 
stimulate  me  to  such  a  degree  that  I  rush  to  my  desk  with 
the  greatest  eagerness  and  remain  seated  there  with  the 
greatest  delight.  The  Grand  Duke  of  Russia 2  is  coming 
here,  and  that  is  why  Stephanie  entreated  me,  if  possible, 
to  compose  the  opera  in  this  short  space  of  time.  For  the 
Emperor  and  Count  Rosenberg  are  to  return  soon  and 
their  first  question  will  be  whether  anything  new  is  being 
prepared?  Stephanie  will  then  have  the  satisfaction  of 
being  able  to  say  that  Umlaufs  opera,3  on  which  he  has 
been  engaged  for  a  long  time,  will  soon  be  ready  and  that  I 
am  composing  one  for  the  occasion.  And  he  will  certainly 
count  it  a  merit  on  my  part  to  have  undertaken  to  compose 
it  for  this  purpose  in  so  short  a  time.  No  one  but  Adam- 
berger  and   Fischer  knows  anything  about  it  yet,   for 
Stephanie  begged  us  to  say  nothing,  as  Count  Rosenberg 
is  still  absent  and  any  disclosure  may  easily  lead  to  all  kinds 
of  gossip.  Stephanie  does  not  even  wish  to  be  regarded  as 
too  good  a  friend  of  mine;  but  he  wants  it  to  be  thought 
that  he  is  doing  all  this  because  Count  Rosenberg  desires 
it;  and  indeed  the  Count  on  his  departure  did  actually 
order  him  to  look  around  for  a  libretto,  but  no  more. 

Well,  1  have  nothing  more  to  tell  you,  for  I  have  heard 
no  news.  The  room  into  which  I  am  moving  is  being  got 
ready.4 1  am  now  going  off  to  hire  a  clavier,  for  until  there 

1  The  first  performance  of  the  opera  was  on  July  i6th,  1782. 

2  The  Grand  Duke  Paul  Petrovitch,  afterwards  Paul  I. 

3  Probably  "Das  Irrlicht",  on  C.  F.  Bretzner's  libretto.  This  opera  was 
performed  in  1782.  See  MM,  February  1919,  p.  8, 

4  This  was  not  Am  Graben  no.  1175  (now  no.  8),  the  lodging  into  which 
Mozart  moved  early  in  September,  but  a  room  in  the  house  of  Herr  Aurn- 
hammer.  See  p.  1130. 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z.  419 

is  one  in  my  room,  I  cannot  live  in  it,  because  I  have  so 
much  to  compose  and  not  a  minute  must  be  lost.  Indeed 
I  shall  miss  a  great  many  comforts  in  my  new  lodging — 
particularly  in  regard  to  meals.  For  whenever  I  had  any 
thing  very  urgent  to  finish,  the  Webers  always  delayed 
the  meal  for  me  as  long  as  I  chose;  and  I  could  go  on 
writing  without  dressing  and  just  go  to  table  next  door, 
both  for  lunch  and  supper;  whereas  now,  when  I  wish 
to  avoid  spending  money  on  having  a  meal  brought 
to  my  room,  I  waste  at  least  an  hour  dressing  (which 
up  to  the  present  I  have  postponed  until  the  afternoon) 
and  must  go  out — particularly  in  the  evening.  You  know 
that  usually  I  go  on  composing  until  I  am  hungry.  Well, 
the  kind  friends  with  whom  I  could  have  supper  sit  down 
to  table  as  early  as  eight  or  half  past  eight  at  latest.  At 
the  Webers'  we  never  did  so  before  ten  o'clock.  Well, 
adieu.  I  must  close,  for  I  must  go  out  and  find  a  clavier. 
Farewell.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace 
my  dear  sister  with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your  most 
obedient  son 


P.S. — My  greetings  to  all  Salzburg. 


(419)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
MON    TRES    CHER    P£RE!  VlENNE,  ce  8  d'aout,  1781 

I  must  write  in  haste,  for  I  have  only  this  very 
instant  finished  the  Janissary  chorus  *  and  it  is  past 
twelve  o'clock  and  I  have  promised  to  drive  out  at  two 
o'clock  sharp  with  the  Aurnhammers  and  Mile  Cavalieri 
to  Mingendorf  near  Laxenburg,  where  the  camp  now  is. 

'  In  Act  I. 


L.  419  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

Adamberger,  Mile  Cavalieri  and  Fischer  are  exceedingly 
pleased  with  their  arias.  I  lunched  yesterday  with 
Countess  Thun  and  am  to  do  so  again  to-morrow.  I 
played  to  her  what  I  have  finished  composing  and  she 
told  me  afterwards  that  she  would  venture  her  life  that 
what  I  have  so  far  written  cannot  fail  to  please.  But  on 
this  point  I  pay  no  attention  whatever  to  anybody's 
praise  or  blame — I  mean,  until  people  have  heard  and 
seen  the  work  as  a  whole.  I  simply  follow  my  own  feelings. 
All  the  same  you  may  judge  from  this  how  pleased  she 
must  have  been  to  express  herself  so  emphatically. 

As  I  have  nothing  of  any  consequence  to  write  about, 
I  will  just  tell  you  a  shocking  story;  but  perhaps  you 
have  heard  it  already.  In  Vienna  it  is  called  the  Tyrolese 
tale.  It  particularly  interests  me,  because  when  I  was  in 
Munich  I  knew  intimately  the  unfortunate  man  con 
cerned  in  it,  who,  moreover,  used  to  come  to  see  us  here 
every  day.  His  name  is  Herr  von  Wiedmer,  and  he  is  a 
nobleman.  Whether  it  was  owing  to  misfortunes  or  to  a 
natural  inclination  for  the  stage,  I  know  not,  but  some 
months  ago  he  collected  a  theatrical  company  with  whom 
he  went  to  Innsbruck.  One  Sunday  morning  at  about 
twelve  o'clock  this  good  fellow  was  strolling  along  the 
street  very  quietly  and  some  gentlemen  were  walking  close 
behind  him.  One  of  them,  Baron  Buffa  by  name,  kept  on 
abusing  the  impresario,  saying  "That  idiot   ought   to 
teach  his  dancer  to  walk  before  he  lets  her  go  on  the 
stage",    using   at  the  same  time  all  sorts  of  epithets. 
Herr  von  Wiedmer,  after  listening  to  this  for  a  while, 
naturally  looked  round  at  last,  upon  which  Buffa  asked 
him  why  he  was  looking  at  him.  Wiedmer  replied  very 
good-humouredly:  "Why,  you  are  looking  at  me  as  well. 
The  street  is  free,  anyone  can  look  round  if  he  pleases", 
and  continued  to  walk  ahead.  Baron  Buffa,  however, 
went  on  abusing  him,  which  in  the  end  proved  too  much 



for  the  good  man's  patience,  so  that  he  asked  Buffa  for 
whom  these  remarks  were  intended.  "For  you,  you  con 
temptible  cur!"  was  the  reply,  accompanied  by  a  violent 
box  on  the  ear,  which  Herr  von  Wiedmer  instantly  re 
turned  with  interest.  Neither  had  a  sword,  or  Wiedmer 
would  certainly  not  have  paid  him  back  in  his  own  coin. 
My  friend  went  home  very  quietly  in  order  to  arrange 
his  hair  (for  Baron  Buffa  had  seized  him  by  the  hair  as 
well)  and  he  intended  to  bring  the  case  before  the 
President,  Count  Wolkenstein.  But  he  found  his  house 
filled  with  soldiers,  who  took  him  off  to  the  guard-room. 
Say  what  he  would,  it  was  of  no  avail  and  he  was  con 
demned  to  receive  twenty-five  lashes  on  his  behind.  At 
last  he  said:  "I  am  a  nobleman  and  I  will  not  submit  to 
be  beaten  when  I  am  innocent.  I  would  rather  enlist  as  a 
soldier  in  order  to  have  my  revenge/'  For  in  Innsbruck 
the  stupid  Tyrolese  custom  evidently  is  that  no  one  may 
hit  a  nobleman,  no  matter  what  right  he  may  have  to  do 
so.  Whereupon  he  was  taken  to  gaol,  where  he  had  to 
receive  not  twenty-five,  but  fifty  lashes.  Before  he  lay 
down  on  the  bench,  he  cried  out:  "I  am  innocent  and  I 
appeal  publicly  to  the  Emperor".  But  the  corporal 
answered  him  with  a  sneer:  "Perhaps  the  gentleman  will 
first  take  his  fifty  lashes  and  after  that  the  gentleman  can 
appeal".  It  was  all  over  in  two  hours — that  is  to  say,  at 
about  two  o'clock.  After  the  fifth  lash  his  breeches  were 
torn  already.  I  am  amazed  that  he  was  able  to  stand  it; 
and  indeed  he  was  carried  away  unconscious  and  was 
confined  to  bed  for  three  weeks.  As  soon  as  he  was  cured, 
he  came  post-haste  to  Vienna,  where  he  is  anxiously 
awaiting  the  arrival  of  the  Emperor,  who  has  already 
been  informed  of  the  whole  affair,  not  only  by  people 
here,  but  by  his  sister,  the  Archduchess  Elizabeth,1  at 
Innsbruck.  Wiedmer  himself  has  a  letter  from  her  to 
1  Archduchess  Elizabeth  (1743-1808),  Maria  Theresa's  sixth  child. 


Z.  4ig  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

the  Emperor.  On  the  day  before  this  occurred  the 
President  had  received  orders  to  punish  no  one,  whoever 
he  might  be,  without  first  informing  the  authorities  in 
Vienna — which  makes  the  case  still  worse.  The  President 
must  indeed  be  a  very  stupid  and  malicious  dolt.  But  how 
can  this  man  ever  obtain  adequate  compensation?  The 
lashes  must  always  remain.  If  I  were  Wiedmer,  I  would 
demand  the  following  satisfaction  from  the  Emperor — 
that  the  President  should  receive  fifty  lashes  on  the  same 
place  and  in  my  presence  and,  in  addition,  pay  me  6000 
ducats.  And  if  I  could  not  obtain  this  satisfaction  I  would 
accept  no  other;  but  at  the  very  first  opportunity  I  would 
run  my  sword  through  his  heart.  By  the  way,  Wiedmer 
has  already  been  offered  3000  ducats  to  stay  away  from 
Vienna  and  to  hush  up  the  affair.  The  people  of  Inns 
bruck  speak  of  him  as  "He  who  was  scourged  for  us 
and  who  will  also  redeem  us".  No  one  can  bear  the 
President,  and  his  house  has  had  to  be  guarded  the 
whole  time.  There  is  a  regular  gospel  about  him  in 
Vienna.  Nothing  else  is  being  talked  of.  I  feel  very 
sorry  for  poor  Wiedmer,  for  he  is  never  well  now  and  is 
always  complaining  of  headaches  and  bad  pains  in  his 

Now,  farewell.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and 
embrace  my  dear  sister  with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever 
your  most  obedient  son 

W.  A.  MZT. 

My  greetings  to  the  Duscheks,  whom  I  hope  to  see  in 
Vienna.  Adieu. 


1781      LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  J.  G,  I.  BREITKOPF   L.  420 

(420)  Leopold  Mozwt  to  J.  G.  I.  Breitkopf,  Leipzig 

[Extract]  [Autograph  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin\ 

SALZBURG,  August  \othy  1781 

As  for  my  son,  he  is  no  longer  in  service  in  Salzburg. 
When  we  were  in  Munich,  the  Prince,1  who  was  then  in 
Vienna,  commanded  him  to  join  him  there.  So  he  left 
Munich  on  March  I2th  and  my  daughter  and  I  returned 
to  Salzburg  on  the  I4th.  As  His  Grace  the  Prince  treated 
my  son  extremely  badly  in  Vienna  and  as,  on  the  other 
hand,  all  the  great  noble  families  marked  him  out  for  their 
special  favours,  he  was  easily  persuaded  to  resign  a 
service  to  which  a  miserable  salary  was  attached,  and  to 
remain  in  Vienna.  As  far  as  I  know,  six  sonatas  for 
clavier  and  violin  are  being  engraved  in  Vienna.  Further, 
my  son  has  been  asked  to  compose  an  operetta,  which 
is  to  be  performed  in  the  middle  of  September,  He  has 
undertaken  to  do  this,  as  the  operetta  is  to  celebrate  the 
arrival  of  the  Grand  Duke  of  Russia. 

The  six  sonatas  dedicated  to  Her  Highness  the  Elec- 
tress  of  the  Bavarian  Palatinate  have  been  published  by 
Herr  Sieber2  in  Paris  and  can  be  bought  from  him.  His 
address  is:  rue  St.  Honore,  a  T Hotel  d'Aligre,  Ancien 
Grand  Conseil.  He  took  them  from  my  son  and  gave  him 
15  louis  d'or,  thirty  copies  and  full  liberty  in  regard  to 
their  dedication.  The  opera  my  son  wrote  for  Munich  was 
"Idomeneo".  The  strange  thing  about  it  was  that  it  was 
manufactured  entirely  by  Salzburg  people.  The  libretto 
was  written  by  the  Salzburg  court  chaplain,  Abbate 
Varesco,  the  music  by  my  son,  and  Herr  Schachtner  did 
the  German  translation.  People  tried  hard  to  persuade  us 
to  have  the  opera  printed  or  engraved,  the  whole  score 

1  i.e.  the  Archbishop  of  Salzburg. 
2  Jean  Georges  Sieber  (c.  1734-^.  1815),  the  famous  Paris  publisher. 


L.  421  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

or  possibly  a  clavier  arrangement.  Subscribers,  among 
whom  was  Prince  Max  von  Zweibriicken  and  so  forth, 
put  down  their  names  for  about  twenty  copies.  But  my 
son's  departure  for  Vienna  and  other  attendant  circum 
stances  obliged  us  to  postpone  everything.  I  should  add 
that  "Trois  Airs  Varies  pour  le  clavecin  ou  le  forte- 
piano"  were  also  published  in  Paris  by  Herr  Heina,  rue 
de  Seine,  Faubourg  St.  Germain,  a  THotel  de  Lille,  at 
the  price  of  four  livres.1  But  we  haven't  any  copies  left. 
Perhaps  I  ought  to  mention  that  my  son  never  gives  any 
compositions  to  be  engraved  or  printed  which  are  already 
in  other  hands.  For  we  are  very  particular  about  having 
only  one  set  of  copies  of  every  work.2 

(421)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
MON    TRES    CHER    PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  22  d'Aout,  1 78 1 

I  cannot  let  you  know  the  address  of  my  new  lodging, 
as  I  have  not  yet  got  one.3  But  I  am  bargaining  about 
the  prices  of  two,  one  of  which  I  shall  certainly  take,  as  I 
cannot  stay  here  next  month  and  so  must  move  out.  It 
appears  that  Herr  von  Aurnhammer  wrote  and  told  you 
that  I  had  actually  found  a  lodging!  I  had  one,  it  is  true, 
but  what  a  habitation!  fit  for  rats  and  mice,  but  not  for 
human  beings.  At  noon  I  had  to  look  for  the  stairs  with  a 
lantern.  The  room  was  a  little  closet  and  to  get  to  it  I  had 
to  pass  through  the  kitchen.  In  the  door  there  was  a  tiny 
window  and  although  they  promised  me  to  put  up  a  curtain 
inside,  they  asked  me  at  the  same  time  to  draw  it  back  as 
soon  as  I  was  dressed,  for  otherwise  they  would  not  be 

1  The  first  edition  of  K.  180  (six  variations  on  "Mio  caro  Adone",  com 
posed  in  1773),  K.  179  (twelve  variations  on  Fischer's  minuet,  composed  in 
1774)  and  K.  354  (twelve  variations  on  "Je  suis  Lindor",  composed  in  1778). 

*  The  autograph  breaks  off  here.  3  See  p.  1124,  n.  4. 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z.  421 

able  to  see  anything  either  in  the  kitchen  or  in  the  adjoin 
ing  rooms.  The  owner's  wife l  herself  called  the  house  the 
rats'  nest — in  short,  it  was  a  dreadful  place  to  look  at.  Ah, 
what  a  splendid  dwelling  for  me  indeed,  who  have  to 
receive  visits  from  various  distinguished  people.  The  good 
man,  of  course,  was  only  thinking  of  himself  and  his 
daughter,  who  is  the  greatest  seccatrice  I  have  ever  met. 
As  your  last  letter  contains  such  a  eulogy  a  la  Count  Daun 
of  this  family,  I  must  really  give  you  some  account  of 
them.  I  would  have  passed  over  in  silence  all  you  are 
going  to  read,  regarding  it  as  a  matter  of  indifference  and 
only  as  a  private  and  personal  seccatura,  but,  as  your 
letter  indicates  that  you  place  reliance  on  this  family,  I 
think  myself  bound  to  tell  you  frankly  about  their  good 
and  bad  points.  Well,  he  is  the  best-tempered  fellow  in  the 
world — indeed,  too  much  so,  for  his  wife,  the  most  stupid, 
ridiculous  gossip  imaginable,  so  rules  the  roost,  that  when 
she  opens  her  mouth,  he  does  not  dare  to  say  a  word.  As 
we  have  often  gone  out  walking  together,  he  has  begged 
me  not  to  mention  before  his  wife  that  we  had  taken  a 
fiacre  or  drunk  a  glass  of  beer.  Well,  I  simply  cannot  have 
any  confidence  in  a  man  who  is  so  utterly  insignificant  in 
his  own  family.  He  is  quite  a  good  fellow  and  a  very  kind 
friend;  and  I  could  often  lunch  at  his  house.  But  it  is  not 
my  habit  to  allow  people  to  pay  me  for  my  favours — 
though  indeed  a  midday  plate  of  soup  at  lunch  would  be 
no  payment.  But  people  of  that  type  think  that  it  is!  I  do 
not  go  to  their  house  for  my  own  advantage,  but  for  theirs, 
for  I  can  see  no  profit  for  myself;  and  I  have  never  yet 
met  a  single  person  there  who  would  be  worth  mention 
ing  in  this  letter.  In  short — they  are  decent  people,  but 
nothing  more — people  who  have  sense  enough  to  see  how 
useful  an  acquaintance  with  me  is  to  their  daughter  who, 
as  everyone  says  who  heard  her  play  before,  has  entirely 

1  Frau  Aurnhammer. 

L.  421  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

changed  since  I  have  been  teaching  her.  I  will  not  attempt 
to  describe  the  mother.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  when  I  am 
at  table  it  is  all  I  can  do  not  to  burst  out  laughing.  Basta! 
You  know  Frau  Adlgasser?  Well,  this  meuble  is  even 
more  aggravating,  for  she  is  medisante  into  the  bargain — 
I  mean,  she  is  both  stupid  and  malicious.  Now  for  the 
daughter.  If  a  painter  wanted  to  portray  the  devil  to  the 
life,  he  would  have  to  choose  her  face.  She  is  as  fat  as  a 
farm-wench,  perspires  so  that  you  feel  inclined  to  vomit, 
and  goes  about  so  scantily  clad  that  really  you  can  read  as 
plain  as  print:  " Pray,  do  look  here" .  True,  there  is  enough 
to  see,  in  fact,  quite  enough  to  strike  one  blind;  but — one 
is  thoroughly  well  punished  for  the  rest  of  the  day  if  one 
is  unlucky  enough  to  let  one's  eyes  wander  in  that 
direction — tartar  is  the  only  remedy!  So  loathsome,  dirty 
and  horrible!  Faugh,  the  devil!  Well,  I  have  told  you  how 
she  plays,  and  also  why  she  begged  me  to  assist  her.  I  am 
delighted  to  do  people  favours,  provided  they  do  not 
plague  me  incessantly.  But  she  is  not  content  if  I  spend  a 
couple  of  hours  with  her  every  day.  She  wants  me  to  sit 
there  the  whole  day  long — and,  what  is  more,  she  tries  to 
be  attractive.  But,  what  is  worse  still,  she  is  serieusement 
in  love  with  me!  I  thought  at  first  it  was  a  joke,  but  now  I 
know  it  to  be  a  fact.  When  I  perceived  it — for  she  took 
liberties  with  me — for  example,  she  made  me  tender  re 
proaches  if  I  came  somewhat  later  than  usual  or  could  not 
stay  so  long,  and  more  nonsense  of  the  same  kind — I  was 
obliged,  not  to  make  a  fool  of  the  girl,  to  tell  her  the  truth 
very  politely.  But  that  was  no  use:  she  became  more  lov 
ing  than  ever.  In  the  end  I  was  always  very  polite  to  her 
except  when  she  started  her  nonsense — and  then  I  was 
very  rude.  Whereupon  she  took  my  hand  and  said:  "Dear 
Mozart,  please  don't  be  so  cross.  You  may  say  what  you  like, 
I  am  really  very  fond  of  you!'  Throughout  the  town  people 
are  saying  that  we  are  to  be  married,  and  they  are  very 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z.  422 

much  surprised  at  me,  I  mean,  that  I  have  chosen  such  a 
face.  She  told  me  that  when  anything  of  the  kind  was  said 
to  her,  she  always  laughed  at  it;  but  I  know  from  a  cer 
tain  person  that  she  confirmed  the  rumour,  adding  that 
we  would  then  travel  together.  That  enraged  me.  So 
the  other  day  I  gave  her  my  mind  pretty  plainly  and 
warned  her  not  to  abuse  my  kindness.  Now  I  no  longer 
go  there  every  day,  but  only  every  other  day,  and  I  shall 
gradually  drop  it  altogether.  She  is  nothing  but  an  amor 
ous  fooL  For  before  she  got  to  know  me,  she  once  said  in 
the  theatre,  on  hearing  me  play:  "He  is  coming  to  see  me 
to-morrow  and  I  shall  play  his  variations  to  him  in  the 
very  same  style".  On  this  account  I  did  not  go,  because  it 
was  not  only  a  conceited  speech,  but  a  downright  lie,  as  I 
had  never  heard  a  word  about  calling  on  her  the  next  day. 
Well,  adieu,  my  paper  is  full.  I  have  now  finished  the  first 
act  of  my  opera.1  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and 
embrace  my  sister  with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your 
obedient  son 


(422)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

\Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg\ 
MON    TRES    CHER    PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  29  (faout,  1 78 1 

I  will  now  reply  to  your  questions.  Herr  von  <  Asee)  is 
Herr  von  Moll.2  Madame  Bernasconi  gets  500  ducats  from 
the  management  or,  for  all  I  can  tell,  from  the  Emperor, 
but  only  for  one  year.  I  should  add  that  she  grumbles  and 
wishes  she  had  left  long  ago;  but  that  is  only  a  furberia 
italiana3 — and  just  because  she  is  grumbling,  she  is  going 

1  "Die  Entfuhrung  aus  dem  Serail." 

2  See  p,  1119.  Evidently  Leopold  Mozart  had  not  realised  that  the  word 
was  in  cypher. 

3  A  piece  of  Italian  knavery. 


L.  422  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

to  remain  here.  Otherwise  she  would  hardly  have  left 
London  to  come  to  Vienna.1  For  one  fine  day  she  turned 
up,  no  one  knows  how  or  why.  I  believe  that  Count 
Dietrichstein  (Master  of  the  Horse),  who  is  her  protector, 
knew  something  about  it  beforehand,  and  that  Gluck  (who 
wanted  to  have  his  French  operas  performed  in  German) 
also  lent  a  hand.  What  is  certain  is  that  she  was  really 
forced  on  the  Emperor.  The  great  herd  of  the  nobility  are 
very  much  taken  with  her,  but  in  his  heart  of  hearts  not 
the  Emperor,  who  in  fact  is  as  little  taken  with  her  as  he 
is  with  Gluck.  Nor  is  she  a  favourite  with  the  public.  It 
is  true  that  in  great  tragic  parts  she  will  always  remain 
Bernasconi,  but  in  operettas  she  is  a  total  failure,  as  they 
no  longer  suit  her.  Moreover,  as  she  herself  admits,  she  is 
more  Italian  than  German,  and  her  accent  on  the  stage  is 
as  thoroughly  Viennese  as  it  is  in  ordinary  conversation. 
So  now  you  can  picture  her  to  yourself.  And  when  she 
occasionally  tries  to  correct  her  accent,  it  is  just  as  if  you 
were  to  hear  a  princess  declaim  in  a  puppet-show.  Her 
singing  too  is  now  so  bad  that  no  one  will  compose  for 
her.3  But  that  she  may  not  draw  her  500  ducats  for 
nothing,  the  Emperor  (with  some  difficulty)  has  been 
induced  to  have  Gluck' s  "Iphigenie"  and  "Alceste"  per 
formed — the  former  in  German,  the  latter  in  Italian.3  I 
know  nothing  of  Signor  Righini's  success.  He  makes  a 
good  deal  of  money  by  teaching,  and  last  Easter  he  was 
successful  with  his  cantata,4  which  was  performed  twice  in 
succession  and  had  good  receipts  on  both  occasions.  He 
composes  very  charmingly  and  he  is  not  by  any  means 

1  Antonia  Bernasconi  (1741-1803)  had  been  singing  at  the  Italian  Opera 
in  London  from  1778  until  1781. 

2  Antonia  Bernasconi  was  well  past  her  prime. 

3  Gluck's  "Iphigenie  in  Tauris"  was  given  in  German  on  October  23rd, 
1781,  and  was  followed  by  further  performances  of  "Alceste"  on  December 
3rd  and  "Orfeo"  in  Italian  on  December  3ist. 

«  "II  Natale  d' Apollo." 


i?8i  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z.  422 

superficial;  but  he  is  a  monstrous  thief.  He  offers  his  stolen 
goods  in  such  superfluity,  in  such  profusion,  that  people 
can  hardly  digest  them.  As  for  the  Dorotheans,1  it  is  only 
gossip  that  is  going  round — nothing  has  happened — 
perhaps  it  will.  The  Emperor  went  off  again  for  a  fort 
night,  but  has  now  returned. 

We  have  had  hardly  any  thunderstorms.  At  the  most 
there  were  two,  and  they  were  very  slight.  But  we  have 
had  terrible  heat,  so  that  everyone  has  been  saying  that 
never  in  his  life  has  he  endured  anything  like  it. 

The  Grand  Duke  of  Russia  is  not  coming  until  Novem 
ber,  so  I  can  write  my  opera  more  at  leisure.  I  am 
delighted.  I  shall  not  have  it  performed  before  All  Saints' 
Day,  for  that  is  the  best  time,  as  everyone  returns  from  the 
country  then. 

I  have  now  taken  a  very  prettily  furnished  room  in  the 
Graben  and  shall  be  living  there  when  you  read  this 
letter.2  I  purposely  chose  one  not  looking  on  the  street  in 
order  to  be  quiet.  Continue  to  address  your  letters  to 
Peisser,  for  I  shall  always  get  them.  But,  if  you  do  not  send 
them  through  Hagenauer,  you  must  enclose  them  in  a 
cover  and  put  his  address  on  it.  For  I  have  all  my 
letters  addressed  to  him.  As  for  Herr  Duschek,  I  have 
already  mentioned  in  a  letter  to  his  wife  the  price  of 
the  sonatas,  which  is  three  ducats.3 

Well,  adieu.  I  have  no  more  news.  I  kiss  your  hands  a 
thousand  times  and  embrace  my  sister  with  all  my  heart 
and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


P.S. — My  greetings  to  all  Salzburg. 

1  The  Dorotheerkloster  in  Vienna,  founded  by  Duke  Albrecht  II  in  the 
1 4th  century,  was  occupied  from  1414  onwards  by  the  Augustinerchorherren, 
and  incorporated  with  Klosterneuburg  in  1782, 

a  See  p.  1124,  n.  4.  3  See  p.  1092,  n.  i. 


Z.  423  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

(42  2  a)  Mozart  to  his  Sister1 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 

You  will  probably  have  not  been  able  to  read  this  letter, 
for  my  pen  is  a  wretched  one.  Please  give  my  most  cordial 
greetings  to  M,  D'Yppold  and  tell  him  to  count  on  my  true 
friendship.  My  greetings  to  Katherl  and  all  my  good 
friends.  Adieu.  I  have  asked  you  to  address  your  letters  to 
Peisser.  But,  if  you  do,  you  will  have  to  put  each  letter 
into  a  separate  cover  and  then  it  will  immediately  cost 
sixteen  kreutzers.  So  perhaps  you  had  better  direct  them 
as  usual:  Auf  dem  Peter,  im  Auge  Gottes;  2nd  floor.  This 
address  is  so  well  known  at  the  post  office  that  even 
when  a  letter  has  arrived  in  Vienna  with  only  my  name 
on  it,  it  has  been  delivered  to  me.  If  you  do  this,  I  shall 
certainly  receive  your  letters.  Adieu. 

(423)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg\ 

MON    TRES    CHER    P^RE!  VIENNA,  ce  $  de  ?*",  1781 

I  am  now  writing  to  you  in  my  new  room  in  the 
Graben,  No.  HJ5,  3rd  floor.  From  the  way  in  which  you 
have  taken  my  last  letter  —  as  if  I  were  an  arch-scoundrel 
or  a  blockhead  or  both!  —  I  am  sorry  to  see  that  you  rely 
more  on  the  gossip  and  scribblings  of  other  people  than 
you  do  on  me  —  and  that  in  fact  you  have  no  trust  in  me 
whatever.  But  I  assure  you  that  all  this  does  not  disturb 
me;  people  may  write  themselves  blind  —  and  you  may 
believe  them  as  much  as  you  please  —  but  I  shall  not  alter 
by  a  hair's  breadth;  I  shall  remain  the  same  honest 

1  This  postscript,  which  is  written  on  a  separate  sheet,.  is  undated,  but 
probably  belongs  to  this  letter. 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  423 

fellow  as  ever.  And  I  swear  to  you  that  if  you  had  not 
wanted  me  to  move  into  another  lodging,  I  should  not 
have  left  the  Webers;  for  I  feel  just  like  a  person  who  has 
left  his  own  comfortable  travelling  carriage  for  a  post- 
chaise.  But  not  another  word  on  the  subject.  It  is  really 
no  use  talking  about  it.  For  the  nonsense  which  God 
knows  who  puts  into  your  head  always  outweighs  any 
reasons  of  mine.  But  one  thing  I  do  beg  of  you.  When  you 
write  to  me  about  something  I  have  done,  of  which  you 
disapprove  or  which  you  think  might  have  been  done 
better,  and  in  reply  I  send  you  my  ideas  on  the  subject, 
please  regard  the  whole  matter  as  one  between  father  and 
son  alone,  a  secret,  I  mean,  and  something  which  is  not 
to  be  told  to  others,  as  I  myself  always  regard  it.  I  there 
fore  entreat  you  to  leave  it  at  that  and  not  to  apply  to 
other  people,  for,  by  God,  I  will  not  give  the  smallest 
account  to  others  of  what  I  do  or  leave  undone,  no,  not 
even  to  the  Emperor  himself.  Do  trust  me  always,  for 
indeed  I  deserve  it.  I  have  trouble  and  worry  enough  here 
to  support  myself,  and  it  therefore  does  not  help  me  in 
the  very  least  to  read  unpleasant  letters.  From  the  first 
moment  I  came  here  I  have  had  to  live  entirely  on  my 
own  means,  that  is,  on  what  I  could  make  by  my  own 
efforts.  The  others  always  drew  their  pay.  Ceccarelli  made 
more  money  than  I  did,  but  blew  every  penny  of  it  in 
Vienna.  If  I  had  done  the  same,  I  should  never  have  been 
in  a  position  to  quit  the  service.  It  is  certainly  not  my 
fault,  my  dearest  father,  that  you  have  not  yet  had  any 
money  from  me;  it  is  due  to  the  present  bad  season.  Only 
have  patience — I,  too,  have  to  cultivate  it.  God  knows 
that  I  shall  never  forget  you!  At  the  time  of  my  affair  with 
the  Archbishop  I  wrote  to  you  for  clothes,  for  I  had 
nothing  with  me  but  my  black  suit.  The  mourning  was 
over,  the  weather  was  hot  and  my  clothes  did  not  arrive. 
So  I  had  to  have  some  made,  as  I  could  not  go  about 
VOL.  in  1137  G 

Z.  424  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

Vienna  like  a  tramp,  particularly  in  the  circumstances. 
My  linen  was  a  pitiful  sight;  no  house-porter  in  Vienna 
wore  shirts  of  such  coarse  linen  as  mine,  which  in  a  man  is 
certainly  the  most  objectionable  thing.  That  meant  more 
expense.  I  had  only  one  pupil — and  she  stayed  away  for 
three  weeks,  which  was  a  further  loss  for  me.  One  must 
not  make  oneself  cheap  here — that  is  a  cardinal  point — or 
else  one  is  done.  Whoever  is  most  impertinent  has  the  best 
chance.  From  all  your  letters  I  gather  that  you  believe 
that  I  do  nothing  but  amuse  myself.  Well,  you  are  most 
dreadfully  mistaken.  I  can  truthfully  say  that  I  have  no 
pleasure — none  whatever — save  that  of  being  away  from 
Salzburg.  I  hope  that  all  will  go  well  in  winter;  and  then, 
my  most  beloved  father,  I  shall  certainly  not  forget  you. 
If  I  see  that  it  is  to  my  advantage,  I  shall  remain  here.  If 
not,  I  am  thinking  of  going  straight  to  Paris — and  I  should 
like  to  have  your  opinion  about  this.  Now  farewell.  I  kiss 
your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  my  dear  sister 
with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 

W.  A.  MZT. 

P.S. — My  compliments  to  the  Duscheks.  Please  send 
me  too  when  you  can  the  aria  I  composed  for  Countess 
Baumgarten,  the  rondo  for  Mme  Duschek  and  the  one 
for  Ceccarelli.1  Adieu. 

(424)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

{Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TR£S  CHER  P£RE!  VIENNE,  ce  12  de  Sept*",  1781 

I  have  received  your  two  letters,  the  one  of  the  5th 

through  M.  Marchall  and  the  one  of  the  yth  through  the 

post — and,  what  is  more,  that  of  the  ;th  reached  me  before 

1  K.  369,  272  and  374. 


Ij8i  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z.  424 

that  of  the  5th.  Rust's  serenade  must  have  sounded  very 
effective  in  the  Rock  Theatre,1  particularly  as  the  singers 
were  seated  and  sang  from  their  music,  which  would  not 
have  been  practicable  in  a  room  or  a  hall.  Really  I  have 
to  laugh.  People  are  always  talking  here  about  concerts  to 
be  given  in  honour  of  the  Grand  Duke2  and — one  fine  day 
the  Grand  Duke  will  arrive — and  we  shall  have  no  Rock 
Theatre  for  him.  Herr  Lipp  must  have  cut  a  nice  figure 
before  the  great  dignitaries,  a  little  worse  even  than 
Haydn,  if  that  were  possible.  The  pluck  which  the  latter 
displayed  in  the  hospital  grounds  was  of  no  little  benefit  to 
my  health! 3 1  am  dreadfully  sorry  for  the  poor  unfortunate 
sufferers  in  Radstadt.  Speaking  of  fire,  I  must  tell  you 
that  the  Magdalen  Chapel  in  St.  Stephen's  Church  has 
been  blazing  away  the  whole  night.  The  smoke  wakened 
the  watchman  at  five  o'clock  in  the  morning,  but  until 
half  past  five  not  a  soul  came  to  extinguish  it,  and  it 
was  six  o'clock  and  the  fire  was  raging  most  fiercely 
before  they  brought  water  and  hoses.  The  whole  altar 
with  all  its  decorations,  and  the  chairs  and  everything  in 
the  chapel  were  burnt  to  ashes.  They  were  obliged  to  drive 
the  people  with  blows  to  assist  in  putting  out  the  fire  and, 
as  scarcely  anyone  wanted  to  help,  people  in  laced  coats 
and  embroidered  waistcoats  were  seen  lending  a  hand.  It 
is  said  that  no  such  disgraceful  lack  of  organisation  has 
ever  been  seen  since  Vienna  was  a  city.  The  Emperor  is 
not  here,  of  course.  If  only  Daubrawaick4  would  come 
soon,  so  that  I  could  have  my  music.  Fraulein  von  Aurn- 
hammer  is  worrying  me  to  death  about  the  two  double  con 
certos.5  We  are  now  having  one  rehearsal  after  another  in 

1  A  natural  grotto  in  the  park  of  Schloss  Hellbrunn,  the  summer  residence 
of  the  Archbishop,  about  half  an  hour's  drive  from  Salzburg. 

2  The  Grand  Duke  Paul  Petrovitch  of  Russia.  See  p.  1124,  n.  2. 

3  i.e.  made  me  laugh  heartily. 

4  Possibly  a  son  of  Johann  Anton  Daubrawa  von  Daubrawaick,  Court 
Councillor  in  Salzburg.  s  See  p.  1113,  n.  3. 


Z.  424  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

the  theatre.1  The  ballet-master  Antoine  has  been  sum 
moned  from  Munich,  and  supers  are  being  recruited 
throughout  Vienna  and  all  its  suburbs.  There  is  still  a 
sorry  remnant  of  Noverre's  ballet,2  who,  however,  have 
not  moved  a  leg  for  the  last  eight  years  and  most  of  whom 
are  like  sticks.  I  think  I  mentioned  the  other  day  that 
Gluck's  "Iphigenie"  is  to  be  given  in  German  and  his 
"Alceste"  in  Italian.3  If  only  one  of  the  two  were  to  be 
performed,  I  should  not  mind,  but  both — that  is  very 
annoying  for  me.  I  will  tell  you  why.  The  translator  of 
"Iphigenie"  into  German  is  an  excellent  poet,4  and  I 
would  gladly  have  given  him  my  Munich  opera  to  trans 
late.5  I  would  have  altered  the  part  of  Idomeneo  com 
pletely  and  changed  it  to  a  bass  part  for  Fischer.  In 
addition  I  would  have  made  several  other  alterations  and 
arranged  it  more  in  the  French  style.  Mme  Bernasconi, 
Adamberger  and  Fischer  would  have  been  delighted  to 
sing  it,  but,  as  they  now  have  two  operas  to  study,  and 
such  exhausting  ones,  I  am  obliged  to  excuse  them. 
Besides,  a  third  opera  would  be  too  much. 

I  must  now  hurry  off  to  Marchall  (for  I  have  promised 
to  introduce  him  to  Count  Cobenzl),  or  I  shall  be  too  late. 
Now  farewell.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and 
embrace  my  sister  with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your 
most  obedient  son 


P.S. — My  greetings  to  all  my  good  friends.  A  kiss  to 

1  For  Mozart's  opera  "Die  Entfuhrung  aus  dem  Serail". 

2  Noverre  had  left  Vienna  for  good  in  1775  to  take  up  his  appointment  as 
maitre  des  ballets  en  chef  to  the  Paris  Opera.  Hence  Mozart's  statement  is  a 
slight  exaggeration.  3  See  p.  1134. 

4  Johann  Baptist  von  Alxinger  (1755-1797),  a  young  Viennese  poet.  Gluck 
helped  with  the  translation. 

5  Evidently  Mozart  was  not  altogether  satisfied  with  Schachtner's  trans 
lation  of  his  "Idomeneo". 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  SISTER  L.  425 

(425)  Mozart  to  his  Sister 

{Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
MA   TRES    CHERE    ScEUR!  VlENNE,  ce  1 9  de  7*"  ,  1 781 

I  gather  from  our  dear  father's  last  letter  that  you  are 
ill,  which  causes  me  no  little  sorrow  and  anxiety.  I  see 
that  for  a  fortnight  you  have  been  drinking  waters,  so  you 
must  have  been  ill  for  a  long  time — and  yet  I  never  heard  a 
word  about  it.  Well,  I  am  going  to  be  quite  frank  with  you 
about  your  constantly  recurring  indispositions.  Believe 
me,  dearest  sister,  that  I  am  quite  serious  when  I  say  that 
the  best  cure  for  you  would  be  a  husband — and  if  only 
because  marriage  would  have  such  a  profound  influence 
on  your  health,  I  wish  with  all  my  heart  that  you  could 
marry  soon.  In  your  last  letter  you  scolded  me,  but  not  as 
much  as  I  deserved,  I  am  ashamed  when  I  think  of  it — 
and  the  only  excuse  I  can  offer  is  that  I  started  to  write  to 
you  the  moment  I  received  your  last  letter  but  one,  and 
then — left  it  unfinished!  In  the  end  I  tore  it  up.  For  the 
time  has  not  yet  arrived  for  me  to  be  able  to  give  you 
more  definite  and  comforting  news,  although  I  hope  to  be 
able  to  do  so  soon.  Now  listen  to  my  suggestions. 

You  know  that  I  am  composing  an  opera.  Those  por 
tions  which  I  have  finished  have  won  extraordinary  ap 
plause  on  all  sides.  I  know  this  nation — and  I  have  reason 
to  think  that  my  opera  will  be  a  success.  If  it  is,  then  I 
shall  be  as  popular  in  Vienna  as  a  composer  as  I  am  on 
the  clavier.  Well,  when  I  have  got  through  this  winter,  I 
shall  know  better  how  I  stand,  and  I  have  no  doubt  that 
my  circumstances  will  be  favourable.  For  you  and 
D'  Yppold  there  are  scarcely  any — indeed,  I  may  say  with 
certainty — no  prospects  in  Salzburg.  But  could  not 
D' Yppold  manage  to  get  something  here?  I  suppose  he  is 
not  absolutely  penniless?  Ask  him  about  it — and  if  he 


Z.  425  MOZART  TO  HIS  SISTER  1781 

thinks  the  project  at  all  practicable,  he  has  only  to  tell  me 
what  steps  to  take,  and  I  will  certainly  do  my  utmost,  for 
I  take  the  greatest  interest  in  this  affair.  If  this  were 
accomplished,  you  could  certainly  marry;  for,  believe 
me,  you  could  earn  a  great  deal  of  money  in  Vienna,  for 
example,  by  playing  at  private  concerts  and  by  giving 
lessons.  You  would  be  very  much  in  demand — and  you 
would  be  well  paid.  In  that  case  my  father  would  have  to 
resign  his  post  and  come  too — and  we  could  live  very 
happily  together  again.  I  see  no  other  solution — and  even 
before  I  knew  that  your  affair  with  D'  Yppold  was  serious, 
I  had  something  like  this  in  mind  for  you.  Our  dear  father 
was  the  only  difficulty,  for  I  wanted  him  to  enjoy  his  rest 
and  not  to  have  to  worry  and  torment  himself.  But  I  think 
that  in  this  way  it  might  be  arranged.  For  with  your 
husband's  earnings,  your  own  and  mine,  we  can  easily 
manage,  and  enable  our  father  to  live  in  peace  and  comfort. 
Do  talk  this  over  soon  with  D'  Yppold  and  let  me  know  at 
once  what  you  would  like  me  to  do,  for  the  sooner  I  begin 
to  arrange  matters,  the  better.  I  can  do  most  through  the 
Cobenzls — but  D'Yppold  must  write  and  let  me  know 
how  and  what, 

M.  Marchall  sends  his  greetings  to  you — and  par 
ticularly  to  M.  D' Yppold,  whom  he  thanks  most  warmly 
for  his  great  kindness  to  him  on  his  departure.  Well,  I 
must  close,  for  I  have  still  to  write  to  Papa.  Farewell, 
dearest  sister!  I  hope  to  have  better  news  of  your  health  in 
Papa's  next  letter — and  to  have  it  confirmed  soon  by  your 
own  hand.  Adieu.  I  kiss  you  a  thousand  times  and  am 
ever  your  brother  who  will  always  love  you  with  all  his 



ij8i  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  426 

(425a)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[From  Ludwig  Nohl,  Mozarts  Brief e,  ind  edition,  pp.  305-306]  J 

Forgive  me  if  you  have  to  pay  a  little  more  for  the 
letter  this  time.  I  wanted  to  give  you  some  idea  at  least 
of  the  first  act,  so  that  you  may  judge  what  the  whole 
opera  will  be  like — and  I  could  not  have  done  it  with  less. 
I  hope  that  your  fits  of  dizziness  will  soon  cease.  You 
gave  me  rather  a  fright  about  my  sister,  because  it  was 
so  unexpected.  I  do  hope  that  she  is  better  now.  I  kiss 
her  a  thousand  times  and  kiss  your  hands  a  hundred 
times  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


(426)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Frau  Floersheim-Koch,  Florence'] 

MON  TRES  CHER  P^REJ  VlENNE,  ce  26  de  Septembre^  1781 
Forgive  me  for  having  made  you  pay  an  extra  heavy 
postage  fee  the  other  day.  But  I  happened  to  have  nothing 
important  to  tell  you  and  thought  that  it  would  afford 
you  pleasure  if  I  gave  you  some  idea  of  my  opera.  As 
the  original  text  began  with  a  monologue,2  I  asked 
Herr  Stephanie  to  make  a  little  arietta  out  of  it — and 
then  to  put  in  a  duet  instead  of  making  the  two  chatter 
together  after  Osmin's  short  song.3  As  we  have  given  the 

1  Nohl,  p.  306,  in  a  note  to  this  undated  postscript,  of  which  he  declares 
he  used  the  autograph,  states  that  the  other  side  of  the  sheet  contained  a 
copy  in  Constanze  Weber's  handwriting  of  Constanze's  aria  "Ach,  ich  liebte, 
war  so  gliicklich". 

2  In  the  original  text  by  C.  F.  Bretzner.  See  p.  1123,  n.  3. 

3  It  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  part  of  Osmin,  which  in  Bretzner's  libretto 
is  negligible,  was  transformed  by  Mozart  in  collaboration  with  Stephanie  to 
the  towering  figure  in  the  "Entfuhrung".  Possibly  Mozart  was  encouraged 
to  do  this  as  he  was  composing  for  a  magnificent  singer. 


L.  426  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

part  of  Osmin  to  Herr  Fischer,  who  certainly  has  an 
excellent  bass  voice  (in  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  Arch 
bishop  told  me  that  he  sang  too  low  for  a  bass  and  that  I 
assured  him  that  he  would  sing  higher  next  time),  we 
must  take  advantage  of  it,  particularly  as  he  has  the 
whole  Viennese  public  on  his  side.  But  in  the  original 
libretto  Osmin  has  only  this  short  song  and  nothing  else 
to  sing,  except  in  the  trio  and  the  finale;  so  he  has 
been  given  an  aria  in  Act  I ,  and  he  is  to  have  another  in 
Act  II.  I  have  explained  to  Stephanie  the  words  I  require 
for  this  aria — indeed  I  had  finished  composing  most  of 
the  music  for  it  before  Stephanie  knew  anything  what 
ever  about  it.  I  am  enclosing  only  the  beginning  and  the 
end,  which  is  bound  to  have  a  good  effect.  Osmin's  rage 
is  rendered  comical  by  the  accompaniment  of  the  Turkish 
music.  In  working  out  the  aria  I  have  given  full  scope 
now  and  then  to  Fischer's  beautiful  deep  notes  (in  spite 
of  our  Salzburg  Midas).1  The  passage  "Drum  beim  Barte 
des  Propheten"  is  indeed  in  the  same  tempo,  but  with 
quick  notes;  but  as  Osmin's  rage  gradually  increases, 
there  comes  (just  when  the  aria  seems  to  be  at  an  end)  the 
allegro  assai,  which  is  in  a  totally  different  measure  and 
in  a  different  key;  this  is  bound  to  be  very  effective.  For 
just  as  a  man  in  such  a  towering  rage  oversteps  all  the 
bounds  of  order,  moderation  and  propriety  and  completely 
forgets  himself,  so  must  the  music  too  forget  itself.  But  as 
passions,  whether  violent  or  not,  must  never  be  expressed 
in  such  a  way  as  to  excite  disgust,  and  as  music,  even  in 
the  most  terrible  situations,  must  never  offend  the  ear, 
but  must  please  the  hearer,  or  in  other  words  must  never 
cease  to  be  music,  I  have  gone  from  F  (the  key  in  which 
the  aria  is  written),  not  into  a  remote  key,  but  into  a 
related  one,  not,  however,  into  its  nearest  relative  D 
minor,  but  into  the  more  remote  A  minor.  Let  me  now 

1  i.e.  the  Archbishop. 

1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  426 

turn  to  Belmonte's  aria  in  A  major,  "0  wie  angstlich,  o 
wie  feurig".  Would  you  like  to  know  how  I  have  ex 
pressed  it — and  even  indicated  his  throbbing  heart?  By 
the  two  violins  playing  octaves.  This  is  the  favourite  aria 
of  all  those  who  have  heard  it,  and  it  is  mine  also. -I  wrote 
it  expressly  to  suit  Adamberger's  voice.  You  feel  the 
trembling — the  faltering — you  see  how  his  throbbing 
breast  begins  to  swell;  this  I  have  expressed  by  a  cre 
scendo.  You  hear  the  whispering  and  the  sighing — which 
I  have  indicated  by  the  first  violins  with  mutes  and  a 
flute  playing  in  unison. 

The  Janissary  chorus  is,  as  such,  all  that  can  be  desired, 
that  is,  short,  lively  and  written  to  please  the  Viennese. 
I  have  sacrificed  Constanze's  aria  a  little  to  the  flexible 
throat  of  Mile  Cavalieri,  "Trennung  war  mein  banges 
Los  und  nun  schwimmt  mein  Aug'  in  Tranen".  I  have 
tried  to  express  her  feelings,  as  far  as  an  Italian  bravura 
aria  will  allow  it.  I  have  changed  the  "Hui'J  to  "schnell", 
so  it  now  runs  thus — "Doch  wie  schnell  schwand  meine 
Freude".  I  really  don't  know  what  our  German  poets  are 
thinking  of.  Even  if  they  do  not  understand  the  theatre, 
or  at  all  events  operas,  yet  they  should  not  make  their 
characters  talk  as  if  they  were  addressing  a  herd  of  swine. 
Hui,  sow! 

Now  for  the  trio  at  the  close  of  Act  I.  Pedrillo  has 
passed  off  his  master  as  an  architect — to  give  him  an 
opportunity  of  meeting  his  Constanze  in  the  garden. 
Bassa  Selim  has  taken  him  into  his  service.  Osmin,  the 
steward,  knows  nothing  of  this,  and  being  a  rude  churl 
and  a  sworn  foe  to  all  strangers,  is  impertinent  and  refuses 
to  let  them  into  the  garden.  It  opens  quite  abruptly — and 
because  the  words  lend  themselves  to  it,  I  have  made  it  a 
fairly  respectable  piece  of  real  three-part  writing.  Then 
the  major  key  begins  at  once  pianissimo — it  must  go 
very  quickly — and  wind  up  with  a  great  deal  of  noise, 


L.  426  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  i78i 

which  is  always  appropriate  at  the  end  of  an  act.  The 
more  noise  the  better,  and  the  shorter  the  better,  so  that 
the  audience  may  not  have  time  to  cool  down  with  their 

I  have  sent  you  only  fourteen  bars  of  the  ouverture, 
which  is  very  short  with  alternate  fortes  and  pianos,  the 
Turkish  music  always  coming  in  at  the  fortes.  The 
ouverture  modulates  through  different  keys;  and  I  doubt 
whether  anyone,  even  if  his  previous  night  has  been  a 
sleepless  one,  could  go  to  sleep  over  it.  Now  comes  the 
rub!  The  first  act  was  finished  more  than  three  weeks 
ago,  as  was  also  one  aria  in  Act  II  and  the  drunken 
duet *  (per  i  signori  viennesi)  which  consists  entirely 
of  my  Turkish  tattoo.  But  I  cannot  compose  any  more, 
because  the  whole  story  is  being  altered — and,  to  tell  the 
truth,  at  my  own  request.  At  the  beginning  of  Act  III 
there  is  a  charming  quintet  or  rather  finale,  but  I  should 
prefer  to  have  it  at  the  end  of  Act  II.2  In  order  to  make 
this  practicable,  great  changes  must  be  made,  in  fact  an 
entirely  new  plot  must  be  introduced — and  Stephanie  is 
up  to  the  eyes  in  other  work.  So  we  must  have  a  little 
patience.  Everyone  abuses  Stephanie.  It  may  be  that  in 
my  case  he  is  only  very  friendly  to  my  face.  But  after  all 
he  is  arranging  the  libretto  for  me — and,  what  is  more,  as 
I  want  it — exactly — and,  by  Heaven,  I  do  not  ask  any 
thing  more  of  him.  Well,  how  I  have  been  chattering  to 
you  about  my  opera!  But  I  cannot  help  it.  Please  send 
me  the  march3  which  I  mentioned  the  other  day.4  Gilow- 
sky  says  that  Daubrawaick  will  soon  be  here.  Fraulein 

1  The  duet  between  Pedrillo  and  Osmin,  "Vivat  Bacchus,  Bacchus  lebe". 

2  This  is  the  quartet  at  the  end  of  Act  II. 

3  Probably  K.  249,  written  in  1776  for  the  wedding  of  Elizabeth  Haffner 
to  F.  X.  Spath,  for  which  Mozart  also  composed   K.   250,  the   Haffner 

4  The  letter  in  which  Mozart  made  this  request  has  unfortunately  been 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  £.  427 

von  Aurnhammer  and  I  are  longing  to  have  the  two 
double  concertos.1  I  hope  we  shall  not  wait  as  vainly  as 
the  Jews  for  their  Messiah.  Well,  adieu.  Farewell.  I 
kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  with  all 
my  heart  my  dear  sister,  whose  health,  I  hope,  is  im 
proving,  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


(427)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

\Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum^  Salzburg] 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  6  tfoctobre,  1781 

I  have  so  far  always  received  your  letters  on  Mondays 
and  have  been  accustomed  to  reply  to  them  on  Wednes 
days;  but  the  other  day  I  did  not  receive  your  letter  until 
Wednesday  and,  what  is  more,  it  arrived  so  late  in  the 
afternoon  that  I  hadn't  time  to  write  to  you.  Meanwhile 
you  will  have  received  the  description  of  the  music  of  my 
opera.  The  day  after  I  got  your  letter  I  went  to  see  Herr 
von  Scharf  himself  at  the  Post  Office,  had  a  word  with 
him  and  gave  him  my  address,  so  that  he  should  send  me 
the  music  at  once.  For  I  simply  cannot  bring  myself 
to  walk  out  to  Leopoldstadt  or  spend  a  zwanziger2  to 
drive  out  there  just  to  please  young  Herr  von  Mayer. 
However,  he  has  not  yet  arrived.  Moreover,  Herr  von 
Scharf  too  knows  nothing  whatever  about  the  arrival  of 
his  father-in-law,  which  is  supposed  to  be  so  imminent. 
There  was  a  rumour  that  the  Archbishop  intended  to 
come  here  this  month  (with  a  numerous  suite,  too),  but 
people  are  now  contradicting  it.  As  for  Ceccarelli,  I  am 
quite  sure  that  he  will  be  appointed,  for  indeed  I  don't 
know  where  the  Archbishop  could  find  a  better  castrate 
for  the  money.  Perhaps  you  already  know  what  happened 

1  See  p.  1113,  n.  3.          2  i.e.  twenty  pfennigs,  about  twopence  halfpenny. 


L.  427  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

to  the  Alumni  who  were  travelling  to  Strassburg — on 
their  arrival  there?  Why,  they  were  actually  refused 
permission  to  pass  through  the  gates  of  the  town,  because 
they  looked  not  only  like  beggars  but  scamps.  Herr  von 
Aurnhammer  told  me  that  he  heard  this  from  the  cousin 
of  the  person  to  whom  they  had  an  introduction,  adding 
that  he  said  to  them:  "Well,  my  dear  young  men,  you  will 
have  to  stay  in  my  house  for  four  or  five  days,  so  that 
first  of  all  I  may  have  you  decently  dressed.  For  you 
cannot  go  out  as  you  are,  without  running  the  risk  of 
having  street-urchins  running  after  you  and  pelting  you 
with  mud."  A  nice  testimonial  to  His  Grace  the  Prince! 
I  must  now  carry  out  a  commission  and  put  a  question 
to  you,  exactly  as  it  was  put  to  me: — Who  were  the 
Counts  von  Klessheim?  And  what  has  become  of  them? 
Schmidt,  my  cousin's  x  poor,  unfortunate  adorateur,  who 
is  now  in  Trattner's  2  bookshop,  begged  me  most  urgently 
to  obtain  some  information  for  him  on  the  point. 

Well,  I  am  beginning  to  lose  patience  at  not  being  able 
to  go  on  writing  my  opera.  True,  I  am  composing  other 
things  in  the  meantime — yet — all  my  enthusiasm  is  for 
my  opera,  and  what  would  at  other  times  require  fourteen 
days  to  write  I  could  now  do  in  four.  I  composed  in  one 
day  Adamberger's  aria  in  A,  Cavalieri's  in  Bb  and  the 
trio,  arid  copied  them  out  in  a  day  and  a  half.3  At  the 
same  time  nothing  would  be  gained  if  the  whole  opera 

1  Maria  Anna  Thekla  Mozart,  the  "Basle". 

2  Johann  Thomas  Edler  von  Trattner  (1717-1798)  kept  a  printing  busi 
ness  and  a  bookshop  in  Vienna.  His  second  wife,  Therese  Edle  von  Trattner 
(1758-1793),  was  an  excellent  clavierist.  She  became  a  pupil  and  an  intimate 
friend  of  Mozart,  who  dedicated  to  her  his  clavier  sonata  in  C  minor,  K.  457, 
written  in  1784,  and  his  clavier  Fantasia  in  the  same  key,  K.  475,  written 
in   1785.   Nottebohm,  p.    131,   quotes  a  statement   of  Constanze  Mozart 
according  to  which  Mozart  is  supposed  to  have  written  to  Frau  von  Trattner 
"two  interesting  letters  about  music".  Niemetschek,  p.  59,  mentions  one 
letter.  There  is  no  trace  of  these  valuable  documents. 

*  All  in  Act  L 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  427 

were  finished,  for  it  would  have  to  lie  there  until  Gluck's 
two  operas  :  were  ready — and  there  is  still  an  enormous 
amount  in  them  which  the  singers  have  to  study.  More 
over,  Umlauf  has  been  obliged  to  wait  with  his  opera,2 
which  is  ready  and  which  took  him  a  whole  year  to  write. 
But  (between  ourselves)  you  must  not  believe  that  the 
opera  is  any  good,  just  because  it  took  him  a  whole  year. 
I  should  have  thought  (again  between  ourselves)  that  it 
was  the  work  of  fourteen  or  fifteen  days,  particularly  as 
the  fellow  must  have  learnt  so  many  operas  by  heart,  and 
all  he  had  to  do  was  to  sit  down — and  that  is  precisely 
how  he  composed  it — you  notice  it  at  once  when  you  hear 
it!  That  reminds  me,  I  must  tell  you  that  he  invited  me 
to  his  house  in  the  most  polite  manner  (c'est-a-dire>  in  his 
own  manner)  that  I  might  hear  his  opera,  adding:  "You 
must  not  think  that  it  is  worth  your  while  to  hear  it — I 
have  not  got  as  far  as  you  have,  but  indeed  I  do  my 
best".  I  heard  afterwards  that  he  said:  "It's  quite  certain 
that  Mozart  has  a  devil  in  his  head,  his  limbs  and  his 
fingers — why,  he  played  off  my  opera   (which   I   have 
written  out  so  disgracefully  that  I   myself  can  hardly 
read  it)  as  if  he  had  composed  it  himself.  Well,  adieu. 
I  hope  that  my  dear  sister,  whom  I  embrace  with  all  my 
heart,  will  gradually  recover.  And  you,  my  dear  father 
— get  some  cart-grease,  wrap  it  in  a  bit  of  paper  and  wear 
it  on  your  chest.  Take  the  bone  of  a  leg  of  veal  and  wrap 
it  up  in  paper  with  a  kreutzer's  worth  of  leopard's  bane 
and  carry  it  in  your  pocket.  I  am  sure  that  this  will 
cure  you.  Farewell.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times 
and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


1  "Iphigenie  in  Tauris"  and  "Alceste". 
2  Probably  "Das  Irrlicht".  See  p.  1124,  0.3. 


L.  428  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

(428)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

\Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 
MON   TRES   CHER   PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  13  d'octobre,  1781 

Fraulein  von  Aurnhammer  and  I  thank  you  for  the 
concertos.1  M.  Marchall  brought  young  Herr  von  Mayer 
to  my  room  yesterday  morning  and  in  the  afternoon  I 
drove  out  and  fetched  my  things.  M.  Marchall  has  hopes 
of  becoming  tutor  in  the  family  of  Count  Jean  Esterhazy; 
Count  Cobenzl  has  given  him  a  written  recommendation 
to  the  Count.  He  said  to  me:  "J'ai  donne  une  lettre  a 
Monsieur  votre  protege",  and  when  he  saw  Marchall 
again,  he  said  to  him:  "D'abord  que  j'aurai  de  reponse, 
je  le  dirai  a  M.  Mozart,  votre  protecteur". 

Now  as  to  the  libretto  of  the  opera.  You  are  quite  right 
so  far  as  Stephanie's  work  is  concerned.  Still,  the  poetry 
is  perfectly  in  keeping  with  the  character  of  stupid,  surly, 
malicious  Osmin.  I  am  well  aware  that  the  verse  is  not 
of  the  best,  but  it  fitted  in  and  it  agreed  so  well  with  the 
musical  ideas  which  already  Were  buzzing  in  my  head, 
that  it  could  not  fail  to  please  me;  and  I  would  like  to 
wager  that  when  it  is  performed,  no  deficiencies  will  be 
found.  As  for  the  poetry  which  was  there  originally,  I 
really  have  nothing  to  say  against  it.  Belmonte's  aria  "O 
wie  angstlich"  could  hardly  be  better  written  for  music. 
Except  for  "Hui"  and  "Kummer  ruht  in  meinem 
Schoss"  (for  sorrow — cannot  rest),  the  aria  too  is  not  bad, 
particularly  the  first  part.  Besides,  I  should  say  that  in  an 
opera  the  poetry  must  be  altogether  the  obedient  daughter 
of  the  music.  Why  do  Italian  comic  operas  please  every 
where — in  spite  of  their  miserable  libretti — even  in 
Paris,  where  I  myself  witnessed  their  success?  Just  be 
cause  there  the  music  reigns  supreme  and  when  one  listens 

1  See  p.  1113,  n.  3. 

1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z.  428 

to  it  all  else  is  forgotten.  Why,  an  opera  is  sure  of  success 
when  the  plot  is  well  worked  out,  the  words  written  solely 
for  the  music  and  not  shoved  in  here  and  there  to  suit 
some  miserable  rhyme  (which,  God  knows,  never  en 
hances  the  value  of  any  theatrical  performance,  be  it 
what  it  may,  but  rather  detracts  from  it) — I  mean,  words 
or  even  entire  verses  which  ruin  the  composer's  whole 
idea.  Verses  are  indeed  the  most  indispensable  element 
for  music — but  rhymes — solely  for  the  sake  of  rhyming — 
the  most  detrimental.  Those  high  and  mighty  people  who 
set  to  work  in  this  pedantic  fashion  will  always  come  to 
grief,  both  they  and  their  music.  The  best  thing  of  all  is 
when  a  good  composer,  who  understands  the  stage  and  is 
talented  enough  to  make  sound  suggestions,  meets  an  able 
poet,  that  true  phoenix;  in  that  case  no  fears  need  be 
entertained  as  to  the  applause  even  of  the  ignorant.  Poets 
almost  remind  me  of  trumpeters  with  their  professional 
tricks!  If  we  Composers  were  always  to  stick  so  faithfully 
to  our  rules  (which  were  very  good  at  a  time  when  nqjone 
knew  Better),  we  should  be  concocting  music  as  unpalat 
able  as  their  libretti. 

"Well,  I  think  I  have  chattered  enough  nonsense  to 
you;  so  I  must  now  enquire  about  what  interests  me 
most  of  all,  and  that  is,  your  health,  my  most  beloved 
father!  In  my  last  letter  I  suggested  two  remedies 
for  giddiness,  which,  if  you  do  not  know  them,  you 
will  probably  not  think  any  good.  But  I  have  been 
assured  that  they  would  certainly  have  a  splendid  effect; 
and  the  pleasure  of  thinking  that  you  might  recover  made 
me  believe  this  assurance  so  entirely  that  I  could  not  re 
frain  from  suggesting  them  with  my  heart's  wishes  and 
with  the  sincere  desire  that  you  may  not  need  them — but 
that  if  you  do  use  them,  you  will  recover  completely.  I 
trust  that  my  sister  is  improving  daily.  I  kiss  her  with  all 
my  heart  and,  my  dearest,  most  beloved  father,  I  kiss 

Z.  429  MOZART  TO  HIS  COUSIN  1781 

your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  am  ever  your  most 

obedient  son 


As  soon  as  I  receive  the  watch,  I  shall  return  yours. 

(429)  Mozart  to  his  Cousin,  Maria  Anna  Thekla 
Mozart,  Augsburg 

[From  Ludwig  Nohl,  Mozarts  Brief e^  2nd  edition,  p.  3io/.] 

MA  TRES  CHERE  COUSINEJ  VlENNE,  ce  21  d'octobre,  1781  * 
I  had  been  hungering  all  this  long  time  for  a  letter 
from  you,  dearest  cousin — wondering  what  it  would  be 
like — and  it  proved  to  be  exactly  what  I  had  imagined. 
For  after  once  letting  three  months  elapse,  I  should  never 
have  written  again — even  if  the  executioner  had  stood 
behind  me  with  his  naked  sword.  For  I  should  not  have 
known  how,  when,  where,  why  and  what?  I  simply  had 
to  wait  for  your  letter. 

As  you  doubtless  know,  several  important  things  have 
happened  to  me  in  the  meantime,  in  connection  with 
which  I  have  had  to  do  a  good  deal  of  thinking  and  have 
had  a  great  amount  of  vexation,  worry,  trouble  and  anxiety, 
which  indeed  may  serve  to  excuse  my  long  silence.  As  for 
all  the  other  things,  let  me  tell  you  that  the  gossip  which 
people  have  been  so  kind  as  to  circulate  about  me,  is 
partly  true  and  partly  false.  That  is  all  I  can  say  at  the 
moment.  But  let  me  add,  in  order  to  set  your  mind  at  rest, 
that  I  never  do  anything  without  a  reason — and,  what  is 
more,  without  a  well-founded  reason.  If  you  had  shown 
more  confidence  and  friendship  and  had  applied  to  me 
direct  (and  not  to  others — and  what  is  more  ...!).  But 

1  It  is  doubtful  whether  this  date  is  correct.  See  p.  1154,  n.  2. 

1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  COUSIN  Z.  429 

silence.  If  you  had  addressed  yourself  direct  to  me,  you 
would  certainly  have  heard  more  than  everyone  else — and, 
possibly,  more  than — I  myself!  But — Well,  I  was  nearly 
forgetting.  Be  so  kind,  dearest,  most  beloved  cousin,  as  to 
deliver  immediately,  in  person,  the  enclosed  letter  to  Herr 
Stein,1  and  ask  him  to  answer  it  at  once  or  at  any  rate  to 
tell  you  what  you  should  write  to  me  about  it.  For  I  hope 
that  our  correspondence,  dear  little  cousin,  will  now  start 
off  again!  That  is,  if  our  letters  do  not  cost  you  too  much! 
If,  as  I  hope,  you  honour  me  with  a  reply,  be  so  gracious 
as  to  address  your  letter  as  you  did  the  other  day,  namely, 
Auf  dem  Peter,  im  Auge  Gottes,  2nd  floor.  True,  I  no 
longer  live  there,  but  the  address  is  so  well  known  at  the 
post  office,  that  when  a  letter  is  addressed  to  my  new 
lodging,  it  is  held  up  for  a  day  or  two. 

Now  farewell,  dearest,  most  beloved  cousin!  Keep  me 
in  your  friendship  which  is  so  precious  to  me.  Be  com 
pletely  assured  of  my  friendship.  I  am  ever,  ma  tres  chere 
cousine,  your  most  sincere  cousin  and  friend, 


My  greetings  to  your  father  and  mother  and  also  to 
Fraulein  Juliana. 

Mme2  Weber  and  her  three  daughters3  send  their  greet 
ings  to  you — and  she  asks  you  to  do  her  a  favour.  Herr 
Bartholomei,  the  bookseller  (whom  no  doubt  you  know), 
asked  for  the  portrait  of  Aloysia,  who  is  now  Mme  Lange, 
in  order  to  have  an  engraving  made.  Well,  it  will  be  two 
years  next  March  and  we  have  heard  nothing  either  about 
the  portrait  or  about  the  payment  for  it — and  its  return 
was  promised  for  last  March.  So  Mme  Weber  requests 

1  There  is  no  trace  of  this  letter. 

2  The  autograph  of  this  portion  of  the  postscript  is  in  the  Hatzfeld  Collec 
tion,  Paris,  and  was  published  in  Le  Men£strel,  August  i6th,  1932,  p.  355. 

3  Josefa,  Constanze  and  Sophie. 

VOL.  Ill  IIS3  H 

Z.  430  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

you  to  make  a  few  enquiries,  as  she  would  like  to  know 
what  she  ought  to  do.  I  should  add  that  it  is  the  same 
portrait  which  Baron  Gotz  had  in  Munich.  I  think  that 
you  too  have  seen  it.  So  it  is  very  bad  of  him  to  have 
given  it  into  strange  hands  without  saying  a  word  about 
it.  Adieu,  ma  chere,  write  to  me  soon. 

(430)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  24  d'octobre,  1781 

I  have  had  no  letter  from  you  to-day,  most  beloved 
father — and  my  only  consolation  is  the  thought  that 
probably  you  have  had  no  time  to  write.  Many  thanks 
for  the  two  divertimenti  *  and  the  cuffs,  which  I  have 
received  safely.  I  was  not  at  home  when  young  Daubra- 
waick  called,  and  he  would  not  entrust  the  watch  to  the 
people  in  the  house.  I  shall  fetch  it  myself  some  day  soon 
and  at  the  same  time  give  him  yours  in  exchange.  I  hear 
that  he  is  going  to  remain  here  for  two  months,  but  this 
time  he  is  not  lodging  in  Trattner's  house.  I  can't  write 
very  much  to  you  at  the  moment,  as  I  have  still  to  write 
to  my  cousin  and  to  Herr  Stein  at  Augsburg; 2  for  Count 
Czernin  has  asked  me  to  order  a  pianoforte  for  his  wife. 
A  propos,  do  you  know  that  Count  Czernin  ...  I  wish 
...  I  should  not  like  .  .  .3  The  first  performance  of 
"Iphigenie"  4  took  place  yesterday,  but  I  wasn't  there, 

1  See  p.  1115,  n,  2. 

2  Mozart  obviously  refers  to  Letter  429,  in  which  he  enclosed  a  letter  for 
Herr  Stein.  From  Mozart's  remark  about  the  performance  of  Gluck's  opera 
which  took  place  on  October  23rd,  the  date  of  Letter  430  is  correct.  Hence 
there  must  be  some  mistake  about  the  date  of  Letter  429. 

3  In  the  first  case  two  lines,  in  the  second  and  third  cases  several  words 
have  been  blotted  out,  probably  by  Nissen. 

4  Gluck's  "Iphigenie  in  Tauris". 



for  whoever  wanted  to  get  a  seat  in  the  parterre  had  to 
be  at  the  theatre  by  four  o'clock,  so  I  preferred  to  stay 
away.  I  tried  to  get  a  reserved  seat  in  the  third  circle  six 
days  beforehand,  but  they  were  all  gone.  However,  I  was 
at  nearly  all  the  rehearsals.  Well,  I  must  close.  I  trust 
that  both  you,  my  most  beloved  father,  and  my  dear 
sister  are  in  good  health.  Praise  and  thanks  be  to  God,  I 
am  too.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace 
my  sister  with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever,  mon  tres  cher 
pere,  your  most  obedient  son 


(431)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VIENNE,  ce  3  de  9*",  1781 

Please  forgive  me  for  not  having  acknowledged  by 
the  last  post  the  receipt  of  the  cadenzas,1  for  which  I 
thank  you  most  submissively.  It  happened  to  be  my 
name-day,2  so  I  performed  my  devotions  in  the  morning 
and,  just  as  I  was  going  to  write  to  you,  a  whole  crowd 
of  congratulating  friends  literally  besieged  me.  At 
twelve  o'clock  I  drove  out  to  Baroness  Waldstadten 3  at 
Leopoldstadt,  where  I  spent  my  name-day.  At  eleven 
o'clock  at  night  I  was  treated  to  a  serenade  performed  by 
two  clarinets,  two  horns  and  two  bassoons — and  that  too 
of  my  own  composition4 — for  I  wrote  it  for  St.  Theresa's 

1  Probably  the  cadenzas  for  K.  242,  Mozart's  concerto  for  three  claviers, 
which  he  himself  had  arranged  for  two. 

2  October  3ist. 

3  Martha  Elizabeth,  Baroness  von  Waldstadten,  nle  von  Schafer  (1744- 
1811).  She  was  separated  from  her  husband  and  lived  at  Leopoldstadt,  no. 
360.  She  was  an  excellent  performer  on  the  clavier  and  became  a  friend  and 
patroness  of  Mozart. 

4  K.  375,  a  serenade  composed  in  October  1781. 


L.  431  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

Day,1  for  Frau  von  HickeFs  sister,  or  rather  the  sister-in- 
law  of  Herr  von  Hickel,  court  painter,2  at  whose  house  it 
was  performed  for  the  first  time.  The  six  gentlemen  who 
executed  it  are  poor  beggars  who,  however,  play  quite 
well  together,  particularly  the  first  clarinet  and  the  two 
horns.  But  the  chief  reason  why  I  composed  it  was  in 
order  to  let  Herr  von  Strack,  who  goes  there  every  day, 
hear  something  of  my  composition;  so  I  wrote  it  rather 
carefully.  It  has  won  great  applause  too  and  on  St. 
Theresa's  Night  it  was  performed  in  three  different 
places;  for  as  soon  as  they  finished  playing  it  in  one 
place,  they  were  taken  off  somewhere  else  and  paid  to 
play  it.  Well,  these  musicians  asked  that  the  street  door 
might  be  opened  and,  placing  themselves  in  the  centre  of 
the  courtyard,  surprised  me,  just  as  I  was  about  to  un 
dress,  in  the  most  pleasant  fashion  imaginable  with  the 
first  chord  in  E^.  I  shall  add  the  second  piano  part  to  the 
cadenzas 3  and  return  them  to  you. 

It  would  be  a  very  good  thing  if  my  opera  were  ready, 
for  Umlauf  cannot  produce  his  at  present,  because  both 
Mme  Weiss  and  Mile  Schindler  are  ill.  I  must  go  off  to 
Stephanie  at  once,  as  he  has  sent  word  at  last  that  he  has 
something  ready  for  me. 

I  have  no  news  whatever  to  give  you,  for  small  matters 
are  not  likely  to  interest  you  and  important  ones  you 
surely  know  quite  as  well  as  we  Viennese.  There  is  now 
a  Dauphin4 — a  small  thing,  I  admit,  until  it  becomes  a 
big  one — I  am  telling  you  this  so  that  the  Due  d'  Artois 
may  not  have  all  the  credit  of  a  bon  mot.  For  when 

1  October  I5th. 

2  Joseph'  Hickel  (1736-1807)  studied  in  Vienna  and  in  1768  was  sent  to 
Italy  by  the  Empress  Maria  Theresa.  On  his  return  he  did  a  portrait  of 
Joseph  II  and  was  appointed  in  1772  court  painter  to  the  Emperor. 

3  See  p.  1155,  n.  i. 

4  Louis  Joseph  Xavier  Francois,  born  on  October  22nd,  1781.  He  died  on 
June  4th,  1789. 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  432 

during  her  pregnancy  the  Queen  complained  one  day 
that  the  Dauphin  was  causing  her  great  inconvenience 
and  said:  "II  me  donne  de  grands  coups  de  pied  au 
ventre",  the  Duke  replied:  "O  Madame,  laissez-le  venir 
dehors;  qu'il  me  donnera  de  grands  coups  de  pied  au 
cul".  Well,  the  day  the  news  arrived  all  the  theatres  and 
shows  in  Vienna  were  free. 

It  is  striking  three,  so  I  must  hurry  off  to  Stephanie, 
or  I  may  miss  him  and  then  have  to  wait  again.  I  hope 
that  every  day  you  will  feel  better  and  my  dear  sister  too, 
whom  I  embrace  with  all  my  heart.  Farewell.  I  kiss  your 
hands  a  thousand  times  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient 


(432)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
MON    TRES    CHER    ?ERE!  VlENNE,  ce  IO  de  </re,  1 781 

I  thank  you  a  thousand  times  for  your  congratula 
tions  on  my  name-day,  and  send  you  mine  for  St. 
Leopold's  Day.1  Dearest,  most  beloved  father!  I  wish  you 
every  imaginable  good  that  one  can  possibly  wish.  Nay 
rather,  I  wish  nothing  for  you,  but  everything  for  myself. 
So  I  wish  for  my  own  sake  that  you  may  continue  to 
enjoy  good  health,  and  that  you  may  live  many,  many 
years  for  my  happiness  and  my  infinite  pleasure.  I  ^yish  for 
my  own  sake  that  every  thing  I  do  and  undertake  may  be  in 
accordance  with  your  desire  and  pleasure,  or  rather  that 
I  may  never  do  anything  which  may  not  cause  you  the 
very  greatest  joy.  I  hope  it  may  be  so,  for  whatever  con 
tributes  to  your  son's  happiness  must  naturally  be  agree 
able  to  you. 

Herr  von  Aurnhammer,  in  whose  house  I  am  writing, 

1  November  I5th. 

Z.  432  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

his  wife  and  the  two  young  ladies  also  send  you  their 

At  the  play  the  other  day  I  was  talking  to  Gschwendner, 
who  told  me  that  Frau  Spath1  has  died.  I  hope  that  I 
may  perhaps  hear  from  you  to-morrow  whether  this  news 
is  true  or  false. 

The  Duke  of  Wurtemberg 2  is  expected  to-day,  so 
to-morrow  there  is  to  be  a  Redoute  and  on  the  25th  there 
is  to  be  a  public  Redoute  at  Schonbrunn.  But  people 
are  extremely  embarrassed  about  this,  for,  according  to 
general  report,  the  Grand  Duke  will  only  stay  ten  days, 
and  the  festival  of  St.  Catherine,  which  the  ball  is  to 
celebrate,  falls  according  to  the  Greek  calendar  on 
December  6th.  So  no  one  knows  yet  what  will  be  done. 
Now  for  another  comical  tale.  The  Emperor  commanded 
each  of  the  actors  to  select  a  part  in  which  to  appear  before 
the  Grand  Duke.  Lange 3  applied  for  that  of  Hamlet,  but 
Count  Rosenberg,  who  does  not  like  Lange,  said  that  this 
could  not  be,  because  Brockmann4  had  been  playing  that 
part  for  ages.  When  this  was  repeated  to  Brockmann,  he 
went  to  Rosenberg  and  told  him  that  he  could  not  appear 
in  the  part  and  that  the  play  could  not  be  performed  at  all. 
And  why?  Because  the  Grand  Duke  himself  was  Hamlet* 
The  Emperor  (it  is  said — it  is  said — it  is  said)  on  hearing 
this  sent  Brockmann  fifty  ducats.. Now  I  have  no  more 

1  Probably  Elise  Haffner,  daughter  of  Sigmund  Haffner,  merchant  and 
burgomaster  of  Salzburg,  for  whose  marriage  to  F.  X.  Spath,  July  22nd, 
1776,  Mozart  composed  a  march,  K.  249,  and  a  serenade,  K.  250. 

2  The  visitors  were  Duke  Karl  Eugen  of  Wurtemberg  and  his  wife,  his 
daughter  Princess  Elizabeth,  who  was  betrothed  to  the  Archduke  Francis, 
and  his  son  Prince  Ferdinand.  They  arrived  in  Vienna  on  November  nth. 

3  Josef  Lange,  who  had  married  as  his  second  wife  Aloysia  Weber.  See 
p.  1089,  n.  2. 

4  Hieronymus  Brockmann,  a  popular  actor. 

5  A  popular  comparison  at  the  time.  After  the  death  of  his  father,  Peter  III, 
and  the  establishment  of  his  mother,  Catherine,  as  sole  ruler  of  Russia,  the 
Grand  Duke  Paul,  feeling  that  his  rights  had  been  usurped  and  that  he  had 
no  part  to  play  in  the  government  of  his  country,  fell  into  a  state  of  melancholy. 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  433 

news.  I  thank  you  again  a  thousand  times  and  renew  my 
wishes.  I  shall  write  to  my  sister  very  soon.  I  kiss  your 
hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  my  dear  sister  with 
all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


P.S. — My  thanks  and  greetings  to  all  who  sent  me  their 
congratulations.  A  propos.  Is  it  true  that  the  Elector  of 
Bavaria  is  dying? l  Adieu. 

(433)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 
MON    TRES    CHER    PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  17  de  Nov*",   1 78 1 

I  have  received  your  letter  of  the  6th.  In  regard  to 
Ceccarelli,  it  is  quite  impossible  even  for  a  single  night; 
for  I  have  only  one  room,  which  is  not  large  and  is  so 
crammed  already  with  my  wardrobe,  table  and  clavier 
that  really  I  do  not  know  where  I  could  put  another  bed — 
and  as  for  sleeping  in  one  bed — that  I  shall  only  do  with 
my  future  wife.  But  I  shall  look  about  for  as  cheap  a 
lodging  as  possible,  provided  I  know  precisely  when  he  is 
to  arrive.  I  have  not  seen  Countess  Schonborn  at  all  this 
time.  I  had  not  the  heart  to  call  and  I  still  feel  just  the 
same.  I  know  her  through  and  through.  She  would  most 
certainly  say  something  which  I  should  probably  not 
swallow  without  retorting,  and  it  is  always  better  to  avoid 
such  incidents.  In  any  case  she  knows  that  I  am  here;  and 
if  she  wants  to  see  me,  she  can  send  for  me.  Czernin  could 
not  get  the  hang  of  the  Molk  affair  and  asked  him  at  a 
public  dinner  whether  he  had  any  .news  of  his  brother,  the 
Court  Councillor?  Molk  was  taken  aback  and  could  not 

1  The  Elector  of  Bavaria  lived  until  1799. 

Z.  433  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

reply.  I  would  certainly  have  given  him  some  answer. 
He  was  corrupted  in  a  house  which  you  frequented  a 
great  deal.1  I  shall  look  up  the  Kletzl  family  as  soon  as 
possible.  Well,  I  have  at  last  got  something  to  work  at 
for  my  opera.  Indeed,  if  we  were  always  to  trust  and 
believe  tale-bearers,  how  often  should  we  injure  ourselves! 
I  simply  cannot  tell  you  how  people  abused  Stephanie 
junior  to  me.  I  really  became  quite  uneasy  about  him,  and 
if  I  had  acted  as  I  was  advised,  I  should  have  transformed 
a  good  friend  into  an  enemy  who  might  have  done  me  a 
great  deal  of  harm;  and  all  this  without  any  just  cause. 
Yesterday  at  three  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  the  Arch 
duke  Maximilian2  sent  for  me.  When  I  went  in,  he  was 
standing  near  the  stove  in  the  first  room  and  was  waiting 
for  me.  He  came  up  to  me  at  once  and  asked  me  if  I  had 
anything  particular  to  do  that  day.  I  replied:  "  Nothing 
whatever,  your  Royal  Highness;  and  if  I  had,  I  should 
still  consider  it  a  favour  to  be  allowed  to  wait  on  your 
Royal  Highness".  "No,  no/'  he  said,  "I  refuse  to  incon 
venience  anyone/'  He  then  told  me  that  he  was  intending 
to  give  a  concert  that  very  evening  to  the  visitors  from 
Wurtemberg3  and  suggested  that   I   should  play  and 
accompany  the  arias,  adding  that  I  was  to  come  back  at 
six  o'clock  when  all  the  guests  would  be  assembled.  So  I 
played  there  yesterday.  When  God  gives  a  man  a  sacred 
office,  He  generally  gives  him  understanding;  and  so  it  is, 
I  trust,  in  the  case  of  the  (Archduke.)  But  before  he 
became  a  priest,  he  was  far  more  witty  and  intelligent  and 
talked  less,  but  more  sensibly.  You  should  see  him  now! 
(Stupidity)  oozes  out  of  his  eyes.  He  talks  and  holds  forth 
incessantly  and  always  in  falsetto — and  he  has  started  a 

1  This  obscure  passage  is  probably  connected  with  the  passages  in  Letter 
430  which  have  been  obliterated. 

2  The  Archduke  Maximilian  (1756-1801)  was  the  Emperor's  youngest 
brother.  He  was  Archbishop  of  Cologne. 

3  See  p.  1158,  n.  2. 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  434 

goitre.  In  short,  the  fellow  seems  to  have  changed  com 
pletely.  The  Duke  of  Wurtemberg,  however,  is  a  charming 
person  and  so  are  the  Duchess  and  the  Princess.  But  the 
Prince,  who  is  eighteen,  is  a  regular  stick  and  an  out-and- 
out  calf. 

Well,  I  must  close.  Farewell  and  be  as  cheerful  as 
possible!  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace 
my  dear  sister  with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your  most 
obedient  son 


(434)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
MON    TRfeS    CHER    PERE!  VlENNE,  C6  24  Nov*"t   1781 

I  happened  to  be  at  Aurnhammer's  concert  yester 
day,  when  Ceccarelli  brought  your  letter  to  my  lodging. 
So,  as  he  did  not  find  me  in,  he  left  it  with  the  Webers, 
who  at  once  sent  it  on  to  me.  At  the  concert  there  were 
Countess  Thun  (whom  I  had  invited),  Baron  van  Swieten, 
Baron  Godenus,  the  rich  converted  Jew  Wetzlar,1  Count 
Firmian,  Herr  von  Daubrawaick  and  his  son.  We  played 
the  concerto  a  due2  and  a  sonata  for  two  claviers,3  which 
I  had  composed  expressly  for  the  occasion  and  which  was 
a  great  success.  I  shall  send  you  this  sonata  by  Herr  von 
Daubrawaick,  who  said  he  would  be  proud  to  have  it  lying 
in  his  trunk.  The  son  told  me  this  and,  mark  you,  he  is  a 
native  of  Salzburg,  The  father,  however,  when  he  was 
leaving,  said  aloud  to  me:  "I  am  proud  of  being  your 

1  Baron  Raimund  Wetzlar  von  Plankenstern  (1752-1810).  Mozart  and 
his  wife  occupied  the  third  floor  of  his  house  at  the  Hohe  Briicke  412  (now 
no.  17)  from  December  1782  until  March  1783.  He  was  godfather  to  their 
first  child,  Raimund  Leopold,  and  appears  to  have  helped  them  financially. 

2  K.  365,  concerto  in  E^for  two  claviers,  composed  in  1779. 

3  K.  448,  sonata  in  D  major  for  two  claviers. 

L.  434  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

countryman.  You  are  doing  Salzburg  great  credit.  I  hope 
the  times  will  change  so  that  we  shall  have  you  back  again, 
and  then  most  certainly  we  shall  not  let  you  go."  My 
reply  was:  "My  own  country  will  always  have  the  first 
claim  upon  me".  I  have  seen  Herr  Gschwendner  once  at 
the  theatre  and  once  at  the  Redoute.  As  soon  as  I  meet 
him  again,  I  shall  ask  him  when  he  is  leaving.  Kersch- 
baumer,  the  king  of  the  Moors,  is  also  in  Vienna;  and 
when  I  went  to  see  Mme  Contrarini  (who  is  living  in  this 
house  and  also  on  the  third  floor),  in  order  to  borrow  a 
domino  from  her,  who  should  walk  in  but  Freysauf  *  and 
Atzwanger.2  One  damned  Salzburger  after  another! 

The  Grand  Duke,3  the  big  noise,  has  arrived.  To 
morrow  "Alceste"  4  is  to  be  given  (in  Italian)  at  Schon- 
brunn,  followed  by  a  free  Redoute.  I  have  been  looking 
about  for  Russian  popular  songs,  so  as  to  be  able  to  play 
variations  on  them.5 

My  sonatas  6  have  been  published  and  I  shall  send 
them  to  you  as  soon  as  I  get  a  chance. 

No  doubt  Ceccarelli  will  want  to  give  a  concert  with 
me.  But  he  won't  succeed,  for  I  don't  care  about  going 
shares  with  people.  All  that  I  can  do,  as  I  intend  to  give 
a  concert  in  Lent,  is  to  let  him  sing  at  it  and  then  to  play 
for  him  gratis  at  his  own. 

Well,  I  must  close,  for  I  must  be  off  to  Frau  von 
Trattner.7  Some  time  during  the  next  few  days  I  shall 
reply  to  my  dear  sister,  whom  I  embrace  with  all  my  heart. 

1  Anton  Freysauf,  who  with  his  brother  Franz  kept  a  shop  in  the  Juden- 

2  Probably  a  son  of  Raimund  Felix  Atzwanger  (1726-1804),  a  wealthy 
grocer  and  town  councillor  of  Salzburg. 

3  The  Grand  Duke  Paul  Petrovitch  of  Russia. 

4  Gluck's  "Alceste"  was  not  performed  until  December  3rd. 

5  There  is  no  trace  of  these  compositions,  if  Mozart  ever  wrote  them  down. 

6  The  six  violin  and  clavier  sonatas,  K.  296  and  376-380.  They  were  dedi 
cated  to  Mozart's  pupil,  Josephine  Aurnhammer. 

7  See  p.  1148,  n.  2. 


ij8i  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  435 

Dearest,  most  beloved  father,  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand 
times  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


(435)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
MON    TRES    CHER    PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  5  de  Dec*",   1781 

I  have  had  no  letter  from  you  to-day,  so  I  shall  send 
you  all  the  news  I  have  heard,  which  -is,  indeed,  little 
enough  and  most  of  it  made  up.  That  is  just  the  reason 
why  I  never  send  you  any,  because  I  am  afraid  of  dis 
gracing  myself.  For  example,  General  Laudon  was 
positively  dead — and  is  now  risen  again,  fortunately  for 
the  house  of  Austria!  *  The  Grand  Duke  is  to  remain  here 
until  the  New  Year  and  the  Emperor  is  wondering  how 
he  is  going  to  entertain  him  for  such  a  long  time.  But  to 
avoid  racking  his  brains  too  much — he  is  not  entertaining 
him  at  all.  It  is  quite  enough,  he  thinks,  if  he  looks  after 
(the  Grand  Duchess,)  and  for  this  <he  himself  suffices.) 
There  was  horrible  confusion  at  the  Schonbrunn  ball.  As 
the  admirable  arrangements  made  it  perfectly  easy  to 
foresee  what  would  happen,  Herr  Ego  did  not  put  in  an 
appearance,  for  he  is  no  lover  of  crushes,  digs  in  the  ribs 
and  blows,  even  if  they  happen  to  be  (Imperial)  ones! 
Strobel,  the  Court  messenger,  had  to  distribute  the  tickets, 
and  three  thousand  people  were  expected.  It  was  publicly 
announced  that  everyone  could  be  entered  on  the  list  by 
applying  to  Strobel.  So  they  all  went,  and  Strobel  took 
down  their  names,  and  all  they  had  to  do  was  to  send  for 
their  tickets.  A  few  very  eminent  persons  had  theirs  sent 
to  their  houses,  this  commission  being  entrusted  to  any 
scamp  who  chanced  to  be  loitering  about.  Well,  it 

1  Laudon  lived  until  1790.  He  had  been  in  poor  health  for  some  time. 


L.  435  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

happened  that  a  fellow  asked  someone  he  met  on  the  stairs 

whether  his  name  was  so-and-so,  and  for  a  joke  he  said  it 

was  and  thus  secured  the  ticket.  I  know  of  two  families  who 

owing  to  this  lack  of  organisation  got  no  tickets.  They 

were  on  the  list,  but  when  they  sent  for  their  tickets, 

Strobel  replied  that  he  had  despatched  them  long  ago.  In 

this  way  the  ball  was  full  of  friseurs  and  housemaids. 

But  now  for  the  most  amusing  part  of  the  story,  which  has 

greatly  incensed  (the  nobility.   The  Emperor)  walked 

about  the  whole  time  with  (the  Grand  Duchess)  on  his 

arm.  The  nobility  had  arranged  two  sets  of  contredanses 

— Romans  and  Tartars.  Into  one  of  these  sets  the  Viennese 

mob,  who  are  never  particularly  civil,  pushed  themselves 

so  roughly  that  they  forced  (the  Grand  Duchess  to  let  go) 

the  (Emperor's)  arm,  and  shoved  her  forward  among  the 

dancers.  (The  Emperor)  began  to  stamp  furiously,  cursed 

like  a  lazzarone,  pushed  back  a  crowd  of  people  and 

dealt   blows   right  and  left.    Some  of  the    Hungarian 

Guards  wanted  to  support  him  and  help  him  to  clear  a 

space,  but  he  sent  them  off.  All  I  say  is  that  it  serves  him 

right.  For  what  else  can  you  expect  from  a  mob?  I  have 

this  moment  received  your  letter  of  November  27th.  It  is 

quite  true  that,  out  of  love  for  the  Princess,  (the  Emperor) 

drove  out  to  meet  the  Duke  of  Wurtemberg.  This  affair  is 

an  open  secret  in  Vienna,  but  no  one  knows  whether  she  is 

going  to  be  a  morsel  for  himself  or  for  some  Tuscan  prince. 

Probably  the  latter.  All  the  same  (the  Emperor)  is  far  too 

(loving)  with  her  for  my  taste.  He  is  always  kissing  her 

hands,  first  one  and  then  the  other,  and  often  both  at  once. 

I  am  really  astonished,  because  she  is,  you  might  say,  still 

a  child.  But  if  it  be  true,  and  what  people  predict  does 

happen,  then  I  shall  begin  to  believe  that  in  his  case 

charity  begins  at  home.  For  she  is  to  remain  here  in  a 

convent  for  two  years — and — probably — if  there  is  no 

hitch — she  will  become  my  pupil  on  the  clavier. 


I78i  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  436 

I  know  the  bassoon-player  well  whom  they  want  to 
foist  on  the  Archbishop.  He  plays  second  to  Ritter  at  the 
opera.  You  say  that  I  must  not  forget  you!  That  you 
rejoice  to  think  that  I  do  not,  gives  me  the  greatest 
pleasure.  But  if  you  could  believe  it  possible  that  I  should 
forget  you,  that  indeed  would  pain  me  dreadfully.  You 
say  that  I  must  remember  that  I  have  an  immortal  soul. 
Not  only  do  I  think  it,  but  I  firmly  believe  it.  If  it  were 
not  so,  wherein  would  consist  the  difference  between  men 
and  beasts?  Just  because  I  both  know  and  most  firmly 
believe  this,  I  have  not  been  able  to  carry  out  all  your 
wishes  exactly  in  the  way  you  expected.  Now  farewell.  I 
kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  my  sister 
with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


(436)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 
MON    TRES    CHER    ?ERE!  VlENNE,  ce  1 5  de  Dec*",  1 78 1 

I  have  this  moment  received  your  letter  of  the  I2th. 
Herr  von  Daubrawaick  will  bring  you  this  letter,  the 
watch,  the  Munich  opera,1  the  six  engraved  sonatas,2 
the  sonata  for  two  claviers3  and  the  cadenzas.4  As  for 
the  Princess  of  Wurtemberg  and  myself,  all  is  over.  The 
Emperor  has  spoilt  everything,  for  he  cares  for  no  one  but 
Salieri.  The  Archduke  Maximilian  recommended  me  to 
her  and  she  replied  that  had  it  rested  with  her,  she  would 
never  have  engaged  anyone  else,  but  that  on  account  of  her 
singing  the  Emperor  had  suggested  Salieri.  She  added 
that  she  was  extremely  sorry.  What  you  tell  me  about  the 

1  "Idomeneo."  2  See  p.  1162.  n.  6. 

3  K.  448,  composed  in  November  1781.  4  See  p.  1155,  n.  i. 


L.  436  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

House  of  Wurtemberg  and  yourself  may  possibly  prove 
useful  to  me. 

Dearest  father!  You  demand  an  explanation  of  the 

words  in  the  closing  sentence  of  my  last  letter!  Oh,  how 

gladly  would  I  have  opened  my  heart  to  you  long  ago,  but 

I  was  deterred  by  the  reproaches  you  might  have  made  to 

me  for  thinking  of  such  a  thing  at  an  unseasonable  time 

— although  indeed  thinking  can  never  be  unseasonable. 

Meanwhile  I  am  very  anxious  to  secure  here  a  small  but 

certain  income,  which,  together  with  what  chance  may 

provide,  will  enable  me  to  live  here  quite  comfortably — 

and  then — to  marry!  You  are  horrified  at  the  idea?  But 

I  entreat  you,  dearest,  most  beloved  father,  to  listen  to 

me.  I  have  been  obliged  to  reveal  my  intentions  to  you. 

You  must,  therefore,  allow  me  to  disclose  to  you  my 

reasons,  which,  moreover,  are  very  well  founded.  The 

voice  of  nature  speaks  as  loud  in  me  as  in  others,  louder, 

perhaps,  than  in  many  a  big  strong  lout  of  a  fellow.  I 

simply  cannot  live  as  most  young  men  do  in  these  days. 

In  the  first  place,  I  have  too  much  religion;  in  the  second 

place,  I  have  too  great  a  love  of  my  neighbour  and  too 

high  a  feeling  of  honour  to  seduce  an  innocent  girl;  and, 

in  the  third  place,  I  have  too  much  horror  and  disgust,  too 

much  dread  and  fear  of  diseases  and  too  much  care  for  my 

health  to  fool  about  with  whores.  So  I  can  swear  that  I 

have  never  had  relations  of  that  sort  with  any  woman. 

Besides,  if  such  a  thing  had  occurred,  I  should  not  have 

concealed  it  from  you;  for,  after  all,  to  err  is  natural  enough 

in  a  man,  and  to  err  once  would  be  mere  weakness — 

although  indeed  I  should  not  undertake  to  promise  that 

if  I  had  erred  once  in  this  way,  I  should  stop  short  at  one 

slip.  However,  I  stake  my  life  on  the  truth  of  what  I  have 

told  you.  I  am  well  aware  that  this  reason  (powerful  as  it 

is)  is  not  urgent  enough.  But  owing  to  my  disposition, 

which  is  more  inclined  to  a  peaceful  and  domesticated 


I78i  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  436 

existence  than  to  revelry,  I  who  from  my  youth  up  have 
never  been  accustomed  to  look  after  my  own  belong 
ings,  linen,  clothes  and  so  forth,  cannot  think  of  anything 
more  necessary  to  me  than  a  wife.  I  assure  you  that  I  am 
often  obliged  to  spend  unnecessarily,  simply  because  I  do 
not  pay  attention  to  things.  I  am  absolutely  convinced 
that  I  should  manage  better  with  a  wife  (on  the  same 
income  which  I  have  now)  than  I  do  by  myself.  And  how 
many  useless  expenses  would  be  avoided!  True,  other 
expenses  would  have  to  be  met,  but — one  knows  what 
they  are  and  can  be  prepared  for  them — in  short,  one 
leads  a  well-ordered  existence.  A  bachelor,  in  my  opinion, 
is  only  half  alive.  Such  are  my  views  and  I  cannot  help  it. 
I  have  thought  the  matter  over  and  reflected  sufficiently, 
and  I  shall  not  change  my  mind.  But  who  is  the  object  of 
my  love?  Do  not  be  horrified  again,  I  entreat  you.  Surely 
not  one  of  the  Webers?  Yes,  one  of  the  Webers — but  not 
Josefa,1  nor  Sophie,2  but  Constanze,3  the  middle  one.  In 
no  other  family  have  I  ever  come  across  such  differences 
of  character.  The  eldest  is  a  lazy,  gross,  perfidious  woman, 
and  as  cunning  as  a  fox.  Mme  Lange4  is  a  false, 
malicious  person  and  a  coquette.  The  youngest — is  still 
too  young  to  be  anything  in  particular — she  is  just  a  good- 
natured,  but  feather-headed  creature!  May  God  protect 
her  from  seduction!  But  the  middle  one,  my  good,  dear 

1  Josefa  Weber  (1758-1819),  the  eldest  daughter.  She  became  a  singer 
and  took  the  part  of  the  "Konigin  der  Nacht"  in  the  first  performances  of 
the  "Zauberflote"  in  Vienna.  She  married  in  1788  Franz  de  Paula  Hofer(i7S5- 
1796),  an  excellent  violinist,  and,  after  his  death,  Friedrich  Sebastian  Mayer 
(I773-I^35),  a  well-known  actor.  See  Bliimml,  p.  1 19  ff. 

2  Maria  Sophie  Weber  (1767-1846),  the  youngest  daughter.  She  married 
in  1806  the  composer  Jakob  Haibel  (]  761-1826),  who  occasionally  sang  in 
Schikaneder's  productions  in  Vienna. 

3  Constanze  Weber  (1763-1842),  the  third  daughter.  The  best  account  of 
Constanze's  life  and  character  is  to  be  found  in  A.  Schurig,  Konstanze 
Mozart  (Dresden,   1922).  See  also  Farmer  and  Smith,  New  Mozartiana 
(Glasgow,  1935),  pp.  29-52. 

4  Aloysia  Weber  (1760-1839),  the  second  daughter, 


Z.  436  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

Constanze,  is  the  martyr  of  the  family  and,  probably  for 
that  very  reason,  is  the  kindest-hearted,  the  cleverest  and, 
in  short,  the  best  of  them  all.  She  makes  herself  responsible 
for  the  whole  household  and  yet  in  their  opinion  she  does 
nothing  right.  Oh,  my  most  beloved  father,  I  could  fill 
whole  sheets  with  descriptions  of  all  the  scenes  that  I  have 
witnessed  in  that  house.  If  you  want  to  read  them,  I  shall 
do  so  in  my  next  letter.  But  before  I  cease  to  plague  you 
with  my  chatter,  I  must  make  you  better  acquainted  with 
the  character  of  my  dear  Constanze.  She  is  not  ugly,  but  at 
the  same  time  far  from  beautiful.  Her  whole  beauty  con 
sists  in  two  little  black  eyes  and  a  pretty  figure.  She  has  no 
wit,  but  she  has  enough  common  sense  to  enable  her  to 
fulfil  her  duties  as  a  wife  and  mother.  It  is  a  downright  lie 
that  she  is  inclined  to  be  extravagant.  On  the  contrary, 
she  is  accustomed  to  be  shabbily  dressed,  for  the  little  that 
her  mother  has  been  able  to  do  for  her  children,  she  has 
done  for  the  two  others,  but  never  for  Constanze.  True, 
she  would  like  to  be  neatly  and  cleanly  dressed,  but  not 
smartly,  and  most  things  that  a  woman  needs  she  is  able 
to  make  for  herself;  and  she  dresses  her  own  hair  every 
day.  Moreover  she  understands  housekeeping  and  has  the 
kindest  heart  in  the  world.  I  love  her  and  she  loves  me 
with  all  her  heart.  Tell  me  whether  I  could  wish  myself  a 
better  wife? 

One  thing  more  I  must  tell  you,  which  is  that  when  I 
resigned  the  Archbishop's  service,  our  love  had  not  yet 
begun.  It  was  born  of  her  tender  care  and  attentions  when 
I  was  living  in  their  house. 

Accordingly,  all  that  I  desire  is  to  have  a  small  assured 
income  (of  which,  thank  God,  I  have  good  hopes),  and 
then  I  shall  never  cease  entreating  you  to  allow  me  to  save 
this  poor  girl — and  to  make  myself  and  her — and,  if  I 
may  say  so,  all  of  us  very  happy.  For  you  surely  are  happy 
when  I  am?  And  you  are  to  enjoy  one  half  of  my  fixed 



From  a  portrait  by  Josef  Lange 
(Hunterian  Museum,  University  of  Glasgow) 

1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  SISTER  Z.  4360 

income.  My  dearest  father,  I  have  opened  my  heart  to  you 
and  explained  my  remarks.  It  is  now  my  turn  to  beg  you  to 
explain  yours  in  your  last  letter.  You  say  that  I  cannot 
imagine  that  you  were  aware  of  a  proposal  which  had 
been  made  to  me  and  to  which  I,  at  the  time  when  you 
heard  of  it,  had  not  yet  replied.  I  do  not  understand  one 
word  of  this — I  know  of  no  such  proposal.  Please  take  pity 
on  your  son!  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and 
am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


(436a)  Mozart  to  his  Sister 

[From  Ludwig  Nohl,  Mozarts  Brief e^  2nd  edition,  p.  322] 
MA  TRES   CHERE   S(EUR!  VIENNA,  December  l$th,  1 78 11 

Here  are  the  six  engraved  sonatas  2  and  the  sonata 
for  two  claviers.3  I  hope  you  will  like  them.  Only  four  will 
be  new  to  you.4  The  copyist  was  not  able  to  finish  the 
variations,5  which  I  shall  send  you  in  my  next  letter. 

Dear  sister!  I  have  beside  me  a  letter  which  I  began  to 
you,6  but  as  I  have  written  a  long  letter  to  Papa,  I  have 
not  been  able  to  go  on  with  yours.  So  please  be  content 
this  time  with  this  cover,  and  I  shall  write  to  you  by 
the  next  post.  Addio,  farewell.  I  kiss  you  a  thousand  times 
and  am  ever  your  sincere  brother 


1  A  postscript  written  on  the  cover  of  the  letter  to  his  father. 

2  K.  296,  376-380.  3  K.  448. 

4  K.  296  and  378  had  been  composed  before  Mozart  went  to  Vienna, 
s  K.  359,  360,  352. 

6  The  following  letter  (Letter  437),  begun  on  the  I5th  and  finished  on  the 
22nd  of  December. 

VOL.  Ill  1169 

Z.  437  MOZART  TO  HIS  SISTER  1781 

(437)  Mozart  to  his  Sister 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MA  TRES  CHERE  SCEUR!  VlENNE,  ce  15  de  Decem*™,  1781* 
I  thank  you  for  all  the  news  you  have  sent  me.  Here  are 
my  six  sonatas.  Only  four  of  them  will  be  new  to  you.  It  is 
not  possible  to  let  you  have  the  variations,  as  the  copyists 
are  too  busy.  But  as  soon  as  I  can,  I  shall  send  them  to  you. 

December  22nd.  Meanwhile  you  will  have  received 
the  cover,2  in  which  I  sent  a  letter  to  my  father.  Herr 
von  Daubrawaick  has  returned  the  opera,3  so  I  must 
look  about  for  some  other  opportunity  of  sending  it  to 
Salzburg.  Indeed  Ceccarelli  would  have  been  taken  aback, 
had  you  accepted  his  offer,  for  when  I  spoke  to  him  about 
it,  he  quickly  replied:  "Certo,  Tavrei  presa  meco  subito".4 
And  when  I  asked  him  why  he  had  not  done  so,  he  had  no 
better  reason  to  give  than  "Where  could  I  have  put  her 
here?"  "Oh — as  to  that/'  I  replied,  "there  would  have 
been  no  difficulty,  for  I  know  plenty  of  houses  where 
they  would  have  been  delighted  to  put  her  up."  And, 
indeed,  it  is  quite  true.  If  you  find  a  good  opportunity  of 
coming  to  Vienna  for  a  time,  just  write  and  let  me  know 

Do  you  not  think  that  "Das  Loch  in  der  Thur"5  is  a 
good  comedy?  But  you  ought  to  see  it  performed  here. 
"Die  Gefahren  der  Verfiihrung"6  is  also  a  capital  piece. 
"Das  offentliche  Geheimnis"7  is  only  endurable  if  one 

1  The  beginning  of  this  letter  was  written  before  the  postscript  to  Letter 
436.  Mozart  continued  the  letter  on  December  22nd. 

2  See  Letter  436a.  3  "Idomeneo." 

4  Certainly,  I  would  have  taken  her  with  me  at  once. 
s  Seep.  1109,  n.  i. 

6  It  has  not  been  possible  to  discover  the  author  of  this  play. 

7  A  German  translation  of  Carlo  Gozzi's  "II  pubblico  segreto",  which 
was  an  adaptation  of  Calderon's  "El  secreto  a  voces".  Gozzi's  comedy  was 
first  performed  at  Modena  on  May  2Oth,  1769.  ' 


i?8i  MOZART  TO  HIS  SISTER  L.  437 

remembers  that  it  is  an  Italian  play,  for  the  Princess's 
condescension  to  her  servant  is  really  too  indecent  and 
unnatural.  The  best  part  of  this  play  is — the  public  secret 
itself — I  mean,  the  way  in  which  the  two  lovers,  though 
preserving  their  secret,  still  contrive  to  communicate  with 
one  another  publicly.  What  is  the  name  of  the  acrobat? 
Elias  Vogt  is  with  Bohm  and  little  Peter1  is  in  Berlin.  It 
was  real  news  to  me  that  Feigele  has  gone  home  and  that 
Andretter  is  back  in  Salzburg. 

I  cannot  send  you  any  news,  my  dear  sister,  because  at 
the  moment  I  have  none.  In  regard  to  our  old  acquaint 
ances  I  must  tell  you  that  I  have  only  been  out  once  to 
see  Frau  von  Mesmer.2  The  house  is  no  longer  what  it  was. 
If  I  want  to  get  a  free  meal,  I  need  not  drive  out  to  the 
Landstrasse  for  it,  for  there  are  plenty  of  houses  in  town 
to  which  I  can  go  on  foot.  The  Fischers  are  living  in  the 
Tiefer  Graben  where  I  scarcely  ever  happen  to  go;  but  if 
my  way  does  take  me  in  that  direction,  I  pay  them  a  visit 
of  a  few  minutes,  since  I  really  cannot  endure  for  longer 
their  tiny,  overheated  room  and  the  wine  on  the  table.  I 
am  well  aware  that  people  of  their  class  consider  this  to 
be  the  greatest  possible  compliment,  but  I  am  no  lover  of 
such  compliments  and  still  less  of  people  of  that  type.  I 
have  not  yet  seen  a  single  one  of  the  Breans.  I  have 
talked  quite  often  to  Grill  (who  is  now  married)  and  to 
Heufeld.  As  for  my  shooting  fund,  I  do  not  know  either 
what  is  to  be  done.  Surely  there  is  some  money  there, 
some  interest,  I  mean,  on  the  hundred  gulden?  Why,  you 
will  just  have  to  take  some  of  it.  Perhaps  I  shall  be  more 
fortunate  next  year.  What  about  the  target? 

Good  God!  I  have  received  this  very  moment  a  letter 
from  my  dearest  and  most  beloved  father!  How  can  there 

1  See  p.  1049,  n-  3- 

2  The  wife  of  Dr.  Franz  Anton  Mesmer,  who  in  the  meantime  had  settled 
in  Paris. 


Z.  438  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

be  such  monsters  in  the  shape  of  men?  But  patience!  my 
rage  and  fury  are  such  that  I  cannot  write  any  more;  but 
do  tell  him  that  I  shall  reply  to  his  letter  by  the  next  post 
and  that  I  shall  convince  him  that  there  are  men  who  are 
worse — than  devils.  In  the  meantime  let  him  be  easy  in 
his  mind.  Say  that  his  son  is  possibly  more  worthy  of  him 
than  he  thinks.  Adieu.  I  kiss  my  dearest,  most  beloved 
father's  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  you,  my 
dearest  sister,  with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your  sincere 


A  thousand  compliments  to  M.  D'Yppold.  Adieu. 

(438)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
MON    TRES    CHER    PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  22  X*",  1 78 1 

I  am  still  full  of  rage  and  fury  at  the  disgraceful 
lies  of  that  arch- villain  Winter1 — and  yet  I  am  calm  and 
composed,  because  they  do  not  affect  me — and  delighted 
and  contented  with  my  most  inestimable,  most  dear  and 
most  beloved  father.  But  I  could  never  have  expected 
anything  else  from  your  good  sense,  and  your  love  and 
kindness  to  me.  No  doubt  by  this  time  you  will  have 
received  my  letter  with  the  confession  of  my  love  and  my 
intentions,  and  you  will  have  gathered  from  it  that  I  shall 

1  Peter  von  Winter  (1754-1825),  born  in  Mannheim,  joined  the  Mannheim 
orchestra  as  violinist  in  1775.  In  1794  he  became  Vice- Kapellmeister  to  the 
Munich  court  orchestra,  and  in  1798  Kapellmeister.  From  1793  to  1797  he 
had  nine  operas  performed  at  the  Burgtheater  and  Schikaneder's  theatre  in 
Vienna.  He  also  composed  a  great  deal  of  church  music.  He  was  in  Vienna 
during  the  winter  of  1781  for  the  production  of  three  ballets,  for  which  he 
had  written  the  music. 


1781  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  438 

not  be  so  foolish  as  to  marry  rashly  in  my  twenty-sixth 
year  without  having  some  certain  income — and  thaf  I 
have  very  well  founded  reasons  for  getting  married  as 
soon  as  possible — and  that,  from  the  description  of  her 
which  I  gave  you,  my  girl  will  be  a  very  suitable  wife  for 
me.  For  she  is  just  as  I  have  described  her,  not  one  whit 
better  or  worse.  As  for  the  marriage  contract,  I  want  to 
make  the  most  frank  confession,  fully  convinced  as  I  am 
that  you  will  forgive  me  for  taking  this  step;  for  had  you 
been  in  my  place,  you  would  most  certainly  have  done  the 
same  thing.  But  for  one  thing  alone  I  ask  your  pardon — 
that  is,  that  I  did  not  tell  you  all  about  this  long  ago.  In 
my  last  letter  I  apologised  to  you  for  my  delay  and  gave 
you  the  reason  which  deterred  me.  So  I  hope  that  you  will 
forgive  me,  particularly  as  no  one  has  suffered  more  by 
it  than  I  have — and  even  if  you  had  not  provided  the 
occasion  for  doing  so  in  your  last  letter,  I  should  have 
written  to  you  and  disclosed  everything.  For,  by  Heaven, 
I  could  not  have  stood  it — much — much  longer. 

Well,  let's  come  to  the  marriage  contract,  or  rather  to 
the  written  assurance  of  my  honourable  intentions  towards 
the  girl.  You  know,  of  course,  that  as  the  father  is  no 
longer  alive  (unhappily  for  the  whole  family  as  well  as  for 
my  Constanze  and  myself)  a  guardian1  has  taken  his  place. 
Certain  busybodies  and  impudent  gentlemen  like  Herr 
Winter  must  have  shouted  in  the  ears  of  this  person  (who 
doesn't  know  me  at  all)  all  sorts  of  stories  about  me — as, 
for  example,  that  he  should  beware  of  me — that  I  have  no 
settled  income — that  I  was  far  too  intimate  with  her — 
that  I  should  probably  jilt  her — and  that  the  girl  would 
then  be  ruined,  and  so  forth.  All  this  made  him  smell  a 

1  Johann  von  Thorwart  (1737-^.  1813).  From  1776  to  1791  he  was  in  charge 
of  the  financial  affairs  of  the  National  Theatre  in  Vienna,  and  was  Count 
Rosenberg's  right  hand.  For  a  full  study  of  Thorwart's  strange  career  see 
Blumml,  p.  54  ff. 


L.  438  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  i78i 

rat — for  the  mother  who  knows  me  and  knows  that  I  am 
honourable,  let  things  take  their  course  and  said  nothing 
to  him  about  the  matter.  For  my  whole  association  with 
her  consisted  in  my  lodging  with  the  family  and  later  in 
my  going  to  their  house  every  day.  No  one  ever  saw  me 
with  her  outside  the  house.  But  the  guardian  kept  on 
pestering  the  mother  with  his  representations  until  she 
told  me  about  them  and  asked  me  to  speak  to  him  myself, 
adding  that  he  would  come  some  day  to  her  house.  He 
came— and  we  had  a  talk — with  the  result  (as  I  did  not 
explain  myself  as  clearly  as  he  desired)  that  he  told  the 
mother  to  forbid  me  to  associate  with  her  daughter  until 
I  had  come  to  a  written  agreement  with  him.  The  mother 
replied:  "Why,  his  whole  association  with  her  consists  in 
his  coming  to  my  house,  and — I  cannot  forbid  him  my 
house.  He  is  too  good  a  friend — and  one  to  whom  I  owe  a 
great  deal.  I  am  quite  satisfied.  I  trust  him.  You  must 
settle  it  with  him  yourself."  So  he  forbade  me  to  have  any 
thing  more  to  do  with  Constanze,  unless  I  would  give  him 
a  written  undertaking.  What  other  course  was  open  to  me? 
I  had  either  to  give  him  a  written  contract  or — to  desert 
the  girl.  What  man  who  loves  sincerely  and  honestly  can 
forsake  his  beloved?  Would  not  the  mother,  would  not 
my  loved  one  herself  place  the  worst  interpretation  upon 
such  conduct?  That  was  my  predicament.  So  I  drew  up  a 
document  to  the  effect  that  I  bound  myself  to  marry  Mile 
Constanze  Weber  within  the  space  of  three  years  and  that 
if  it  should  prove  impossible  for  me  to  do  so  owing  to  my 
changing  my  mind,  she  should  be  entitled  to  claim  from  me 
three  hundred  gulden  a  year.  Nothing  in  the  world  could 
have  been  easier  for  me  to  write.  For  I  knew  that  I  should 
never  have  to  pay  these  three  hundred  gulden,  because  I 
should  never  forsake  her,  and  that  even  should  I  be  so  un 
fortunate  as  to  change  my  mind,  I  should  only  be  too  glad 
to  get  rid  of  her  for  three  hundred  gulden,  while  Constanze, 


Ij8i  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  438 

if  I  know  her,  would  be  too  proud  to  let  herself  be  sold. 
But  what  did  the  angelic  girl  do  when  the  guardian  was 
gone?  She  asked  her  mother  for  the  document,  and  said 
to  me:  "Dear  Mozart!  I  need  no  written  assurance  from 
you.  I  believe  what  you  say',  and  tore  up  the  paper.  This 
action  made  my  dear  Constanze  yet  more  precious  to  me, 
and  the  document  having  been  destroyed  and  the  guardian 
having  given  his  parole  dhonneur  to  keep  the  matter  to 
himself,  I  was  to  a  certain  extent  easy  in  my  mind  on 
your  account,  my  most  beloved  father.  For  I  had  no  fear 
but  that  ultimately  you  would  give  your  consent  to  our 
marriage  (as  the  girl  has  everything  but  money),  because 
I  know  your  sensible  ideas  on  this  subject.  Will  you  for 
give  me?  Indeed  I  hope  so!  Nor  do  I  doubt  it  for  a 
moment.  Well,  now  I  want  to  talk  about  those  black 
guards  (however  repulsive  it  may  be  to  me).  I  believe  that 
Herr  Reiner's  only  disease  was  that  he  was  not  quite  right 
in  the  head.  I  happened  to  meet  him  in  the  theatre,  where 
he  gave  me  a  letter  from  Ramm.  I  asked  him  where  he 
was  lodging,  but  he  could  neither  tell  me  the  street  nor  the 
house,  and  he  cursed  the  day  when  he  had  let  himself  be 
persuaded  to  come  here.  I  offered  to  present  him  to  the 
Countess1  and  to  introduce  him  wherever  1  had  the  entree; 
and  I  assured  him  that  if  he  found  he  could  not  give  a 
concert,  I  should  certainly  take  him  to  the  Grand  Duke.2 
All  he  said  was:  "Pooh!  There  is  nothing  to  be  done  here. 
I  shall  go  off  at  once."  "Only  have  a  little  patience/'  I  said, 
"and  since  you  cannot  tell  me  where  you  lodge,  I  shall 
give  you  my  address,  which  is  easy  to  find/'  However,  I 
saw  nothing  more  of  him.  I  made  enquiries,  but  by  the 
time  I  had  found  out  where  he  was  living,  he  had  left.  So 
much  for  this  gentleman.  As  for  Winter,  if  he  deserves  to 
be  called  a  man  (for  he  is  married)  or  at  least  a  human 

1  The  Countess  Thun. 
2  The  Grand  Duke  Paul  Petrovitch  of  Russia. 


L.  438  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1781 

being,  I  may  say  that  on  account  of  Vogler  he  has  always 
been  my  worst  enemy.1  Since,  however,  he  is  a  beast  in  his 
way  of  living  and  a  child  in  the  rest  of  his  conduct  and 
actions,  I  should  be  ashamed  to  write  a  single  word  about 
him.  For  he  thoroughly  deserves  the  contempt  of  every 
man  of  honour.  So  I  shall  not  tell  infamous  truths  about 
him  in  return  for  the  infamous  lies  he  has  told  about  me, 
but — give  you  instead  some  account  of  my  own  manner 
of  life. 

Every  morning  at  six  o'clock  my  friseur  arrives  and 
wakes  me,  and  by  seven  I  have  finished  dressing.  I  com 
pose  until  ten,  when  I  give  a  lesson  to  Frau  von  Trattner 
and  at  eleven  to  the  Countess  Rumbeck,  each  of  whom  pays 
me  six  ducats  for  twelve  lessons  and  to  whom  I  go  every 
day,  unless  they  put  me  off,  which  I  do  not  like  at  all.  I 
have  arranged  with  the  Countess  that  she  is  never  to  put 
me  off,  I  mean  that,  if  I  do  not  find  her  at  home,  I  am  at 
least  to  get  my  fee;  but  Frau  von  Trattner  is  too  eco- 
non\ical  for  that.  I  do  not  owe  a  single  kreutzer  to  any 
man.  I  have  not  heard  a  word  about  any  amateur  concert 
where  two  persons  played  very  finely  on  the  clavier.  And 
I  must  tell  you  candidly  that  I  do  not  think  it  worth  the 
trouble  to  reply  to  all  the  filth  which  such  a  lousy  cad  and 
miserable  bungler  may  have  said.  He  only  makes  himself 
ridiculous  by  doing  so.  If  you  really  believe  that  I  am 
detested  at  court  and  by  the  old  and  new  aristocracy, 
just  write  to  Herr  von  S  track,  the  Countess  Thun,  the 
Countess  Rumbeck,  Baroness  Waldstadten,  Herr  von 
Sonnenfels,  Frau  von  Trattner,  enfin,  to  anyone  you 
choose.  Meanwhile  let  me  tell  you  that  at  table  the  other 
day  the  Emperor  gave  me  the  very  highest  praise,  ac 
companied  by  the  words:  "Cest  un  talent  decide!"  and 
that  the  day  before  yesterday,  December  24th,  I  played 

1  Peter  von  Winter  was  one  of  Abt  Vogler's  most  loyal  friends  and 


i?8i  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  438 

at  court.1  Another  clavier-player,  an  Italian  called 
dementi,2  has  arrived  here.  He  too  had  been  invited  to 
court.  I  was  sent  fifty  ducats  yesterday  for  my  playing, 
and  indeed  I  need  them  very  badly  at  the  moment. 

My  dearest,  most  beloved  father,  you  will  see  that  little 
by  little  my  circumstances  will  improve.  Of  what  use  is  a 
great  sensation — and  rapid  success?  It  never  lasts.  Chiva 
piano,  va  sano?  One  must  just  cut  one's  coat  according  to 
one's  cloth.  Of  all  the  mean  things  which  Winter  said,  the 
only  one  which  enrages  me  is  that  he  called  my  dear 
Constanze  a  slut.  I  have  described  her  to  you  exactly  as 
she  is.  If  you  wish  to  have  the  opinion  of  others,  write  to 
Herr  von  Aurnhammer,  to  whose  house  she  has  been  a  few 
times  and  where  she  has  lunched  once.  Write  to  Baroness 
Waldstadten,  who  had  her  at  her  house,  though,  un 
fortunately,  for  a  month  only,  because  she,  the  Baroness, 
fell  ill.  Now  Constanze's  mother  refuses  to  part  with  her 
and  let  her  go  back.  God  grant  that  I  may  soon  be  able 
to  marry  her. 

Ceccarelli  sends  you  his  greetings.  He  sang  at  court 
yesterday.  There  is  one  thing  more  I  must  tell  you 
about  Winter.  Among  other  things  he  once  said  to  me: 
"You  are  a  fool  to  get  married.  Keep  a  mistress.  You 
are  earning  enough  money,  you  can  afford  it.  What  pre 
vents  you  from  doing  so?  Some  damned  religious  scruple?" 
Believe  JLOW  what  you  will.  Adieu.  I  kiss  your  hands  a 

1  Mozart  did  nqt  finish  this  letter,  begun  on  December  22nd,  until 
December  26th. 

*  Muzio  dementi  (1752-1832),  a  famous  composer  for  the  pianoforte.  He 
was  born  in  Rome,  where  Peter  Beckford,  cousin  of  William  Beckford,  the 
author  of  Vathek,  discovered  him  in  1766  and  took  him  to  England,  where 
he  was  trained  to  be  a  musician.  Clementi  was  conductor  at  the  Italian  Opera 
in  London  from  1777  until  1780.  In  1781  he  started  on  his  travels  to  the 
various  capitals  of  Europe  and  returned  to  England  the  following  year,  where 
he  remained  until  1802.  He  then  spent  eight  years  touring  as  a  performer  on 
the  pianoforte,  and  again  returned  to  England,  where  he  remained  until  his 
death.  He  taught  J.  B.  Cramer  and  John  Field. 

3 .  Slow  and  steady  wins  the  race. 


Z.  439      '  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

thousand  times  and  embrace  my  dear  sister  with  all  my 
heart  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


The  address  of  the  Baroness  is 

A  Madame  La  Baronne  de  Waldstadten 
nee  de  S  chafer 

a  Vienne 
Leopoldstadt  no.  360. 

(439)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

{Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  9  de  Janvier,  1782 

I  have  not  yet  received  a  reply  to  my  last  letter, 
which  accounts  for  my  not  having  written  to  you  by  the 
last  post.  I  do  hope  I  shall  have  a  letter  from  you  to-day. 
As  in  my  last  letter,  though  without  being  aware  of  it,  I 
partly  replied  in  advance  to  yours  of  December  28th,  I 
must  first  await  your  reply. 

Meanwhile  I  must  inform  you  that  the  Pope  is  supposed 
to  "be  coming  to  Vienna.1  The  whole  town  is  talking  about 
it.  But  I  do  not  believe  it,  for  Count  Cobenzl  told  me  that 
the  Emperor  will  decline  his  visit.  The  Russian  Royalties 
left  on  the  5th.  Well,  I  have  just  been  to  Peisser's  myself  to 
see  whether  there  was  a  letter  from  you,  and  I  have  sent 
again;  it  is  almost  five  o'clock.  I  cannot  understand  why 
I  do  not  hear  from  you!  Can  it  be  that  you  are  so  angry 
with  me?  You  may  be  annoyed  with  me  for  having  so  long 
concealed  the  affair  from  you,  and  no  doubt  you  are  right. 
But  if  you  have  read  my  apology,  surely  you  can  forgive 
me.  And  surely  you  cannot  be  vexed  with  me  for  wishing 

1  Pius  VI  (1717-1799),  formerly  Cardinal  Braschi,  who  succeeded 
Clement  XIV  in  1775.  He  visited  Vienna  in  order  to  obtain  from  the 
Emperor  a  promise  that  the  latter' s  ecclesiastical  reforms  would  not  contain 
any  violation  of  Catholic  dogmas  nor  compromise  the  dignity  of  the  Pope. 
Though  magnificently  received,  his  mission  on  the  whole  proved  a  failure. 


1782  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  440 

to  marry?  I  believe  that  in  my  wishing  to  do  so  you  will 
have  been  able  to  recognise  what  is  best  of  all,  my  religion 
and  my  honourable  feelings.  Oh,  I  could  say  a  great  deal 
more  in  reply  to  your  last  letter  and  make  many  re 
monstrances,  but  my  maxim  is:  what  does  not  affect  me  I 
do  not  consider  it  worth  while  to  discuss.  I  cannot  help  it 
— such  is  my  nature.  I  am  really  shy  of  defending  myself, 
when  I  am  falsely  accused.  I  always  think  that  the  truth 
will  come  out  some  day.  Well — I  cannot  write  anything 
more  "to  you  on  the  subject,  because  I  have  not  yet 
received  a  reply  to  my  last  letter.  I  have  no  news.  So 
farewell.  Once  more  I  ask  your  forgiveness  and  implore 
you  to  be  indulgent  and  merciful  towards  me.  I  never  can 
be  happy  and  contented  without  my  dearest  Constanze, 
and  without  your  approval  I  shall  only  be  so  in  part.  So 
make  me  altogether  happy,  my  dearest,  most  beloved 
father!  I  entreat  you  to  do  so.  I  am  ever  your  most 

obedient  son  TTr     A     ... 


P.S. — I  kiss  my  dearest  sister  a  thousand  times  with  all 
my  heart.  Fraulein  von  Aurnhammer  played  the  treble  in 
the  sonata  for  two  claviers.1 

(440)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TRES  CHER  FERE!  VlENNE,  ce  12  de  Janvier >  1782 

I  have  begun  a  reply  to  your  last  letter  of  January 
7th,  but  I  cannot  possibly  finish  it,  as  a  servant  of 
Countess  Rumbeck  has  just  come  with  an  invitation  to  a 
small  musical  party  at  her  house.  Well,  I  must  first  have 
my  hair  dressed  and  I  must  change  all  my  clothes.  So, 
although  I  do  not  wish  to  leave  you  entirely  without  any 
news  of  me,  I  cannot  write  very  much. 

'  K.  448. 


L.  441  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

Clement!  plays  well,  so  far  as  execution  with  the  right 
hand  goes.  His  greatest  strength  lies  in  his  passages  in 
thirds.  Apart  from  this,  he  has  not  a  kreutzer's  worth  of 
taste  or  feeling — in  short  he  is  simply  a  mechanicus. 

The  friseur  has  arrived,  so  I  must  close.  In  my  next 
letter  I  shall  tell  you  more  about  dementi.  I  entreat  you 
to  make  me  happy  by  giving  me  your  approval — I  im 
plore  you  to  do  so.  I  am  convinced  that  you  will  learn  to 
love  my  dear  Constanze.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand 
times  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


I  embrace  my  dear  sister  with  all  my  heart. 
(441)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  16  de  Janvier,  1782 
I  thank  you  for  your  kind  and  affectionate  letter.  If 
I  were  to  give  you  detailed  replies  to  every  point,  I  should 
have  to  fill  a  quire  of  paper.  As  this  is  impossible,  I  shall 
deal  only  with  the  most  important  of  them.  The  guardian's 
name  is  Herr  von  Thorwart;  he  is  Inspector  of  theatrical 
properties,  that  is  to  say,  everything  connected  with  the 
theatre  has  to  pass  through  his  hands;  the  Emperor's  fifty 
ducats  were  sent  to  me  through  him;  I  applied  to  him  too 
about  my  concert  in  the  theatre,  as  most  matters  of  this 
kind  depend  on  him  and  because  he  has  much  influence 
with  Count  Rosenberg  and  Baron  Kienmayr.1  I  must  con 
fess  that  I  myself  thought  that  he  would  disclose  the  whole 
affair  to  you  without  saying  a  word  to  me  on  the  subject. 
This  he  has  not  done.  But  (notwithstanding  his  word  of 
honour)  he  has  told  the  story  to  the  whole  town  of  Vienna, 

1  Johann  Michael,  Baron  von  Kienmayr  (1727-1792),  vice-manager  of  the 
Vienna  court  theatre. 


1782  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  441 

which  has  very  much  shaken  the  good  opinion  I  once  had 
of  him.  I  quite  agree  with  you  in  thinking  that  Madame 
Weber  and  Herr  von  Thorwart  have  been  to  blame  in 
showing  too  much  regard  for  their  own  interests,  though 
the  Madame  is  no  longer  her  own  mistress  and  has  to 
leave  everything,  particularly  all  matters  of  this  kind,  to 
the  guardian,  who  (as  he  has  never  made  my  acquaintance) 
is  by  no  means  bound  to  trust  me.  But  that  he  was  too 
hasty  in  demanding  from  me  a  written  undertaking  is 
undeniable,  especially  as  I  told  him  that  as  yet  you  knew 
nothing  about  the  affair  and  that  at  the  moment  I  could 
not  possibly  disclose  it  to  you.  I  asked  him  to  have 
patience  for  a  short  time  until  my  circumstances  should 
take  another  turn,  when  I  should  give  you  a  full  ac 
count  of  everything  and  then  the  whole  matter  would 
be  settled.  However,  it  is  all  over  now;  and  love  must  be 
my  excuse.  Herr  von  Thorwart  did  not  behave  well,  but 
not  so  badly  that  he  and  Madame  Weber  "should  be  put 
in  chains,  made  to  sweep  streets  and  have  boards  hung 
round  their  necks  with  the  words  ( seducers  of  youth3  ". 
That  too  is  an  exaggeration.  And  even  if  what  you  say  were 
true,  that  in  order  to  catch  me  she  opened  her  house,  let  me 
have  the  run  of  it,  gave  me  every  opportunity,  etc.,-  even  so 
the  punishment  would  be  rather  drastic.  But  I  need  hardly 
tell  you  that  it  is  not  true.  And  it  hurts  me  very  much  to 
think  that  you  could  believe  that  your  son  could  frequent 
a  house  where  such  things  went  on.  Let  me  only  say  that 
you  should  believe  precisely  the  opposite  of  all  you  have 
been  told.  But  enough  of  this.  Now  a  word  about 
dementi.  -He  is  an  excellent  cembalo-player,  but  that  is 
all.  He  has  great  facility  with  his  right  hand.  His  star 
passages  are  thirds.  Apart  from  this,  he  has  not  a  farthing's 
worth  of  taste  or  feeling;  he  is  a  mere  mechanicus.  - 

After  we  had  stood  on  ceremony  long  enough,  the 
Emperor  declared  that  dementi  ought  to  begin.  "La 


Z.  441  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

Santa  Chiesa  Cattolica",  he  said,  Clementi  being  a 
Roman.  He  improvised  and  then  played  a  sonata.1  The 
Emperor  then  turned  to  me:  "Allons,.  fire  away".  I 
improvised  and  played  variations.  The  Grand  Duchess 
produced  some  sonatas  by  Paisiello  2  (wretchedly  written 
out  in  his  own  hand),  of  which  I  had  to  play  the  Allegros 
and  Clementi  the  Andantes  and  Rondos.  We  then 
selected  a  theme  from  them  and  developed  it  on  two  piano 
fortes.  The  funny  thing  was  that  although  I  had  borrowed 
Countess  Thun's  pianoforte,  I  only  played  on  it  when  I 
played  alone;  such  was  the  Emperor's  desire — and,  by 
the  way,  the  other  instrument  was  out  of  tune  and  three 
of  the  keys  were  stuck.  "That  doesn't  matter" ,  said  the 
Emperor.  Well,  I  put  the  best  construction  on  it  I  could, 
that  is,  that  the  Emperor,  already  knowing  my  skill  and 
my  knowledge  of  music,  was  only  desirous  of  showing 
especial  courtesy  to  a  foreigner.  Besides,  I  have  it  from  a 
very  good  source  that  he  was  extremely  pleased  with  me.3 
He  was  very  gracious,  said  a  great  deal  to  me  privately,  and 
even  mentioned  my  marriage.  Who  knows?  Perhaps — 
what  do  you  think?  At  any  rate  I  might  make  the 
attempt.  More  of  this  in  my  next  letter.  Farewell.  I  kiss 
your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  ray  dear  sister 
with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 

W.  A.  MOZART. 

1  In  the  next  edition  which  was  published  of  this  sonata  Clementi  headed 
it  with  the  remark:  "Cette  sonate,  avec  la  toccata  qui  la  suit,  a  ete  jouee  par 
1'auteur  devant  Sa  Majeste  Joseph  II  en  1781,  Mozart  etant  present".  It  is 
generally  accepted  that  the  first  movement  of  dementi's  sonata  gave  Mozart 
the  idea  for  the  theme  of  the  opening  allegro  in  his  ouverture  to  the  "Zauber- 

2  Giovanni  Paisiello  (1740-1816),  an  eminent  composer  of  the  Neapolitan 
school  and  a  rival  of  Piccinni,  who  wrote  over  a  hundred  operas  and  many 
other  works.  During  the  years  1776-1784  he  lived  in  St.  Petersburg  and 
dedicated  some  clavier  compositions  to  the  Grand  Duchess. 

3  Bridi  in  his  Brevi  notizie,  p.  51  f,,  when  describing  this  competition, 
states  that  the  Emperor  had  laid  a  wager  with  the  Grand  Duchess  that 
Mozart  would  excel,  and  won  it, 


1782  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  442 

(442)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum^  Salzburg] 

MON  TRES  CHER  P^RE!  VlENNE,  ce  23  de  Janvier,  1782 
There  is  nothing  more  disagreeable  than  to  be 
obliged  to  live  in  uncertainty,  not  knowing  what  is  happen 
ing.  Such  is  my  case  at  the  moment  with  regard  to  my 
concert;  and  it  is  the  same  with  everyone  who  wishes  to 
give  one.  Last  year  the  Emperor  intended  to  continue  the 
plays  throughout  Lent;  perhaps  he  may  do  so  this  year. 
Basta!  At  all  events  I  have  secured  the  day  (if  there  is  no 
play),  namely,  the  third  Sunday  in  Lent.  If  I  know  a 
fortnight  ahead,  I  shall  be  satisfied;  otherwise  my  whole 
plan  will  be  upset,  or  I  shall  be  obliged  to  incur  expenses 
for  nothing.  Countess  Thun,  Adamberger  and  other  good 
friends  of  mine  are  advising  me  to  select  the  best  scenes 
from  my  Munich  opera1  and  have  them  performed  in  the 
theatre,  and  myself  to  play  only  one  concerto  and  to  impro 
vise  at  the  close.  I  too  had  thought  of  this  and  I  have  now 
quite  decided  to  do  so,  particularly  as  dementi  is  also  giving 
a  concert.  So  I  shall  have  a  slight  advantage  over  him,  the 
more  so  as  I  shall  probably  be  able  to  give  mine  twice. 

I  have  enquired  at  Peisser's,  but  no  letter  has  arrived. 
Well,  I  want  to  give  you  my  opinion  as  to  my  prospects 
of  a  small  permanent  income.  I  have  my  eye  here  on 
three  sources.  The  first  is  not  certain,  and,  even  if  it 
were,  would  probably  not  be  much;  the  second  would  be 
the  best,  but  God  knows  whether  it  will  ever  come  to 
pass;  and  the  third  is  not  to  be  despised,  but  the  pity  is 
that  it  concerns  the  future  and  not  the  present.  The  first  is 
young  Prince  Liechtenstein,2  who  would  like  to  collect  a 

1  "Idomeneo." 

2  Prince  Alois  Josef,  nephew  of  Prince  Karl  Borromaus  Josef  Liechten 
stein  (1730-1789),  Imperial  Field-marshal. 


L.  442  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  j7&? 

wind-instrument  band  (though  he  does  not  yet  want  it  to 
be  known),  for  which  I  should  write  the  music.  This  would 
not  bring  in  very  much,  it  is  true,  but  it  would  be  at  least 
something  certain,  and  I  should  not  sign  the  contract 
unless  it  were  to  be  for  life.  The  second  (in  my  estimation, 
however,  it  is  the  first)  is  the  Emperor  himself.  Who 
knows?  I  intend  to  talk  to  Herr  von  Strack  about  it  and 
I  am  certain  that  he  will  do  all  he  can,  for  he  has  proved  to 
be  a  very  good  friend  of  mine;  though  indeed  these  court 
flunkeys  are  never  to  be  trusted.  The  manner  in  which  the 
Emperor  has  spoken  to  me  has  given  me  some  hope. 
Great  lords  do  not  like  to  hear  these  speeches,  and, 
needless  to  say,  they  themselves  do  not  make  them;  for 
they  must  always  expect  a  stab  in  the  back  and  are  great 
adepts  in  avoiding  it.  The  third  is  the  Archduke  Maxi 
milian.  Now  of  him  I  can  say  that  he  thinks  the  world  of 
me.  He  shoves  me  forward  on  every  occasion,  and  I  might 
almost  say  with  certainty  that  if  at  this  moment  he  were 
Elector  of  Cologne,  I  should  be  his  Kapellmeister.  It  is, 
indeed,  a  pity  that  these  great  gentlemen  refuse  to  make 
arrangements  beforehand.  I  could  easily  manage  to 
extract  a  simple  promise  from  him,  but  of  what  use  would 
that  be  to  me  now?  Cash  would  be  more  acceptable. 
Dearest,  most  beloved  father!  If  I  could  have  it  in  writing 
from  God  Almighty  that  I  shall  keep  in  good  health  and 
not  get  ill,  ah!  then  I  should  marry  my  dear,  faithful  girl 
this  very  day.  I  have  three  pupils  now,1  which  brings  me  in 
eighteen  ducats  a  month;  for  I  no  longer  charge  for  twelve 
lessons,  but  monthly.  I  learnt  to  my  cost  that  my  pupils 
often  dropped  out  for  weeks  at  a  time;  so  now,  whether 
they  learn  or  not,  each  of  them  must  pay  me  six  ducats.  I 
shall  get  several  more  on  these  terms,  but  I  really  need 
only  one  more,  as  four  pupils  are  quite  enough.  With  four 

1  The  Countess  Rumbeck,  Frau  von  Trattner  and  Fraulein  Josephine 


I7&?  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  443 

I  should  have  twenty-four  ducats,  or  102  gulden,  24 
kreutzer.  With  this  sum  a  man  and  his  wife  can  manage 
in  Vienna  if  they  live  quietly  and  in  the  retired  way  which 
we  desire;  but,  of  course,  if  I  were  to  fall  ill,  we  should  not 
make  a  farthing.  I  can  write,  it  is  true,  at  least  one  opera 
a  year,  give  a  concert  annually  and  have  some  things 
engraved  and  published  by  subscription.  There  are  other 
concerts  too  where  one  can  make  money,  particularly  if 
one  has  been  living  in  a  place  for  a  long  time  and  has  a 
good  reputation.  But  I  should  prefer  not  to  count  on  such 
takings  but  rather  to  regard  them  as  windfalls.  However, 
if  the  bow  will  not  bend,  it  must  break,  and  I  will  rather 
take  the  risk  than  go  on  waiting  indefinitely.  My  affairs 
cannot  get  worse;  on  the  contrary,  they  must  continue  to 
improve.  And  my  reason  for  not  wishing  to  wait  any 
longer  is  not  so  much  on  my  account  as  on  hers.  I  must 
rescue  her  as  soon  as  possible.  I  shall  tell  you  about  this 
in  my  next  letter.  Now  farewell.  I  kiss  your  hands  a 
thousand  times  and  embrace  my  dear  sister  with  all  my 
heart  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


(443)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 

MON  TR£S  CHER  P^RE!          VIENNE,  ce  30  de  Janvier \  1782 

I  am  writing  to  you  in  a  great  hurry,  and  at  half  past 

ten  at  night,  as  I  had  really  intended  to  postpone  writing 

until  Saturday.  But  I  have  an  urgent  request  to  make.  I 

hope  that  •  you  will  not  take  it  amiss  if  I  send  you  such 

a  short  letter.  Will  you  please  send  me,  when  you  next 

write,   a  libretto  of  "Idomeneo",  with  or  without  the 

German  translation?   I   lent  one  copy  to  the  Countess 

VOL.  in  1185  K 

L.443  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

Thun,  who  has  now  moved  into  another  house,  and  cannot 
find  it.  Probably  it  is  lost.  Fraulein  Aurnhammer  had 
my  other  copy,  which  she  has  looked  for  but  has  not  yet 
found.  Perhaps  she  will  find  it.  But  if  she  doesn't,  I  shall 
be  left  high  and  dry  and  at  the  very  moment  when  I 
really  require  it.  In  order  therefore  to  be  on  the  safe  side, 
please  let  me  have  it  at  once,  whatever  the  cost  may  be, 
for  I  need  it  immediately  in  order  that  I  may  arrange  the 
programme  of  my  concert,  which  is  to  take  place  on  the 
third  Sunday  in  Lent.  Please  send  it  off  to  me  directly.  I 
shall  forward  the  sonatas l  by  the  next  mail  coach.  My 
opera2  has  not  gone  to  sleep,  but — has  suffered  a  set 
back  on  account  of  G luck's  big  operas3  and  owing  to  many 
very  necessary  alterations  which  have  to  be  made  in  the 
text.  It  is  to  be  performed,  however,  immediately  after 

Well,  I  must  close.  Just  one  thing  more  (for  if  I  did  not 
say  it  I  could  not  sleep  in  peace).  Please  do  not  suspect 
my  dear  Constanze  of  harbouring  such  evil  thoughts. 
Believe  me,  if  she  had  such  a  disposition,  I  could  not 
possibly  love  her.  Both  she  and  I  long  ago  observed  her 
mother's  designs.  But  the  latter  is  very  much  mistaken,  for 
she  wishes  us  (when  we  marry)  to  live  with  her,  as  she  has 
apartments  to  let.  This  is  out  of  the  question,  for  on  no 
account  would  I  consent  to  it,  and  my  Constanze  still  less. 
Au  contraire,  she  intends  to  see  very  little  of  her  mother 
and  I  shall  do  my  best  to  stop  it  altogether,  for  we  know 
her  too  well.  Dearest,  most  beloved  father,  my  only  wish 
is  that  we  may  soon  meet,  so  that  you  may  see  her  and — 
love  her,  for  you  love  those  who  have  kind  hearts — that  I 
know*  Now  farewell,  dearest,  most  beloved  father.  I  kiss 

1  K.  296  and  376-380. 

2  "Die  Entfiihrung-  aus  dem  Serail." 

3  "Iphigenie  in  Tauris",  "Alceste"  and  "Orfeo". 

4  The  first  performance  took  place  on  July  26th,  1782. 


iy82  MOZART  TO  HIS  SISTER  Z.  444 

your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  am  ever  your  most 

obedient  son 


I  embrace  my  dear  sister  with  all  my  heart.  I  shall  not 
forget  the  variations.1 

(444)  Mozart  to  his  Sister 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MA  TRES   CHERE  SCEUR!  VlENNE,  ce  l^febrier,  1782 

Thank  you  for  sending  me  the  libretto,2  for  which 
indeed  I  have  been  waiting  with  the  greatest  longing!  I 
hope  that  by  the  time  you  receive  this  letter,  you  will  have 
our  dearest,  most  beloved  father  with  you  again.  You 
must  not  gather  from  my  not  replying,  that  you  and  your 
letters  are  a  nuisance  to  me!  I  shall  always  be  delighted, 
dear  sister,  to  have  the  honour  of  receiving  a  letter  from 
you.  If  the  necessary  business  of  earning  my  living  did 
not  prevent  me,  God  knows  I  should  answer  your  letters 
at  once!  And  have  I  never  sent  you  a  reply?  Well,  then — 
forgetfulness  it  cannot  be — nor  negligence,  either;  there 
fore  it  is  entirely  due  to  positive  hindrances — to  genuine 
impossibility.  Do  I  not  write  little  enough  to  my  father? 
And  very  wrong,  too,  you  will  say!  But,  in  Heaven's 
name,  you  both  know  what  Vienna  is.  In  such  a  place 
has  not  a  man  (who  has  not  a  kreutzer  of  assured  income) 
enough  to  think  about  and  to  work  at  day  and  night? 
Our  father,  when  he  has  finished  his  duties  in  church,  and 
you,  when  you  have  done  with  your  few  pupils,  can  both 
do  what  you  like  for  the  rest  of  the  day  and  write  letters 
containing  whole  litanies.  But  it  is  not  so  with  me.  I 
described  my  manner  of  life  the  other  day  to  my  father 
and  I  will  repeat  it  to  you.  My  hair  is  always  done  by 
1  K.  359,  360,  352.  2  The  text  of  "Idomeneo". 


L.  444  MOZART  TO  HIS  SISTER  1782 

six  o'clock  in  the  morning  and  by  seven  I  am  fully  dressed. 
I  then  compose  until  nine.  From  nine  to  one  I  give 
lessons.  Then  I  lunch,  unless  I  am  invited  to  some  house 
where  they  lunch  at  two  or  even  three  o'clock,  as,  for 
example,  to-day  and  to-morrow  at  Countess  Zichy's  I  and 
Countess  Thun's.  I  can  never  work  before  five  or  six 
o'clock  in  the  evening,  and  even  then  I  am  often  pre 
vented  by  a  concert.  If  I  am  not  prevented,  I  compose 
until  nine.  I  then  go  to  my  dear  Constanze,  though  the 
joy  of  seeing  one  another  is  nearly  always  spoilt  by  her 
mother's  bitter  remarks.  I  shall  explain  this  in  my  next 
letter  to  my  father.  For  that  is  the  reason  why  I  am  long 
ing  to  be  able  to  set  her  free  and  to  rescue  her  as  soon  as 
possible.  At  half  past  ten  or  eleven  I  come  home — it 
depends  on  her  mother's  darts  and  on  my  capacity  to 
endure  them!  As  I  cannot  rely  on  being  able  to  compose 
in  the  evening  owing  to  the  concerts  which  are  taking 
place  and  also  to  the  uncertainty  as  to  whether  I  may  not 
be  summoned  now  here  and  now  there,  it  is  my  custom 
(especially  if  I  get  home  early)  to  compose  a  little  before 
going  to  bed.  I  often  go  on  writing  until  one — and  am 
up  again  at  six.  Dearest  sister!  If  you  imagine  that  I  can 
ever  forget  my  dearest,  most  beloved  father  and  you, 
then — but  I  shall  say  no  more.  God  knows  all  about  me 
and  that  is  consolation  enough.  May  He  punish  me,  if  I 
can  ever  forget  you.  Adieu.  I  am  ever  your  sincere  brother 


P.S. — If  my  dearest  father  is  back  in  Salzburg,2  tell 
him  that  I  kiss  his  hands  a  thousand  times. 

1  There  were  two  Countesses  Zichy,  Anna  Maria  Antonia,  n&e  Kheven- 
hiiller-Metsch  (1759-1809),  the  wife  of  Count  Karl  Zichy  (1753-1826), 
Court  Councillor  in  Vienna,  and  Maria  Theresa,  nte  Palfy  (1760-1833),  the 
wife  of  Count  Stefan  Zichy. 

2  Leopold  Mozart  had  gone  to  stay  with  the  Marchands  in  Munich   See 
p.  HIS,  n.  3.  » 


1782  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  445 

(445)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON   TRIES   CHER   P^RE!  VlENNE,  ce  23  de  mars,  1782 

I  am  very  sorry  that  I  heard  only  yesterday  that  a 
son  of  Leutgeb's  was  going  to  Salzburg  by  the  mail 
coach,  which  would  have  been  a  capital  opportunity  of 
sending  you  a  whole  lot  of  things  free  of  charge.  But  as 
it  was  impossible  to  copy  out  the  variations  J  in  these  two 
days,  I  have  only  been  able  to  give  him  the  two  copies  of 
my  sonatas.2  I  am  sending  you  at  the  same  time  the  last 
rondo  3  which  I  composed  for  my  concerto  in  D  major 
and  which  is  making  such  a  furore  in  Vienna.  But  I  beg 
you  to  guard  it  like  a  jewel  —  and  not  to  give  it  to  a  soul 
to  play  —  not  even  to  Marchand  and  his  sister.4  I  composed 
it  specially  for  myself  —  and  no  one  else  but  my  dear 
sister  must  play  it.  I  also  take  the  liberty  of  presenting 
you  with  a  snuff-box  and  a  few  watch-ribbons.  The  snuff 
box  is  quite  pretty;  the  painting  represents  an  English 
scene.  The  watch-ribbons  are  of  no  great  value,  but  are 
now  very  much  in  fashion.  I  am  sending  my  dear  sister 
two  caps  in  the  latest  Viennese  mode.  Both  are  the  handi 
work  of  my  dear  Constanze.  She  sends  her  most  devoted 
greetings  to  you  and  kisses  your  hands  and  also  embraces 
my  sister  most  affectionately  and  asks  her  to  forgive  her 
if  the  caps  are  not  as  becoming  as  she  would  have  wished, 
but  the  time  was  "too  short.  Please  return  the  bandbox  by 
the  next  mail  coach,  for  I  borrowed  it.  But  that  the  poor 

1  K.  359,  360,  352.  2  K.  296  and  376-380. 

3  K.  382,  a  rondo  written  for  K.  175,  clavier  concerto  in  D  major,  composed 
in  1773.  This  is  probably  the  rondo  which  Mozart  sent  to  Baroness  von 
Waldstadten.  See  p.  1228, 

4  Heinrich  and  Margarete  Marchand,  who  had  gone  to  live  with  Leopold 
Mozart.  Heinrich,  then  aged  twelve,  became  an  excellent  violinist,  and 
Margarete,  then  aged  fourteen,  a  fine  operatic  singer. 



fool  may  not  travel  all  alone,  be  so  good  as  to  put  the 
rondo  in  again  (after  you  have  had  it  copied) — and  also, 
if  possible,  the  last  scena  I  composed  for  Countess  Baum- 
garten  I — and  the  scores  of  a  few  of  my  masses 2 — enfin — 
whatever  you  may  find  and  may  think  might  be  useful  to 
me.  Well,  I  must  close.  But  I  must  tell  you  that  the  Pope 
arrived  in  Vienna  yesterday  afternoon  at  half  past  three 
— a  pleasant  piece  of  news.3  And  now  for  a  sad  one.  Frau 
von  Aurnhammer  has  at  last  worried  her  poor  dear 
husband  to  death.  He  died  yesterday  evening  at  half  past 
six.  He  had  been  poorly  for  some  time,  but  his  death  was 
not  expected  so  soon.  It  was  all  over  in  a  moment.  May 
God  have  mercy  on  his  soul.  He  was  a  good,  kind  man. 
Well,  I  must  close,  for  Leutgeb  is  waiting  for  my  letter. 
I  really  recommend  the  lad  to  you,  my  dear  father.  His 
father  would  like  to  get  him  into  a  business  house  or  into 
the  Salzburg  printing  firm.  Please  lend  him  a  helping 
hand.  My  dear  Constanze  has  surprised  me  this  very 
moment  and  has  just  asked  me  whether  she  might  dare 
to  send  my  sister  a  little  souvenir?  At  the  same  time  I  am 
to  apologise  for  her,  and  to  say  that,  as  she  is  a  poor  girl, 
she  has  nothing  to  give — and  that  she  hopes  that  my 
sister  will  take  the  will  for  the  deed.  The  little  cross  is  of 
no  great  value,  but  it  is  all  the  fashion  in  Vienna.  But  the 
little  heart  pierced  by  an  arrow  is  something  like  my 
sister's  heart  with  the  arrow — and  will  please  her  better 
on  that  account.  Now  farewell.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thou 
sand  times  and  embrace  my  dear  sister  with  all  my  heart 
and  am  ever  your  4 

1  K.  369. 

2  Probably  K.  317,  composed  in  1779,  and  K.  337,  composed  in  1780. 

3  Cp.  p.  1178,  n.  i. 

4  The  autograph  has  no  signature. 


ij82  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  446 

(446)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
MON   TRES    CHER   PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  IO  d'avril,  1782 

I  see  from  your  letter  of  April  2nd  that  you  have 
received  everything  safely.  I  am  glad  that  you  are  so 
pleased  with  the  watch-ribbons  and  the  snuff-box  and  my 
sister  with  the  two  caps.  I  did  not  buy  either  the  snuff-box 
or  the  watch-ribbons,  as  Count  Zapara  made  me  a  present 
of  them.  I  have  delivered  greetings  from  you  both  to  my 
dear  Constanze,  who  kisses  your  hands  in  return,  my 
father,  and  embraces  my  sister  most  cordially  and  hopes 
that  she  will  be  her  friend.  She  was  absolutely  delighted 
when  I  told  her  that  my  sister  was  very  much  pleased 
with  the  two  caps,  so  greatly  did  she  desire  to  give  her 
pleasure.  Your  postscript  about  her  mother  is  justified 
only  in  so  far  as  she  likes  wine,  and  more  so,  I  admit, 
than  a  woman  ought  to.  Still,  I  have  never  yet  seen  her 
drunk  and  it  would  be  a  lie  if  I  were  to  say  so.  The 
children  only  drink  water — and,  although  their  mother 
almost  forces  wine  upon  them,  she  cannot  induce  them  to 
touch  it.  This  often  leads  to  a  lot  of  wrangling — can  you 
imagine  a  mother  quarrelling  with  her  children  about  such 
a  matter? 

I  have  said  nothing  to  you  about  the  rumour  you 
mention  of  my  being  certainly  taken  into  the  Emperor's 
service,  because  I  myself  know  nothing  about  it.  It  is  true 
that  here  too  the  whole  town  is  ringing  with  it  and  that  a 
number  of  people  have  already  congratulated  me.  I  am 
quite  ready  to  believe  that  it  has  been  discussed  with  the 
Emperor  and  that  perhaps  he  is  contemplating  it.  But  up 
to  this  moment  I  have  no  definite  information.  At  all 
events  things  are  so  far  advanced  that  the  Emperor  is 


Z.  446  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1*782 

considering  it,  and  that  too  without  my  having  taken  a 
single  step.  I  have  been  a  few  times  to  see  Herr  von 
Strack  (who  is  certainly  a  very  good  friend  of  mine)  in 
order  to  let  myself  be  seen  and  because  I  like  his  society, 
but  I  have  not  gone  often,  because  I  do  not  wish  to  be 
come  a  nuisance  to  him,  or  to  let  him  think  that  I  have 
ulterior  motives.  As  a  man  of  honour  he  is  bound  to  state 
that  he  has  never  heard  me  say  a  word  which  would  give 
him  reason  to  think  that  I  should  like  to  stay  in  Vienna, 
let  alone  enter  the  Emperor's  service.  We  have  only  dis 
cussed  music.  Therefore  it  must  have  been  quite  spon 
taneously  and  entirely  without  self-interest  that  he  has 
been  speaking  so  favourably  of  me  to  the  Emperor.  If 
things  have  gone  so  far  without  any  effort  on  my  part, 
they  can  now  proceed  to  their  conclusion  in  the  same  way. 
For  if  one  makes  any  move  oneself,  one  immediately  re 
ceives  less  pay,  because,  as  it  is,  the  Emperor  is  a  niggard. 
If  he  wants  me,  he  must  pay  me,  for  the  honour  alone  of 
serving  him  is  not  enough.  Indeed,  if  he  were  to  offer  me 
1000  gulden  and  some  Count  2000,  I  should  decline  the 
former  proposal  with  thanks  and  go  to  the  Count — that 
is,  of  course,  if  it  were  a  permanent  arrangement.  A 
propos,  I  have  been  intending  to  ask  you,  when  you 
return  the  rondo,1  to  enclose  with  it  Handel's  six  fugues 2 
and  Eberlin's  toccatas  and  fugues.  I  go  every  Sunday  at 
twelve  o'clock  to  Baron  van  Swieten,  where  nothing  is 
played  but  Handel  and  Bach.  I  am  collecting  at  the 
moment  the  fugues  of  Bach — not  only  of  Sebastian,  but 
also  of  Emanuel 3  and  Friedemann.4  I  am  also  collecting 
Handel's  and  should  like  to  have  the  six  I  mentioned. 
I  should  like  the  Baron  to  hear  Eberlin's  too.  I 

1  See  p.  1189,  n.  3. 

2  Probably  the  six  fugues  for  the  clavecin,  written  about  1720. 

3  Carl  Philipp  Emanuel  Bach  (1714-1788),  J.  S.  Bach's  second  son. 

4  Wilhelm  Friedemann  Bach  (1710-1784),  J.  S.  Bach's  eldest  son. 


1782  MOZART  TO  HIS  SISTER  L.  447 

suppose  you  have  heard  that  the  English  Bach  l  is  dead? 
What  a  loss  to  the  musical  world!  Now,  farewell.  I  kiss 
your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  my  dear  sister 
with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


P.S. — May  I  also  ask  you  to  send  me  when  you  can 
(but  the  sooner  the  better)  my  concerto  in  C  major, 
written  for  Countess  Liitzow  ? 2 

(447)  Mozart  to  his  Sister 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

DEAREST  SISTER!  VIENNA,  April  2Qthy  1782 

My  dear  Constanze  has  at  last  summoned  up  courage 
to  follow  the  impulse  of  her  kind  heart — that  is,  to  write 
to  you,  my  dear  sister!  Should  you  be  willing  to  favour 
her  with  a  reply  (and  indeed  I  hope  you  will,  so  that  I 
may  see  the  sweet  creature's  delight  reflected  on  her  face), 
may  I  beg  you  to  enclose  your  letter  to  me?  I  only 
mention  this  as  a  precaution  and  so  that  you  may  know 
that  her  mother  and  sisters  are  not  aware  that  she  has 
written  to  you.  I  send  you  herewith  a  prelude  and  a 
three-part  fugue.3  The  reason  why  I  did  not  reply  to 
your  letter  at  once  was  that  on  account  of  the  wearisome 
labour  of  writing  these  small  notes,  I  could  not  finish 
the  composition  any  sooner.  And,  even  so,  it  is  awkwardly 
done,  for  the  prelude  ought  to  come  first  and  the  fugue 
to  follow.  But  I  composed  the  fugue  first  and  wrote  it 
down  while  I  was  thinking  out  the  prelude.  I  only  hope 

1  Johann  Christian  Bach,  J.  S.  Bach's  youngest  son,  died  on  January  1st, 
1782.  For  the  last  twenty  years  of  his  life  he  had  lived  almost  entirely  in 
England.  2  K.  246,  written  in  1776. 

*  K.  394,  Fantasy  and  Fugue  in  C  major. 


L.  447  MOZART  TO  HIS  SISTER  1782 

that  you  will  be  able  to  read  it,  for  it  is  written  so  very 
small;  and  I  hope  further  that  you  will  like  it.  Another 
time  I  shall  send  you  something  better  for  the  clavier. 
My  dear  Constanze  is  really  the  cause  of  this  fugue's 
coming  into  the  world.  Baron  van  Swieten,  to  whom  I  go 
every  Sunday,  gave  me  all  the  works  of  Handel  and 
Sebastian  Bach  to  take  home  with  me  (after  I  had  played 
them  to  him).  When  Constanze  heard  the  fugues,  she 
absolutely  fell  in  love  with  them.  Now  she  will  listen  to 
nothing  but  fugues,  and  particularly  (in  this  kind  of 
composition)  the  works  of  Handel  and  Bach.  Well,  as  she 
had  often  heard  me  play  fugues  out  of  my  head,  she  asked 
me  if  I  had  ever  written  any  down,  and  when  I  said  I  had 
not,  she  scolded  me  roundly  for  not  recording  some  of  my 
compositions  in  this  most  artistic  and  beautiful  of  all 
musical  forms,  and  never  ceased  to  entreat  me  until  I 
wrote  down  a  fugue  for  her.  So  this  is  its  origin.  I  have 
purposely  written  above  it  Andante  Maestoso,  as  it  must 
not  be  played  too  fast.  For  if  a  fugue  is  not  played  slowly, 
the  ear  cannot  clearly  distinguish  the  theme  when  it 
comes  in  and  consequently  the  effect  is  entirely  missed. 
In  time,  and  when  I  have  a  favourable  opportunity,  I 
intend  to  compose  five x  more  and  then  present  them  to 
Baron  van  Swieten,  whose  collection  of  good  music, 
though  small  in  quantity,  is  great  in  quality.  And  for 
that  very  reason  I  beg  you  to  keep  your  promise  not  to 
show  this  composition  to  a  soul.  Learn  it  by  heart  and 
play  it.  It  is  not  so  easy  to  pick  up  a  fugue  by  ear.  If  Papa 
has  not  yet  had  those  works  by  Eberlin  copied,  so  much 
the  better,  for  in  the  meantime  I  have  got  hold  of  them 
and  now  I  see  (for  I  had  forgotten  them)  that  they  are 
unfortunately  far  too  trivial  to  deserve  a  place  beside 
Handel  and  Bach.  With  due  respect  for  his  four-part 

1  K.  App.  39  and  K.  App.  40,  both  unfinished,  were  Mozart's  attempt  to 
carry  out  this  plan.  See  Kochel,  p.  476  f. 



composition  I  may  say  that  his  clavier  fugues  are 
nothing  but  long-drawn-out  voluntaries.  Now  farewell.  I 
am  glad  that  the  two  caps  suit  you.  I  kiss  you  a  thousand 
times  and  remain  your  sincere  brother 


Tell  Papa  I  kiss  his  hand.  I  received  no  letter  to-day. 

(447 a)  Constance  Weber  to  Nannerl  Mozart 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 

VIENNA,  April  2ot&,  1782 


I  should  never  have  been  so  bold  as  to  follow  the 
dictates  of  my  heart  and  to  write  to  you,  most  esteemed 
friend,  had  not  your  brother  assured  me  that  you  would 
not  be  offended  by  this  step  which  I  am  taking  solely 
from  an  earnest  longing  to  communicate,  if  only  in  writing, 
with  a  person  who,  though  unknown  to  me,  is  yet  very 
precious,  as  she  bears  the  name  of  Mozart.  Surely  you 
will  not  be  angry  if  I  venture  to  tell  you  that  though  I 
have  not  the  honour  of  knowing  you  personally  I  esteem 
you  most  highly,  as  the  sister  of  so  excellent  a  brother, 
and  that  I  love  you  and  even  venture  to  ask  you  for  your 
friendship.  Without  undue  pride  I  may  say  that  I  partly 
deserve  it  and  shall  endeavour  to  do  so  wholly!  May  I 
in  exchange  offer  you  mine,  which,  indeed,  has  long 
been  yours  in  the  secrecy  of  my  heart?  Ah!  I  trust  you 
will  accept  it,  and  in  this  hope  I  remain,  most  honoured 
and  valued  friend,  your  most  obedient  servant  and 


Please  tell  your  Papa  that  I  kiss  his  hand, 



(448)  Mozart  to  Constance  Weber 

[Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Fraujahns,  Berlin] 

VIENNA,  April  2gtk,  1782 

Surely  you  will  still  allow  me  to  address  you  by  this 
name?  Surely  you  do  not  hate  me  so  much  that  I  may  be 
your  friend  no  longer,  and  you — no  longer  mine?  And 
even  if  you  will  not  be  my  friend  any  longer,  yet  you 
cannot  forbid  me  to  wish  you  well,  my  friend,  since  it  has 
become  very  natural  for  me  to  do  so.  Do  think  over  what 
you  said  to  me  to-day.  In  spite  of  all  my  entreaties  you 
have  thrown  me  over  three  times  and  told  me  to  my  face 
that  you  intend  to  have  nothing  more  to  do  with  me.  I 
(to  whom  it  means  more  than  it  does  to  you  to  lose  the 
object  of  my  love)  am  not  so  hot-tempered,  so  rash  and 
so  senseless  as  to  accept  my  dismissal.  I  love  you  far  too 
well  to  do  so.  I  entreat  you,  therefore,  to  ponder  and 
reflect  upon  the  cause  of  all  this  unpleasantness,  which 
arose  from  my  being  annoyed  that  you  were  so  impud 
ently  inconsiderate  as  to  say  to  your  sisters — and,  be  it 
noted,  in  my  presence — that  you  had  let  a  ckapeau1 
measure  the  calves  of  your  legs.  No  woman  who  cares 
for  her  honour  can  do  such  a  thing.  It  is  quite  a  good 
maxim  to  do  as  one's  company  does.  At  the  same  time 
there  are  many  other  factors  to  be  considered — as,  for 
example,  whether  only  intimate  friends  and  acquaintances 
are  present — whether  I  am  a  child  or  a  marriageable  girl 
— more  particularly,  whether  I  am  already  betrothed — 
but,  above  all,  whether  only  people  of  my  own  social 
standing  or  my  social  inferiors — or,  what  is  even  more 
important,  my  social  superiors  are  in  the  company?  If  it 
be  true  that  the  Baroness 2  herself  allowed  it  to  be 
done  to  her,  the  case  is  still  quite  different,  for  she  is 

1  A  young  gallant,  a  The  Baroness  von  Waldstadten. 


1782      LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  J.  G.  I.  BREITKOPF  Z.  449 

already  past  her  prime  and  cannot  possibly  attract  any 
longer — and  besides,  she  is  inclined  to  be  promiscuous 
with  her  favours.  I  hope,  dearest  friend,  that,  even  if  you 
do  not  wish  to  become  my  wife,  you  will  never  lead  a  life 
like  hers.  If  it  was  quite  impossible  for  you  to  resist  the 
desire  to  take  part  in  the  game  (although  it  is  not  always 
wise  for  a  man  to  do  so,  and  still  less  for  a  woman),  then 
why  in  the  name  of  Heaven  did  you  not  take  the  ribbon 
and  measure  your  own  calves  yourself  (as  all  self-respect 
ing  women  have  done  on  similar  occasions  in  my  presence) 
and  not  allow  a  chapeau  to  do  so? — Why,  I  myself  in  the 
presence  of  others  would  never  have  done  such  a  thing  to 
you.  I  should  have  handed  you  the  ribbon  myself.  Still 
less,  then,  should  you  have  allowed  it  to  be  done  to  you 
by  a  stranger — a  man  about  whom  I  know  nothing.  But 
it  is  all  over  now;  and  the  least  acknowledgment  of  your 
somewhat  thoughtless  behaviour  on  that  occasion  would 
have  made  everything  all  right  again;  and  if  you  will  not 
make  a  grievance  of  it,  dearest  friend,  everything  will 
still  be  all  right.  You  realise  now  how  much  I  love  you,  / 
do  not  fly  into  a  passion  as  you  do.  I  think,  I  reflect  and  I 
feel.  If  you  will  but  surrender  to  your  feelings,  then  I  know 
that  this  very  day  I  shall  be  able  to  say  with  absolute 
confidence  that  Constanze  is  the  virtuous,  honourable, 
prudent  and  loyal  sweetheart  of  her  honest  and  devoted 


(449)  Leopold  Mozart  to  J.  G.  I.  Breitkopf,  Leipzig 

[Extract}  [Autograph  in  the  Universitdtsbibliothek,  Bonri[ 

SALZBURG,  April  29^,  1782 

My  son  is  in  Vienna  and  is  remaining  there.  Herr 
Artaria  has  published  some  of  his  clavier  sonatas.1 

1  K.  296  and  376-380,  the  violin  and  clavier  sonatas  dedicated  to  Fraulein 



Meanwhile  I  am  having  a  pleasant  time  with  two 
pupils,  the  twelve-year-old  son  and  the  fourteen-year-old 
daughter  of  Herr  Marchand,1  theatrical  manager  in 
Munich,  whom  I  am  instructing.  I  hope  to  make  a  great 
violinist  and  clavierist  out  of  the  boy  and  a  good  singer 
and  excellent  clavierist  out  of  the  girl. 

(450)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg~\ 
MON   TRES   CHER   PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  8  de  maj,  1782 

I  have  received  your  last  letter  of  April  30th  and  yester 
day  too  my  sister's  letter  with  the  enclosure  for  my  dear 
Constanze,  to  whom  I  gave  it  at  once.  It  caused  her  sincere 
pleasure  and  she  will  take  the  liberty  of  writing  to  her 
again  very  soon.  Meanwhile  (as  I  cannot  possibly  find 
time  to  write  to  my  sister  to-day)  I  must  put  a  question 
to  you  on  behalf  of  Constanze,  which  is,  whether  fringes 
are  being  worn  in  Salzburg?  Whether  my  sister  is  wearing 
them  already?  Whether  she  can  make  them  herself?  Con 
stanze  has  just  trimmed  two  pique  dresses  with  them,  for 
they  are  all  the  fashion  in  Vienna.  As  she  can  make  them 
herself  now,  she  would  like  to  send  some  to  my  sister,  if 
the  latter  will  tell  her  which  shade  she  prefers.  For  they  are 
worn  in  all  colours,  white,  black,  green,  blue,  puce,  etc. 
A  satin  or  gros  de  turc  silk  dress  must  be  trimmed,  of 
course,  with  silk  fringes,  and  Constanze  has  a  dress  of  this 
kind.  An  ordinary  dress  of  pretty  Saxon  pique,  trimmed 
with  cotton  fringes  (which,  unless  you  feel  them,  can 
hardly  be  distinguished  from  silk),  looks  very  well;  and 
the  advantage  of  such  a  combination  is  that  the  fringes 
can  be  washed  on  the  dress. 

1  Heinrich  and  Margarete  Marchand. 

1782  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  450 

Please  write  and  tell  me  how  Salieri's  opera x  in 
Munich  went  off.  I  am  sure  that  you  managed  to  hear  it, 
but,  if  not,  you  are  certain  to  know  how  it  was  received. 
I  called  twice  on  Count  Daun, 2  but  each  time  he  was  not 
at  home.  However,  I  sent  for  the  music.  Indeed  he  is 
only  at  home  in  the  mornings,  when  not  only  do  I  never 
go  out,  but  I  do  not  even  dress,  as  I  have  such  a  lot  of 
composing  to  do.  All  the  same  I  shall  try  to  see  him  next 
Sunday.  Perhaps  he  will  be  able  to  take  my  Munich 
opera 3  as  well  as  the  variations.4 

I  was  at  Countess  Thun's  yesterday  and  played 
through  my  second  act 5  to  her,  with  which  she  seems  no 
less  pleased  than  she  was  with  the  first.  I  have  had 
RaafFs  aria 6  copied  long  ago  and  have  given  it  to 
Fischer,  whom  he  had  commissioned  to  get  it.  You  said 
once  in  a  letter  that  you  would  like  to  have  the  Robinig 
music.7  Who  has  it?  I  haven't.  I  think  Eck  gave  it  back 
to  you.  I  asked  you  for  it  in  my  letter  as  well  as  for  the 
Cassations  in  F  and  Bb.8  Do  please  send  me  soon  the  scena 
I  composed  for  Countess  Baumgarten.9  This  summer 
there  is  to  be  a  concert  every  Sunday  in  the  Augarten.10 
A  certain  Martin  "  organised  last  winter  a  series  of 
amateur  concerts,  which  took  place  every  Friday  in  the 
Mehlgrube.12  You  know  that  there  are  a  great  many 

1  Salieri's  "Semiramide",  performed  during  the  Munich  carnival  season, 
1782.  2  Count  Daun,  canon  of  the  Sabburg  Cathedral. 

"Idomeneo."  4  K.  359,  360,  352. 

Of  his  opera  "Die  Entfiihrung  aus  dem  Serail". 

K.  295,  composed  in  1778. 

A  divertimento,  K.  334,  and  a  march,  K.  445,  composed  in  1779. 

K.  247,  composed  in  1776,  and  K.  287,  composed  in  1777.  9  K.  369. 

A  well-known  public  garden  in  the  Leopoldstadt  suburb  of  Vienna, 
where,  as  at  Vauxhall  and  Ranelagh,  public  concerts  were  held.  It  was 
opened  in  1775  by  the  Emperor  Joseph  II. 

11  Philipp  Martin  of  Regensburg. 

12  A  very  old  building  in  the  Neuer  Markt,  to  which  a  flour  warehouse  in 
the  basement  gave  its  name.  It  was  then  an  inn  with  a  large  hall,  where 
balls  and  concerts  were  held.  The  Hotel  Kranz- Ambassador  now  occupies 
the  site. 


Z.  450  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

amateurs  in  Vienna,  and  some  very  good  ones  too,  both 
men  and  women.  But  so  far  these  concerts  have  not  been 
properly  arranged.  Well,  this  Martin  has  now  got  per 
mission  from  the  Emperor  under  charter  (with  the 
promise  too  of  his  gracious  patronage)  to  give  twelve 
concerts  in  the  Augarten  and  four  grand  serenades  in 
the  finest  open  places  of  the  city.  The  subscription  for 
the  whole  summer  is  two  ducats.  So  you  can  imagine 
that  we  shall  have  plenty  of  subscribers,  the  more  so  as 
I  am  taking  an  interest  in  it  and  am  associated  with  it. 
Assuming  that  we  get  only  a  hundred  subscribers,  then 
each  of  us  will  have  a  profit  of  three  hundred  gulden  (even 
if  the  costs  amount  to  two  hundred  gulden,  which  is  most 
unlikely).  Baron  van  Swieten  and  the  Countess  Thun  are 
very  much  interested  in  it.  The  orchestra  consists  entirely 
of  amateurs,  with  the  exception  of  the  bassoon-players, 
the  trumpeters  and  drummers.  I  hear  that  dementi  is 
leaving  Vienna  to-morrow.  Have  you  seen  his  sonatas? 

Please  have  a  little  patience  with  poor  Leutgeb.  If  you 
knew  his  circumstances  and  saw  how  he  has  to  muddle 
along,  you  would  certainly  feel  sorry  for  him.  I  shall 
have  a  word  with  him  and  I  feel  sure  that  he  will  pay 
you,  at  any  rate  by  instalments.  Now  farewell.  I  kiss 
your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  am  ever  your  most 
obedient  son 


P.S. — I  kiss  my  dear  sister  a  thousand  times.  My 
remembrances  to  Katherl  and  a  greeting  to  Thresel — 
and  tell  her  that  she  is  to  be  my  nursery-maid,  but  that 
she  will  have  to  practise  her  singing  hard.  Adieu,  A 
pinch  of  Spanish  snuff  for  Bimperl. 



From  a  water-colour  painting  by  an  unknown  artist 
(Signor  Riccardo  Rossi,  Vittorio  Veneto) 


(451)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TRES   CHER   PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  2$  de  may,  1782 

This  time  I  must  really  steal  a  moment,  so  that  you 
may  not  wait  too  long  for  a  letter.  For  to-morrow  our  first 
concert  takes  place  in  the  Augarten  and  at  half  past  eight 
Martin  is  fetching  me  in  a  carriage  and  we  have  still  six 
visits  to  pay,  which  I  must  finish  off  by  eleven  o'clock,  as 
I  then  have  to  go  to  the  Countess  Rumbeck.  Afterwards  I 
am  lunching  with  the  Countess  Thun  and,  I  should  add,  in 
her  garden.  In  the  evening  we  are  having  the  rehearsal  of 
the  concert.  A  symphony  by  Van  S wieten  and  one  of  mine 1 
are  being  performed;  an  amateur  singer,  Mile  Berger,  is 
going  to  sing;  a  boy  of  the  name  of  Turk  is  playing  a 
violin  concerto;  and  Fraulein  Aurnhammer  and  I  are 
playing  my  Ei>  concerto  for  two  pianos.2 

(45 1  a)  Constance  Weber  to  Leopold  Mozart 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg 

VIENNA,  May  z$th,  1782 

Your  dear  son  has  been  summoned  this  very  moment 
to  Countess  Thun's  and  hasn't  time  to  finish  this  letter 
to  his  dear  father,  which  he  much  regrets.  He  has  com 
missioned  me  to  let  you  know  this,  for,  as  to-day  is  post- 
day,  he  does  not  wish  you  to  be  without  a  letter  from  him. 
He  will  write  more  to  his  dear  father  the  next  time.  Please 
forgive  me  for  writing  to  you.  These  few  lines  cannot  be 
as  agreeable  to  you  as  those  which  your  son  would  have 

1  Probably  K.  338,  composed  in  1780. 
2  K.  365,  composed  in  1779. 

VOL.  Ill  1 20 1  L 

L.  452  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

I  am  ever  your  faithful  servant  and  friend 


Please  give  my  compliments  to  your  amiable  daughter. 
(452)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TRIDS  CHER  P&RE!  VlENNE,  ce  29  de  may,  1782 

I  was  positively  prevented  the  other  day  from 
finishing  my  letter  and  therefore  asked  my  dear  Constanze 
to  make  my  apologies  to  you.  She  hesitated  for  some  time, 
fearing  that  you  might  laugh  at  her  spelling  and  style; 
and  she  is  giving  me  no  peace  until  I  write  to  you  and 
convey  her  excuses. 

The  first  amateur  concert  went  off  tolerably  well.  The 
Archduke  Maximilian  was  there,  the  Countess  Thun, 
Wallenstein,  Baron  van  Swieten  and  a  whole  crowd  of 
other  people.  I  am  earnestly  longing  for  the  arrival  of  the 
next  mail  coach,  which  is  to  bring  me  some  music.  In  re 
gard  to  the  Robinig  music *  I  can  assure  you  most  faithfully 
that  I  never  took  it  with  me — and  that  Eck  must  still  have 
it,  for  he  had  not  returned  it  when  I  left  Munich.  The 
organiser  of  these  amateur  concerts,  M.  Martin,  knows 
Abbe  Bullinger  very  well,  for  he  was  a  pupil  at  the 
Munich  seminary  in  his  day.  He  is  a  very  worthy  young 
man,  who  is  trying  to  make  his  way  by  his  music,  by  his 
elegant  writing  and  generally  by  his  ability,  intelligence 
and  sound  judgment.  When  he  came  to  Vienna,  he  had  a 
hard  struggle — and  had  to  manage  for  a  fortnight  on  half 
a  gulden.  Adamberger,  who  knew  him  in  Munich,  has 
been  very  kind  to  him.  He  is  a  native  of  Regensburg  and 
his  father  was  private  physician  to  Prince  Taxis.  My  dear 
Constanze  and  I  are  lunching  to-morrow  with  Countess 

1  See  p.  1199,  n.  7. 

Ij82  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  452 

Thun  and  I  am  to  play  over  my  third  act x  to  her.  At  the 
moment  I  have  nothing  but  very  tiresome  work — that  is, 
correcting.  We  are  to  have  our  first  rehearsal  next  Mon 
day.  I  must  confess  that  I  am  looking  forward  with  much 
pleasure  to  this  opera.  A  propos.  A  few  days  ago  I  had  a 
letter — from  whom?  From  Herr  von  Feigele.  And  the 
contents — that  he  is  in  love — and  with  whom?  With  my 
sister?  Not  at  all — with  my  cousin!  2  Well,  he  will  have  to 
wait  a  long  time  before  getting  an  answer  from  me;  for  you 
know  how  little  time  I  have  for  writing.  But  I  am  rather 
curious  to  see  how  long  his  infatuation  will  last. 

Now  for  something  that  I  heard  quite  by  accident  and 
which  makes  me  very  much  annoyed  with  Count 
Kiihnburg.  Fraulein  von  Aurnhammer  told  me  yesterday 
that  Herr  von  Moll  had  asked  her  whether  she  would  be 
willing  to  enter  a  nobleman's  family  in  Salzburg  at  a 
salary  of  three  hundred  gulden  a  year.  The  name  was 
Kiihnburg.  What  do  you  think  of  that?  So  it  seems  that  my 
sister's  services  count  for  nothing!  Make  your  own  use  of 
this  information.  He  was  only  here  for  a  day,  but  if  he 
returns,  I  shall  find  an  opportunity  of  speaking  to  him 
on  the  subject.  Now  farewell.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand 
times  and  embrace  my  dear  sister  with  all  my  heart.  I  also 
send  to  Mile  Marchand  (with  my  dear  Constanze's  per 
mission)  a  few  kisses,  and  I  am  ever  your  most  obedient 


P.S. — My  dear  Constanze  kisses  your  hands  and  em 
braces  my  sister  as  her  true  friend  and  future  sister-in- 

1  Of  the  "Entfuhrung  aus  dem  Serail". 

2  Maria  Anna  Thekla  Mozart,  the  "Basle".  She  died  in  1841  at  the  age 
of  eighty-three.  According  to  Schurig,  vol.  i.  p.  455,  descendants  of  her 
illegitimate  daughter,  Marianne  Viktoria  Mozart  (1793-1857),  were  living 
in  Vienna  in  1923. 


L.  453  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

(453)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
MON    TRES    CHER    PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  2O  de  Juliet,  1782 

I  hope  that  you  received  safely  my  last  letter  in 
forming  you  of  the  good  reception  of  my  opera.1  Tt  was 
given  yesterday  for  the  second  time.  Can  you  really 
believe  it,  but  yesterday  there  was  an  even  stronger  cabal 
against  it  than  on  the  first  evening!  The  whole  first  act 
was  accompanied  by  hissing.  But  indeed  they  could  not 
prevent  the  loud  shouts  of  "bravo"  during  the  arias.  I  was 
relying  on  the  closing  trio,2  but,  as  ill-luck  would  have 
it,  Fischer  went  wrong,  which  made  Dauer  (Pedrillo)  go 
wrong  too;  and  Adamberger  alone  could  not  sustain  the 
trio,  with  the  result  that  the  whole  effect  was  lost  and  that 
this  time  it  was  not  repeated.  I  was  in  such  a  rage  (and 
so  was  Adamberger)  that  I  was  simply  beside  myself  and 
said  at  once  that  I  would  not  let  the  opera  be  given  again 
without  having  a  short  rehearsal  for  the  singers.  In  the 
second  act  both  duets  were  repeated  as  on  the  first  night, 
and  in  addition  Belmonte's  rondo  "Wenn  der  Freude 
Tranen  fliessen".  The  theatre  was  almost  more  crowded 
than  on  the  first  night  and  on  the  preceding  day  no 
reserved  seats  were  to  be  had,  either  in  the  stalls  or  in  the 
third  circle,  and  not  a  single  box.  My  opera  has  brought 
in  1 200  gulden  in  the  two  days.  I  send  you  herewith  the 
original  score  and  two  copies  of  the  libretto.  You  will  see 
that  I  have  cut  out  several  passages.  I  knew  that  here  the 
practice  is  for  the  score  to  be  copied  at  once;  but  I  first 
gave  free  rein  to  my  ideas  and  then  made  my  alterations 
and  cuts  at  the  last  moment.  The  opera  was  performed 
just  as  you  now  have  it;  but  here  and  there  the  parts 

1  The  "Entfiihrung  aus  dem  Serail"  was  performed  on  July  i6th.  The 
letter  to  which  Mozart  refers  is  unfortunately  lost. 

2  The  last  number  of  Act  I. 


1782  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z.  453 

for  trumpets,  drums,  flutes,  and  clarinets,  and  the 
Turkish  music  are  missing,  because  I  could  not  get 
any  music  paper  with  so  many  lines.  Those  parts  were 
written  out  on  extra  sheets,  which  the  copyist  has  probably 
lost,  for  he  could  not  find  them.1  The  first  act,  when  I  was 
sending  it  somewhere  or  other — I  forget  where,  unfortun 
ately  fell  in  the  mud,  which  explains  why  it  is  so  dirty. 

Well,  I  am  up  to  the  eyes  in  work,  for  by  Sunday  week 
I  have  to  arrange  my  opera  for  wind-instruments.  If  I 
don't,  someone  will  anticipate  me  and  secure  the  profits. 
And  now  you  ask  me  to  write  a  new  symphony!  *  How  on 
earth  can  I  do  so?  You  have  no  idea  how  difficult  it  is  to 
arrange  a  work  of  this  kind  for  wind-instruments,  so  that 
it  suits  these  instruments  and  yet  loses  none  of  its  effect. 
Well,  I  must  just  spend  the  night  over  it,  for  that  is  the  only 
way;  and  to  you,  dearest  father,  I  sacrifice  it.  You  may 
rely  on  having  something  from  me  by  every  post.  I  shall 
work  as  fast  as  possible  and,  as  far  as  haste  permits,  I  shall 
turn  out  good  work. 

Count  Zichy  3  has  this  moment  sent  me  a  message 
inviting  me  to  drive  with  him  to  Laxenburg,  so  that  he 
may  present  me  to  Prince  Kaunitz.  So  I  must  close  this 
letter  and  dress.  For  when  I  have  no  intention  of  going 
out  I  always  remain  en  neglige.  The  copyist  has  just  sent 
me  the  remaining  parts.  Adieu.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thou 
sand  times  and  embrace  my  dear  sister  with  all  my  heart 
and  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son  w  ^  MOZART 

P.S. — My  dear  Constanze  sends  greetings  to  you  both. 

1  Cp.  p.  1480,  n.  2. 

2  K.  385,  the   "Haffner"  symphony  in   D  major.  Mozart  had  already 
written  a  march  (K.  249)  and  a  serenade  (K.  250)  for  the  wedding  of  Elise 
Haffner,   daughter  of  Sigmund   Haffner,  merchant  and  burgomaster  of 
Salzburg.  According  to  Deutsch-Paumgartner,  op.  cit.  p.  533,  the  symphony 
was  commissioned  to  celebrate  the  granting  of  a  title  of  nobility  to  young 
Sigmund  Haffner  (1756-1787)-  See  also  Kochel,  p.  490. 

3  His  wife,  Countess  Zichy,  was  Mozart's  pupil  on  the  clavier. 



(454)  Mozart  to  his  Sister 

\Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Frau  Floersheim-Koch,  Florence] 

VIENNA,  July  24^,  1782 

Forgive  me,  dear  sister,  for  not  sending  you  a  formal 
letter  of  congratulation,  but  I  really  have  no  time.  Besides 
you  know  that,  as  it  is,  I  wish  you  daily  every  good  thing. 
It  was  impossible  for  me  to  find  a  moment  to-day  to  write 
to  my  father.  But  I  shall  certainly  do  so  next  post-day. 
Adieu.  Farewell.  My  opera  is  to  be  performed  in  your 
honour  on  your  name-day.1  I  kiss  my  dear  father's  hands 
and  I  kiss  you  a  thousand  times  and  am  ever  your  sincere 


(454a)  Constance  Weber  to  Nannerl 

[Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Frau  Floersheim-Koch,  Florence} 

MOST  PRECIOUS  FRIEND,  VIENNA,  July  241/1,  1782 

Forgive  me  for  taking  the  liberty  of  worrying  you 
again  with  my  scrawl.  Your  approaching  name-day  must 
be  my  excuse!  And  if  my  good  wishes  are  a  nuisance  to 
you,  as  indeed  all  congratulations  are,  my  consolation 
must  be  that  already  I  am  not  the  only  one  who  is 
bothering  you  in  this  way.  All  that  I  deserve  is  that  for 
the  love  of  God  you  should  suffer  me  as  you  do  all  the 
others.  Yet  could  you  but  see  into  my  heart  and  read  what 
is  there,  perhaps  I  might  be  exempted  from  your  general 
complaint;  that  at  least.  Possibly,  nay  assuredly,  among 
the  exempted  I  should  even  be  given  some  preference.  So 
I  wish  with  all  my  heart  that  you  will  be,  and  not  only 
become,  very  happy,  and  that  you  will  really  be  as  happy 

1  July  26th, 


as  I  am  confident  that  I  shall  be  in  the  future.  If  you  are; 
then  .  .  -1 

(455)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
MON    TRES    CHER    PERE!  '          VlENNE,  ce  27  Juliet,  1782 

You  will  be  surprised  and  disappointed  to  find  that 
this  contains  only  the  first  Allegro; 2  but  it  has  been  quite 
impossible  to  do  more  for  you,  for  I  have  had  to  compose 
in  a  great  hurry  a  serenade,3  but  only  for  wind-instruments 
(otherwise  I  could  have  used  it  for  you  too).  On  Wednes 
day  the  3ist  I  shall  send  the  two  minuets,  the  Andante 
and  the  last  movement.4  If  I  can  manage  to  do  so,  I  shall 
send  a  march  too.5  If  not,  you  will  just  have  to  use  the  one 6 
in  the  Haffner  music,  which  hardly  anyone  knows — 

I  have  composed  my  symphony  in  D  major,  because 
you  prefer  that  key. 

My  opera  was  given  yesterday  for  the  third  time  in 
honour  of  all  the  Nannerls 7  and  won  the  greatest  applause; 
and  again,  in  spite  of  the  frightful  heat,  the  theatre  was 
packed.  It  was  to  be  given  again  next  Friday,  but  I  have 
protested  against  this,  for  I  do  not  want  it  to  become 
hackneyed.  I  may  say  that  people  are  absolutely  infatuated 
with  this  opera.  Indeed  it  does  one  good  to  win  such 
approbation.  I  hope  that  you  have  safely  received  the 
original  score.  Dearest,  most  beloved  father,  I  implore  you 

1  The  autograph  breaks  off  here. 

2  Of  his  new  symphony  for  the  Haffner  family,  K.  385.  3  K.  388. 
4  Of  his  new  symphony,  K.  385.  One  minuet  seems  to  have  been  lost.  See 

Kochel,  p.  490.  s  K.  408,  No.  2. 

«  K.  249,  composed  in  1776.  7  July  26th,  St.  Anne's  Day. 


L.  455  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

by  all  you  hold  dear  in  the  world  to  give  your  consent  to 
my  marriage  with  my  dear  Constanze.  Do  not  suppose 
that  it  is  just  for  the  sake  of  getting  married.  If  that  were 
the  only  reason,  I  would  gladly  wait.  But  I  realise  that  it  is 
•  absolutely  necessary  for  my  own  honour  and  for  that  of 
my  girl,  and  for  the  sake  of  my  health  and  spirits.  My  heart 
is  restless  and  my  head  confused;  in  such  a  condition 
how  can  one  think  and  work  to  any  good  purpose?  And 
why  am  I  in  this  state?  Well,  because  most  people  think 
that  we  are  already  married.  Her  mother  gets  very  much 
annoyed  when  she  hears  these  rumours,  and,  as  for  the 
poor  girl  and  myself,  we  are  tormented  to  death.  This 
state  of  affairs  can  be  remedied  so  easily.  Believe  me,  it  is 
just  as  easy  to  live  in  expensive  Vienna  as  anywhere  else. 
It  all  depends  on  economy  and  good  management,  which 
cannot  be  expected  from  a  young  fellow,  particularly  if  he 
is  in  love.  Whoever  gets  a  wife  like  my  Constanze  will 
certainly   be  a   happy   man.   We   intend   to   live   very 
modestly  and  quietly  and  yet  we  shall  be  happy.  Do  not 
be  uneasy,  for,  if  I  were  to  fall  ill  to-day,  which  God 
forbid,  I  would  wager  that  the  leading  nobles  would  stand 
by  me  manfully  and  the  more  so  if  I  were  married.  I  can 
say  this  with  entire  confidence.   I   know  what  Prince 
Kaunitz  has  said  about  me  to  the  E  mperor  and  to  the  Arch 
duke  Maximilian.  Most  beloved  father,  I  am  longing  to 
have  your  consent.  I  feel  sure  that  you  will  give  it,  for  my 
honour  and  my  reputation  depend  upon  it.  Do  not  post 
pone  too  long  the  joy  of  embracing  your  son  and  his  wife. 
I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  am  ever  your 

obedient  son 


P.S. — I  embrace  my  dear  sister  most  cordially.  My 
dear  Constanze  sends  her  kind  regards  to  you  both. 


1782  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  456 

(456)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

\Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VIENNE,  ce  31  de  Julliette,  1782 
You  see  that  my  intentions  are  good — only  what  one 
cannot  do  one  cannot!  I  am  really  unable  to  scribble  off* 
inferior  stuff.  So  I  cannot  send  you  the  whole  symphony  x 
until  next  post-day.  I  could  have  let  you  have  the  last 
movement,  but  I  prefer  to  despatch  it  all  together,  for 
then  it  will  cost  only  one  postage.  What  I  have  sent  you 
has  already  cost  me  three  gulden.  I  received  to-day  your 
letter  of  the  26th,  but  a  cold,  indifferent  letter,  such  as  I 
could  never  have  expected  in  reply  to  my  news  of  the  good 
reception  of  my  opera.2  I  thought  (judging  by  my  own 
feelings)  that  you  would  hardly  be  able  to  open  the  parcel 
for  excitement  and  eagerness  to  see  your  son's  work, 
which,  far  from  merely  pleasing,  is  making  such  a  sensa 
tion  in  Vienna  that  people  refuse  to  hear  anything  else, 
so  that  the  theatre  is  always  packed.  It  was  given 
yesterday  for  the  fourth  time  and  is  to  be  repeated  on 
Friday.  But  you — have  not  had  the  time.  So  the  whole 
world  declares  that  by  my  boasting  and  criticising  I  have 
made  enemies  of  the  professors  of  music  and  of  many 
others!  What  world  pray?  Presumably  the  world  of 
Salzburg,  for  everyone  in  Vienna  can  see  and  hear 
enough  to  be  convinced  of  the  contrary.  And  that  shall  be 
my  reply.  In  the  meantime  you  will  have  received  my 
last  letter;  and  I  feel  confident  that  your  next  will  contain 
your  consent  to  my  marriage.  You  can  have  no  objection 
whatever  to  raise — and  indeed  you  do  not  raise  any.  Your 
letters  show  me  that.  For  Constanze  is  a  respectable  honest 
girl  of  good  parentage,  and  I  am  able  to  support  her.  We 
love  each  other — and  want  each  other.  All  that  you  have 

1  K.  385.  2  "Die  Entfuhrung  aus  dem  Serail." 



written  and  may  possibly  write  to  me  on  the  subject  can 
only  be  well-meaning  advice  which,  however  fine  and 
good  it  may  be,  is  no  longer  applicable  to  a  man  who  has 
gone  so  far  with  a  girl.  In  such  a  case  nothing  can  be 
postponed.  It  is  better  for  him  to  put  his  affairs  in  order 
and  act  like  an  honest  fellow!  God  will  ever  reward  that. 
I  mean  to  have  nothing  with  which  to  reproach  myself. 

Now  farewell.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and 
am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 


P.S. — I  embrace  my  dear  sister  with  all  my  heart. 

(457)  Mozart  to  Baroness  von  Waldstadten 

[Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Mrs.  Enid  Lamb  art,  London} 

VIENNA,  August  [?  2nd],  1782  * 


Madame  Weber's  maid-servant  has  brought  me  my 
music,  for  which  I  have  had  to  give  her  a  written  receipt. 
She  has  also  told  me  something  in  confidence  which, 
although  I  do  not  believe  it  could  happen,  as  it  would  be 
a  disgrace  to  the  whole  family,  yet  seems  possible  when 
one  remembers  Madame  Weber's  stupidity,  and  which 
consequently  causes  me  anxiety.  It  appears  that  Sophie2 
went  to  the  maid-servant  in  tears  and  when  the  latter 
asked  her  what  was  the  matter,  she  said:  "Do  tell 
Mozart  in  secret  to  arrange  for  Constanze  to  go  home,  for 
my  mother  is  absolutely  determined  to  have  her  fetched 
by  the  police".  Are  the  police  in  Vienna  allowed  to  go 
into  any  house?  Perhaps  the  whole  thing  is  only  a  trap  to 
make  her  return  home.  But  if  it  could  be  done,  then  the 

1  The  autograph  is  undated. 
2  Sophie,  Frau  Weber's  youngest  daughter. 


1782  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  458 

best  plan  I  can  think  of  is  to  marry  Constanze  to-morrow 
morning — or  even  to-day,  if  that  is  possible.  For  I  should 
not  like  to  expose  my  beloved  one  to  this  scandal — and 
there  could  not  be  one,  if  she  were  my  wife.  One  thing 
more.  Thorwart  has  been  summoned  to  the  Webers 
to-day.  I  entreat  you,  dear  Baroness,  to  let  me  have  your 
friendly  advice  and  to  assist  us  poor  creatures.  I  shall  be 
at  home  all  day.  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and 
am  your  most  grateful  servant 


In  the  greatest  haste.  Constanze  knows  nothing  of  this 
as  yet.  Has  Herr  von  Thorwart  been  to  see  you?  Is  it 
necessary  for  the  two  of  us  to  visit  him  after  lunch  to-day? 

(458)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

\Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
MON    TRES    CHER    FERE!  VlENNE,  ce  7  cTaout,  1782 

You  are  very  much  mistaken  in  your  son  if  you  can 
suppose  him  capable  of  acting  dishonestly.  My  dear 
Constanze — now,  thank  God,  at  last  my  wife  I — knew  my 
circumstances  and  heard  from  me  long  ago  all  that  I  had 
to  expect  from  you.  But  her  affection  and  her  love  for 
me  were  so  great  that  she  willingly  and  joyfully  sacrificed 
her  whole  future  to  share  my  fate.  I  kiss  your  hands 
and  thank  you  with  all  the  tenderness  which  a  son  has 
ever  felt  for  a  father,  for  your  kind  consent  and  fatherly 
blessing.  But  indeed  I  could  safely  rely  on  it.  For 
you  know  that  I  myself  could  not  but  see  only  too 
clearly  all  the  objections  that  could  be  raised  against 
such  a  step.  At  the  same  time  you  also  know  that  I  could 
not  act  otherwise  without  injury  to  my  conscience  and  my 

1  The  marriage  took  place  on  August  4th,  1782. 

Z.  458  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

honour.  Consequently  I  could  certainly  rely  on  having 
your  consent.  So  it  was  that  having  waited  two  post-days 
in  vain  for  a  reply  and  the  ceremony  having  been  fixed 
for  a  day  by  which  I  was  certain  to  have  received  it,  I 
was  married  by  the  blessing  of  God  to  my  beloved 
Constanze.  I  was  quite  assured  of  your  consent  and  was 
therefore  comforted.  The  following  day  I  received  your 
two  letters  at  once — Well,  it  is  over!  I  only  ask  your  for 
giveness  for  my  too  hasty  trust  in  your  fatherly  love.  In 
this  frank  confession  you  have  a  fresh  proof  of  my  love  of 
truth  and  hatred  of  a  lie.  Next  post-day  my  dear  wife  will 
ask  her  dearest,  most  beloved  Papa-in-law  for  his  fatherly 
blessing  and  her  beloved  sister-in-law  for  the  continuance 
of  her  most  valued  friendship.  No  one  was  present  at  the 
wedding  save  her  mother  and  her  youngest  sister,  Herr 
von  Thorwart  as  guardian  and  witness  for  both  of  us, 
Herr  von  Cetto,  district  councillor,  who  gave  away  the 
bride,  and  Gilowsky  as  my  best  man.1  When  we  had  been 
joined  together,  both  my  wife  and  I  began  to  weep.  All 
present,  even  the  priest,  were  deeply  touched  and  all  wept 
to  see  how  much  our  hearts  were  moved.  Our  whole 
wedding  feast  consisted  of  a  supper  given  for  us  by  the 
Baroness  von  Waldstadten,  which  indeed  was  more 
princely  than  baronial.  My  dear  Constanze  is  now  looking 
forward  a  hundred  times  more  to  a  visit  to  Salzburg,  and 
I  wager — I  wager — that  you  will  rejoice  in  my  happiness 
when  you  get  to  know  her,  that  is,  if  you  agree  with  me 
that  a  right-minded,  honest,  virtuous  and  amiable  wife 
is  a  blessing  to  her  husband. 

I  send  you  herewith  a  short  march.2  I  only  hope  that 
all  will  reach  you  in  good  time,  and  be  to  your  taste.  The 
first  Allegro  must  be  played  with  great  fire,  the  last — as 
fast  as  possible.  My  opera  was  given  again  yesterday — 

1  For  Mozart's  certificate  of  marriage  see  Abert,  vol.  ii.  p.  907. 
2  K.  408,  No.  2,  the  promised  addition  to  K.  385,  the  Haffner  symphony. 


1782  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z.  459 

and  that  too  at  Gluck's  request.  He  has  been  very  com 
plimentary  to  me  about  it.  I  am  lunching  with  him 
to-morrow.  You  see  by  my  writing  how  I  must  hurry. 
Adieu.  My  dear  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand 
times  and  we  both  embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our 
hearts  and  I  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 

August  7th,  1782. 

(459)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg\ 

MON  TR&S  CHER  PJERE!  VIENNE,  ce  17  d'Aout,  1782 

I  forgot  to  tell  you  the  other  day  that  on  the  Day  of 
Portiuncula  *  my  wife  and  I  performed  our  devotions 
together  at  the  Theatines.  Even  if  a  sense  of  piety  had 
not  moved  us  to  do  so,  we  should  have  had  to  do  it  on 
account  of  the  banns,  without  which  we  could  not  have 
been  married.  Indeed  for  a  considerable  time  before  we 
were  married  we  had  always  attended  mass  and  gone  to 
confession  and  taken  communion  together;  and  I  found 
that  I  never  prayed  so  fervently  or  confessed  and  took 
communion  so  devoutly  as  by  her  side;  and  she  felt  the 
same.  In  short,  we  are  made  for  each  other;  and  God  who 
orders  all  things  and  consequently  has  ordained  this  also, 
will  not  forsake  us.  We  both  thank  you  most  submissively 
for  your  fatherly  blessing.  I  hope  you  have  now  received 
my  wife's  letter. 

1  August  2nd.  In  1223  Pope  Honorius  III,  at  the  request  of  St.  Francis, 
granted  an  annual  indulgence  to  anyone  who  should  visit  the  Portiuncula 
chapel  in  the  Church  of  Santa  Maria  degli  Angeli  at  Assisi  on  August  2nd. 
Gregory  XVI  in  1622  extended  it  to  all  churches  of  the  Observant  Fran 
ciscans;  in  1856  it  was  further  extended  to  all  churches  where  the  Third 
Order  of  St.  Francis  was  canonically  established,  and  in  1910  to  all  Catholic 
churches  and  chapels. 


L.  459  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

In  regard  to  Gluck,  my  ideas  are  precisely  the  same 
as  yours,  my  dearest  father.  But  I  should  like  to  add 
Something.  The  Viennese  gentry,  and  in  particular  the 
(Emperor,)  must  not  imagine  that  I  am  on  this  earth  solely 
for  the  sake  of  Vienna.  There  is  no  monarch  in  the  world 
whom  I  should  be  more  glad  to  serve  than  the  Emperor, 
but  I  refuse  to  beg  for  any  post.  I  believe  that  I  am  capable 
of  doing  credit  to  any  court.  If  Germany,  my  beloved 
fatherland,  of  which,  as  you  know,  I  am  proud,  will  not 
accept  me,  then  in  God's  name  let  France  or  England 
become  the  richer  by  another  talented  German,  to  the 
disgrace  of  the  German  nation.  You  know  well  that  it  is 
the  Germans  who  have  always  excelled  in  almost  all  the 
arts.1  But  where  did  they  make  their  fortune  and  their 
reputation?  Certainly  not  in  Germany!  Take  even  the 
case  of  Gluck.  Has  Germany  made  him  the  great  man  he 
is?  Alas  no!  Countess  Thun,  Count  Zichy,  Baron  van 
Swieten,  even  Prince  Kaunitz,  are  all  very  much  dis 
pleased  with  the  Emperor,  because  he  does  not  value  men 
of  talent  more,  and  allows  them  to  leave  his  dominions. 
Kaunitz  said  the  other  day  to  the  Archduke  Maximilian, 
when  the  conversation  turned  on  myself,  that  "such 
people  only  come  into  the  world  once  in  a  hundred  years 
and  must  not  be  driven  out  of  Germany,  particularly  when 
we  are  fortunate  enough  to  have  them  in  the  capital!'  You 
cannot  imagine  how  kind  and  courteous  Prince  Kaunitz 
was  to  me  when  I  visited  him.  When  I  took  my  leave, 
he  said:  "/  am  much  obliged  to  you,  my  dear  Mozart, 
for  having  taken  the  trouble  to  visit  me"  You  would 
scarcely  believe  what  efforts  Countess  Thun,  Baron  van 
Swieten  and  other  eminent  people  are  making  to  keep  me 
here.  .But  I  cannot  afford  to  wait  indefinitely,  and  indeed 
I  refuse  to  remain  hanging  on  here  at  their  mercy. 

1  For  an  interesting  article  on  Mozart's  patriotism  as  revealed  in  his 
letters,  see  MM,  November  1918,  pp.  14-18. 


1782  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  459 

Moreover,  I  think  that  even  though  he  is  the  Emperor, 
I  am  not  so  desperately  in  need  of  his  favour.  My  idea  is 
to  go  to  Paris  next  Lent,  but  of  course  not  simply  on 
chance.  I  have  already  written  to  Le  Gros  about  this  and 
am  awaiting  his  reply.  I  have  mentioned  it  here  too — 
particularly  to  people  of  position — -just  in  the  course  of 
conversation.  For  you  know  that  often  in  conversation 
you  can  throw  out  a  hint  and  that  this  is  more  effective 
than  if  the  same  thing  were  announced  in  the  tones  of  a 
dictator.  I  might  be  able  to  get  engagements  for  the 
Concert  Spirituel  and  the  Concert  des  Amateurs — and 
besides,  I  should  have  plenty  of  pupils — and  now  that  I 
have  a  wife  I  could  superintend  them  more  easily  and 
more  attentively — and  then  with  the  help  of  compositions 
and  so  forth — but  indeed  I  should  rely  chiefly  on  opera 
commissions.  Latterly  I  have  been  practising  my  French 
daily  and  have  already  taken  three  lessons  in  English.  In 
three  months  I  hope  to  be  able  to  read  and  understand 
English  books  fairly  easily.  Now  farewell.  My  wife  and 
I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  I  am  ever  your 
most  obedient  son 


P.S. —  What  does  Luigi  Gatti1  say? 

My  compliments  to  Perwein*  I  hope  my  dear  sister's 
indisposition  will  not  have  serious  consequences.  My  dear 
wife  and  I  kiss  her  a  thousand  times  and  hope  that  she  is 
now  quite  well  again.  Adieu. 

1  See  p.  810,  n.  I.  Abbate  Luigi  Gatti  was  appointed  Kapellmeister  at 
Salzburg  in  February  1783. 

2  Probably  Ignaz  Perwein  (1758-1812),  a  schoolmaster  and  organist  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Salzburg.  See  Hammerle,  op.  cit.  p.  56. 



(460)  Leopold  Mozart  to  Baroness  von  Waldstadten, 


[Copy  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin] 

SALZBURG,  August  2$rd,  1782 

I  thank  your  Ladyship  most  warmly  for  the  very 
special  interest  you  take  in  my  circumstances  and  for  your 
extraordinary  kindness  in  celebrating  my  son's  wedding 
day  with  such  liberality.  When  I  was  a  young  fellow  I 
used  to  think  that  philosophers  were  people  who  said 
little,  seldom  laughed  and  turned  a  sulky  face  upon  the 
world  in  general.  But  my  own  experiences  have  com 
pletely  persuaded  me  that  without  knowing  it  I  must  be 
a  philosopher.  For  having  done  my  duty  as  a  father, 
having  in  countless  letters  made  the  clearest  and  most 
lucid  representations  to  Wolfgang  on  every  point  and 
being  convinced  that  he  knows  my  trying  circumstances, 
which  are  extremely  grievous  to  a  man  of  my  age,  and 
that  he  is  aware  of  the  degradations  I  am  suffering  in 
Salzburg,  as  he  must  realise  that  both  morally  and 
materially  I  am  being  punished  for  his  conduct,  all  that 
I  can  now  do  is  to  leave  him  to  his  own  resources  (as  he 
evidently  wishes)  and  pray  God  to  bestow  on  him  His 
paternal  blessing  and  not  withdraw  from  him  His  Divine 
grace.  For  my  part  I  shall  not  abandon  the  cheerfulness 
which  is  natural  to  me  and  which  in  spite  of  my  advancing 
years  I  still  possess,  and  I  shall  continue  to  hope  for  the 
best.  On  the  whole,  I  should  feel  quite  easy  in  my  mind, 
were  it  not  that  I  have  detected  in  my  son  an  outstanding 
fault,  which  is,  that  he  is  far  too  patient  or  rather  easy 
going,  too  indolent,  perhaps  even  too  proud,  in  short,  that 
he  has  the  sum  total  of  all  those  traits  which  render  a 
man  inactive\  on  the  other  hand,  he  is  too  impatient,  too 


From  an  engraving  by  T.  Hardy 
(British  Museum) 


hasty  and  will  not  bide  his  time.  Two  opposing  elements 
rule  his  nature,  I  mean,  there  is  either  too  muck  or  too 
little,  never  the  golden  mean.  If  he  is  not  actually  in  want, 
then  he  is  immediately  satisfied  and  becomes  indolent  and 
lazy.  If  he  has  to  bestir  himself,  then  he  realises  his  worth 
and  wants  to  make  his  fortune  at  once.  Nothing  must 
stand  in  his  way;  yet  it  is  unfortunately  the  most  capable 
people  and  those  who  possess  outstanding  genius  who 
have  the  greatest  obstacles  to  face.  Who  will  prevent  him 
from  pursuing  his  present  career  in  Vienna  if  he  only  has 
a  little  patience?  Kapellmeister  Bonno  is  a  very  old  man. 
After  his  death  Salieri J  will  be  promoted  and  will  make 
room  for  someone  else.  And  is  not  Gluck  too  an  old  man? 
My  dear  lady,  please  instil  a  little  patience  into  my  son. 
And  may  I  ask  you  to  let  me  have  your  opinion  of  his 
circumstances?  My  daughter  sends  you  her  most  respect 
ful  regards  and  both  she  and  I  wish  that  we  had  the  good 
fortune  to  be  able  to  kiss  your  Ladyship's  hands.  She  is 
very  much  touched  at  being  honoured  quite  undeservedly 
with  a  remembrance  from  your  Ladyship.  Ah,  if  only  we 
were  not  so  far  away  from  Vienna!  How  delightful  it 
would  be  to  devote  ourselves  together  to  music!  May 
Hope,  sole  consolation  of  our  desires,  soothe  my  spirit! 
Perhaps  I  may  yet  be  happy  enough  to  be  able  to  assure 
your  Ladyship  in  person  not  only  of  my  friendship,  which, 
though  it  may  be  of  little  advantage  to  you,  is  heartfelt 
and  true,  but  also  of  my  deepest  esteem  and  regard.  I  am 
indeed  your  most  humble  and  obedient  servant 


My  son  wrote  to  me  some  time  ago  saying  that,  when 
he  married,  he  would  not  live  with  his  wife's  mother. 

1  After  the  death  of  Bonno  in  1788  Salieri  was  appointed  Kapellmeister 
to  the  Viennese  court. 

VOL.  in  1217  M 

L.  461  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

I  trust  that  by  now  he  has  left  that  house.  If  not,  he  is 
storing  up  trouble  for  himself  and  his  wife. 

(461)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON    TRES    CHER    P^REl  VlENNE,  ce  24  d'Aout,  1782 

You  have  only  imagined  what  I  was  really  intending 
and  still  intend  to  do,  I  must  likewise  confess  the  truth  to 
you,  which  is,  that  my  wife  and  I  have  been  waiting  from 
day  to  day  for  some  sure  information  about  the  arrival  of 
the  Russian  visitors,  in  order  to  decide  whether  to  under 
take  or  to  postpone  the  journey  we  have  planned;  and  as 
we  have  heard  nothing  definite  up  to  this  moment,  I  have 
not  been  able  to  write  to  you  on  the  subject.  Some  say 
they  are  to  arrive  on  September  yth,  others  again  that 
they  are  not  coming  at  all  If  the  latter  be  the  truth,  we 
shall  be  in  Salzburg  by  the  beginning  of  October.  If, 
however,  they  do  come,  then,  according  to  the  advice  of 
my  good  friends,  it  is  not  only  very  necessary  that  I 
should  be  here,  but  my  absence  would  be  a  real  triumph 
for  my  enemies  and  consequently  highly  detrimental  to 
me.  If  I  am  appointed  music  master  to  the  Princess  of 
Wurtemberg,  which  is  extremely  probable,  I  can  easily 
obtain  leave  of  absence  for  a  time  in  order  to  visit  my 
father.  If  our  project  has  to  be  postponed,  no  one  will  be 
more  disappointed  than  my  dear  wife  and  I,  for  we  can 
hardly  await  the  moment  to  embrace  our  dearest,  most 
beloved  father  and  our  dearest  sister. 

You  are  perfectly  right  about  France  and  England! 
It  is  a  step  which  I  can  always  take,  and  it  is  better  for 
me  to  remain  in  Vienna  a  little  longer.  Besides,  times  may 
change  too  in  those  countries.  Last  Tuesday  (after,  thank 


1782  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z.  462 

Heaven!  an  interval  of  a  fortnight)  my  opera  was  again 
performed  with  great  success. 

I  am  delighted  that  the  symphony1  is  to  your  taste. 
A  propos,  you  have  no  idea  (but  perhaps  you  have?)  where 
I  am  living.  Where  do  you  think?  In  the  same  house  where 
we  lodged  fourteen  years  ago,  on  the  Hohe  Briicke,  in 
Griinwald's  house.  But  now  it  is  called  Grosshaupt's 
house,  No.  387.*  Stephanie  junior  arrived  yesterday  and 
I  went  to  see  him  to-day.  Elizabeth  Wendling  is  also  here. 
Well,  you  must  forgive  me  if  I  close  this  letter  already, 
but  I  have  been  wasting  my  time  gossiping  to  Herr  von 
S track.  I  wish  with  all  my  heart  that  those  Russian  people 
may  not  come,  so  that  I  may  soon  have  the  pleasure  of 
kissing  your  hands.  My  wife  sheds  tears  of  joy  when  she 
thinks  of  our  journey  to  Salzburg.  Farewell.  We  kiss  your 
hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with 
all  our  hearts  and  are  ever  your  most  obedient  children 


Man  and  wife 
Are  one  life. 

(462)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg\ 
MON    TRES    CHER    PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  31  August,  1782 

You  wonder  how  I  can  flatter  myself  that  I  shall  be 
maestro  to  the  Princess?  3  Why,  Salieri  is  not  capable  of 
teaching  her  the  clavier!  All  he  can  do  is  to  try  to  injure 
me  in  this  matter  by  recommending  someone  else,  which 
quite  possibly  he  is  doing!  On  the  other  hand  the  Emperor 

1  K-  385' 

2  Now  Wipplingerstrasse  no.  25.  The  Mozarts  took  rooms  in  this  house 
on  their  return  to  Vienna  from  Olmutz  in  1768. 

3  Princess  Elizabeth  of  Wurtemberg. 


L.  462  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

knows  me;  and  the  last  time  she  was  in  Vienna  the  Prin 
cess  would  gladly  have  taken  lessons  from  me.  Moreover, 
I  know  that  my  name  is  in  the  book  which  contains  the 
names  of  all  those  who  have  been  chosen  for  her  service. 
Le  Chevalier  Hypolity  has  not  put  in  an  appearance  yet. 
You  say  that  I  have  never  told  you  on  what  floor  we  are 
living?  That  in  truth  must  have  stuck  in  my  pen!  Well,  I 
am  telling  you  now — that  we  are  living  on  the  second 
floor.  But  I  cannot  understand  how  you  got  the  idea  that 
my  highly  honoured  mother-in-law  is  living  here  too.  For 
indeed  I  did  not  marry  my  sweetheart  in  such  a  hurry  in 
order  to  live  a  life  of  vexations  and  quarrels,  but  to  enjoy 
peace  and  happiness;  and  the  only  way  to  ensure  this  was 
to  cut  ourselves  off  from  that  house.  Since  our  marriage 
we  have  paid  her  two  visits,  but  on  the  second  occasion 
quarrelling  and  wrangling  began  again,  so  that  my  poor 
wife  started  to  cry.  I  put  a  stop  to  the  bickering  at  once  by 
saying  to  Constanze  that  it  was  time  for  us  to  go.  We  have 
not  been  there  since  and  do  not  intend  to  go  until  we  have 
to  celebrate  the  birthday  or  name-day  of  the  mother  or  of 
one  of  the  two  sisters.  You  say  too  that  I  have  never  told 
you  on  what  day  we  got  married.  I  must  indeed  beg  your 
pardon — but  either  your  memory  has  deceived  you  this 
time,  in  which  case  you  need  only  take  the  trouble  to  look 
among  my  letters  for  that  of  August  yth,  where  you  will 
find  it  stated  clearly  and  distinctly  that  we  confessed  on 
Friday,  the  Day  of  Portiuncula,  and  were  married  on  the 
following  Sunday,  August  4th — or  you  never  received  that 
letter,  which,  however,  is  not  very  likely,  as  you  got  the 
march1  which  was  enclosed  with  it  and  also  replied  to 
various  points  in  the  letter.  I  now  have  a  request  to  make. 
Baroness  Waldstadten  is  leaving  here  and  would  like  to 
have  a  good  small  pianoforte.  As  I  have  forgotten  the  name 
of  the  pianoforte  maker  in  Zweibriicken,  I  should  like  to 

1  See  p.  1 212,  n.  2, 

1782  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  463 

ask  you  to  order  one  from  him.  It  must,  however,  be  ready 
within  a  month  or  six  weeks  at  the  latest  and  the  price 
should  be  the  same  as  that  of  the  Archbishop's.  May  I  also 
ask  you  to  send  me  some  Salzburg  tongues  either  by 
some  acquaintance  or  by  mail  coach  (if  the  customs  duty 
does  not  make  it  impossible)?  I  am  under  great  obligations 
to  the  Baroness  and  when  the  conversation  one  day 
turned  on  tongues  and  she  said  she  would  very  much  like 
to  try  a  Salzburg  one,  I  offered  to  get  one  for  her.  If  you 
can  think  of  any  other  delicacy  for  her  and  will  send  it 
to  me,  I  shall  indeed  be  very  much  obliged  to  you.  I  am 
particularly  anxious  to  give  her  some  such  pleasure.  I 
can  refund  the  cost  through  Peisser  or  give  it  to  you  when 
we  meet. 

Can  you  send  me  some  Schwarzreuter? 1  Now  farewell. 
My  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  we 
embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  are  ever 

most  obedient  daughter 
^          most  obedient  son 

P.S. — Should  you  be  writing  to  my  cousin,3  please  give 
her  kind  regards  from  us  both.  Addio. 

(463)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum^  Salzburg]  , 
MON   TRES    CHER    PERE!  VIENNA,  September  Ilth,  1782 

Many  thanks  for  the  tongues.  I  gave  two  to  the 
Baroness  and  kept  the  other  two  for  myself;  and  we  are 

1  A  kind  of  trout  (Salmo  salvelinis)  found  in  the  Salzkammergut  lakes, 

2  After  his  marriage  to  Constanze  Weber,  Mozart's  letters  to  his  father 
and  to  his  sister  bear,  almost  without  exception,  this  double  signature. 

3  Maria  Anna  Thekla  Mozart,  the  "Basle". 


L.  463  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

to  sample  them  to-morrow.  Please  be  so  good  as  to  tell 
me  how  you  wish  the  payment  to  be  made.  If  you  can  also 
obtain  some  Schwarzreuter  for  me,  you  will  indeed  give 
me  much  pleasure.  The  Jewess  Eskeles  l  has  no  doubt 
proved  a  very  good  and  useful  tool  for  breaking  up  the 
friendship  between  the  Emperor  and  the  Russian  court, 
for  the  day  before  yesterday  she  was  taken  to  Berlin  in 
order  that  the  King  might  have  the  pleasure  of  her  com 
pany.  She  is  indeed  a  sow  of  the  first  order.  Moreover,  she 
was  the  whole  cause  of  Giinther's  misfortune,  if  indeed  it  be 
a  misfortune  to  be  imprisoned  for  two  months  in  a  beautiful 
room  (with  permission  to  have  all  his  books,  his  pianoforte 
and  so  forth)  and  to  lose  his  former  post,  but  to  be  ap 
pointed  to  another  at  a  salary  of  1200  gulden;  for  yester 
day  he  left  for  Hermannstadt.  Yet  an  experience  of  that 
kind  always  injures  an  honest  man  and  nothing  in  the 
world  can  compensate  him  for  it.   I  just  want  you  to 
realise  that  he  has  not  committed  a  great  crime.   His 
conduct  was  due  entirely  to  etourderie,  or  thoughtlessness, 
and  consequently  lack  of  discretion,  which  in  a  Privy 
Councillor  is  certainly  a  serious  fault.  Although  he  never 
divulged  anything  of  importance,  yet  his  enemies,  chief 
of  whom  is  the  former  Stadtholder,  Count  von  Herber- 
stein,  managed  to  play  their  cards  so  cleverly  that  the 
Emperor  who  formerly  had  such  immense  confidence  in 
Giinther  that  he  would  walk  up  and  down  the  room  arm 
in  arm  with  him  for  hours,  now  began  to  distrust  him  with 
an  equal  intensity.  To  make  matters  worse,  who  should 
appear  on  the  scene  but  that  sow  Eskeles  (a  former 
mistress  of  Giinther's),  who  accused  him  in  the  most 
violent  terms.   But  when  the  matter  was  investigated, 
these  gentlemen  cut  a  very  poor  figure.   However,  the 

1  For  a  full  account  of  the  Giinther-Eskeles  cause  celebre>  which  vindicates 
the  honour  of  Eleonore  Fliess-Eskeles,  see  MM,  February-May  1921, 
p.  41  ff. 



affair  had  already  caused  terrific  commotion;  and  great 
people  never  like  to  admit  that  they  have  been  in  the 
wrong.  Hence  the  fate  of  poor  Giinther,  whom  I  pity  from 
my  heart,  as  he  was  a  very  good  friend  of  mine  and,  if 
things  had  remained  as  they  were,  might  have  rendered 
me  good  service  with  the  Emperor.  You  can  imagine  what 
a  shock  and  how  unexpected  it  was  to  me  and  how  very 
much  upset  I  was;  for  Stephanie,  Adamberger  and  I  had 
supper  with  him  one  evening  and  on  the  morrow  he  was 
arrested.  Well,  I  must  close,  for  I  may  miss  the  post.  My 
dear  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and 
embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  are  ever 
your  most  obedient  children 


My  wife  is  almost  ninety-one.1 

(464)  Leopold  Mozart  to  Baroness  von  Waldstadten, 


\Copy  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin\ 
SALZBURG,  September  l^th,  1782 


It  is  impossible  for  me  to  describe  to  your  Ladyship 
my  heartfelt  pleasure  on  reading  your  charming  and 
flattering  letter.  It  reminded  me,  as  I  read  it,  of  Wieland's 
Sympathies.2  It  is  undoubtedly  true  that  many  people  are 
blessed  with  a  higher  plane  of  thought  and  unconsciously 
dwell  together  in  a  secret  spiritual  union  before  they  have 
ever  seen  or  spoken  to  one  another.  Good  books  and 
music  are  your  Ladyship's  occupation  and  entertainment. 

1  Constanze  was  nineteen. 

2  Wieland's  Sympathien,  published  in  1756,  was  one  of  his  earliest  prose 



They  are  also  mine.  Your  Ladyship  has  withdrawn  her 
self  from  social  functions;  and  for  several  months  I  too 
have  not  appeared  at  court  and  only  do  so  when  I  am 
obliged  to.  I  live  quietly  with  my  daughter  and  have  a 
few  friends  who  come  to  see  me.  Reading,  music  and  an 
occasional  walk  are  our  recreation  and  in  bad  weather  a 
very  humble  game  of  taroc  or  tresette  and  occasionally 
a  game  of  chess.  Further,  your  Ladyship  feels  that 
sorrow  has  greatly  saddened  you  and  refuses  when  out 
of  humour  to  be  a  burden  to  anyone.  I  for  my  part  have 
had  so  much  to  endure  from  unmerited  persecutions  and 
have  become  so  closely  acquainted  with  envy,  falseness, 
deception,  malice  and  all  the  many  other  fine  qualities  of 
human  nature  that  I  purposely  avoid  large  social  func 
tions  in  order  not  to  become  completely  out  of  humour 
and  to  retain  that  modicum  of  cheerfulness  which  I  still 
possess.  Hence  it  is  naturally  my  most  ardent  wish  to 
have  the  privilege  of  meeting  your  Ladyship,  as  I  feel 
certain  that  your  Ladyship's  outlook  entirely  agrees  with 
mine,  and  that  we  should  chatter  away  to  our  hearts'  con 
tent.  I  regard  it  indeed  as  a  great  compliment  that  your 
Ladyship  should  consider  me  worthy  of  your  invaluable 
friendship  and  quite  undeserved  esteem;  and  as  I  see  no 
means  of  deserving  it — of  really  deserving  it,  I  hope  at 
least,  without  saying  anything  ridiculous  or  improper,  to 
find  suitable  words  to  express  the  feeling  of  great  regard 
which  I  cherish  towards  a  lady  of  such  worth. 

Your  Ladyship  has  been  so  gracious  as  to  offer  me  a 
lodging,  should  I  come  to  Vienna.  Indeed  I  am  quite 
overcome!  It  would  be  most  daring  of  me  to  avail  myself 
of  this  gracious  invitation;  but  my  first  outing  in  Vienna 
will  certainly  be  to  kiss  your  Ladyship's  hands.  Who 
can  tell?  Perhaps  I  may  still  have  the  good  fortune  to 
do  so! 

I  beg  your  Ladyship  to  take  care  of  your  health  and 


1782  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z.  465 

well-being.  I  was  grievously  distressed  when  I  read  that, 
owing  to  much  sorrow  and  suffering,  your  Ladyship  had 
lost  your  health  and  peace  of  mind.  May  God  in  His 
goodness  watch  over  you!  I  am  profoundly  affected!  After 
receiving  my  letter  my  son  to  some  extent  abandoned  his 
resolve  to  leave  Vienna;  and,  as  he  is  coming  to  visit 
me  in  Salzburg,  I  shall  make  further  very  necessary  and 
weighty  representations  to  him.  I  am  delighted  to  hear 
that  his  wife  does  not  take  after  the  Webers.  If  she  did, 
he  would  indeed  be  unhappy.  Your  Ladyship  assures  me 
that  she  is  a  good  soul — and  that  is  enough  for  me! 

My  daughter  kisses  your  Ladyship's  hands  and  like 
myself  is  disappointed  that  we  are  so  far  from  Vienna. 
Meanwhile  I  console  myself  with  the  thought  that  although 
mountains  and  valleys  cannot  meet,  people  can  do  so; 
that  your  Ladyship  will  continue  to  think  me  worthy  of 
your  favour  and  esteem;  and  that  I,  through  my  son,  shall 
always  continue  to  have  news  of  the  health  and  happiness 
of  so  kind  a  lady.  I  hope  to  be  able  to  prove  that  with  the 
greatest  esteem,  regard  and  devotion  I  am  your  Lady 
ship's  most  humble  and  obedient  servant 


(465)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum>  Salzburg] 

MON    TRES    CHER    PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  2$th  Sep*™, 

I  have  received  your  last  letter  of  September  2oth  and 
hope  that  you  got  my  four  lines,  which  only  said  that  we 
were  in  good  health.  Now  for  a  really  comical  event!  But 
who  can  prevent  possible  coincidences  and  developments? 
Herr  Gabel,  who  arrived  here  some  days  ago,  is  actually 
with  me  and  is  waiting  for  me  to  finish  this  letter  in  order 
to  accompany  my  sonatas  on  the  violin,  which,  if  he  is 


L.  465  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

to  be  believed,  he  must  play  well.  He  has  already  played 
to  me  on  the  horn  and  could  really  do  nothing  on  it. 
But  what  I  can  do  for  him  I  will;  it  is  enough  that  I 
am  your  son.  He  sends  his  compliments  to  you  both.  It 
was  news  to  me  to  hear  that  the  paintings  in  the  churches 
which  serve  no  useful  purpose,  the  many  votive  tablets 
and  the  instrumental  music  and  so  forth,  which  are  to  be 
done  away  with  in  Vienna,  have  already  been  abolished 
in  Salzburg.  No  doubt  (the  Archbishop)  hopes  by  doing 
this  to  ingratiate  himself  with  (the  Emperor;)  but  I  can 
hardly  believe  that  this  policy  of  his  will  be  of  much 
service  to  him.  Well,  I  can't  bear  to  see  anyone  waiting 
for  me;  and  I  dislike  to  be  kept  waiting  myself.  So  I  must 
reserve  for  my  next  letter  my  description  of  Baroness  von 
Waldstadten  and  merely  ask  you  to  do  me  a  most  urgent 
favour.  But  I  beg  you,  on  account  of  the  place  where  I 
am,  not  to  divulge  what  I  am  about  to  say.  The  Prussian 
Ambassador,  Riedesel,  has  informed  me  that  he  has  been 
commissioned  by  the  Berlin  court  to  send  my  opera  "Die 
Entfiihrung  aus  dem  Serail"  to  Berlin  and  has  asked  me 
to  have  it  copied,  adding  that  the  remuneration  for  the 
music  will  follow  in  due  course.  I  promised  at  once  to 
have  this  done.  Now,  as  I  have  not  got  the  opera  myself, 
I  should  have  to  borrow  it  from  the  copyist,  which  would 
be  very  inconvenient,  for  I  could  not  be  sure  of  keeping 
it  for  three  days  in  succession,  as  the  Emperor  often  sends 
for  it  (he  did  so  only  yesterday)  and,  moreover,  the  opera 
is  very  often  given.  Why,  since  August  i6th  it  has  been 
performed  ten  times.  So  my  idea  is  to  have  it  copied  in 
Salzburg,  where  it  could  be  done  more  secretly  and  more 
cheaply!  I  beg  you,  therefore,  to  have  the  score  copied 
out  at  once — and  as  quickly  as  possible.  If,  when  you  send 
me  the  copy,  you  will  let  me  know  the  cost,  I  shall  remit 
the  amount  at  once  through  Herr  Peisser.  Now  farewell. 
My  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and 



embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  we  are 
your  most  obedient  children 

W:  A:  and  M:  C:  MOZART 

(466)  Mozart  to  Baroness  von  Waldstadten 

\Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Frau  Floersheim-Koch,  Florence} 

DEAREST  BARONESS!  VIENNA,  September  28^,  1782 

When  your  Ladyship  was  so  gracious  yesterday  as 
to  invite  me  to  lunch  with  you  to-morrow,  Sunday,  I  had 
forgotten  that  a  week  ago  I  had  made  an  engagement  to 
lunch  on  that  day  in  the  Augarten. 

Martin,  the  little  angel,  who  fancies  himself  under  an 
obligation  to  me  in  several  ways,  absolutely  insists  on 
treating  me  to  a  dinee.  I  thought  yesterday  that  I  could 
arrange  and  accommodate  the  matter  in  accordance  with 
my  wishes;  but  it  has  proved  impossible,  as  the  little  angel 
has  already  ordered  and  arranged  everything,  and  conse 
quently  would  be  put  to  useless  expense.  Therefore  on 
this  account  your  Ladyship  will  kindly  excuse  me  this 
time,  and  with  your  Ladyship's  permission  we  shall  both 
have  the  honour  of  waiting  upon  you  next  Tuesday  to 
deliver  our  congratulations  and  to  give  Fraulein  von 
Aurnhammer  r  some  purgations ;  if  she  must  let  us  see  her 
toilet  operations.  But  now,  joking  apart,  I  really  do  not 
want  to  let  the  concerto  2  which  I  played  in  the  theatre 
go  for  less  than  six  ducats.  On  the  other  hand  I  should 
undertake  to  pay  for  the  copying.  As  for  the  beautiful 
red  coat,  which  attracts  me  enormously,  please,  please  let 
me  know  where  it  is  to  be  had  and  how  much  it  costs — for 
that  I  have  completely  forgotten,  as  I  was  so  captivated 

1  Since  her  father's  death  Fraulein  Aurnhammer  had  been  living  with  the 
Baroness  von  Waldstadten. 

2  Probably  K.  175,  which  Mozart  played  at  his  concert  on  March  3rd, 
1782.  See  p.  1183. 



by  its  splendour  that  I  did  not  take  note  of  its  price. 
I  must  have  a  coat  like  that,  for  it  is  one  that  will 
really  do  justice  to  certain  buttons  which  I  have  long 
been  hankering  after.  I  saw  them  once,  when  I  was 
choosing  some  for  a  suit.  They  were  in  Brandau's  button 
factory  in  the  Kohlmarkt,  opposite  the  Milano.  They  are 
mother-of-pearl  with  a  few  white  stones  round  the  edge 
and  a  fine  yellow  stone  in  the  centre.  I  should  like  all  my 
things  to  be  of  good  quality,  genuine  and  beautiful.  Why 
is  it,  I  wonder,  that  those  who  cannot  afford  it,  would  like 
to  spend  a  fortune  on  such  articles  and  those  who  can,  do 
not  do  so?  Well,  I  think  it  is  long  past  the  time  for  me  to 
stop  this  scribbling,  j  kiss  your  hands,  and  hoping  to  see 
you  in  good  health  the  Tuesday  j  am  your  most  humble 
servant x 


Constanze,  my  better  half,  kisses  your  Ladyship's 
hands  a  thousand  times  and  gives  that  Aurnhammer  girl 
a  kiss.  But  I  am  not  supposed  to  know  about  this,  for  the 
very  thought  makes  me  shudder. 

(467)  Mozart  to  Baroness  von  Waldstddten 

[Copy  in  the  Preiissische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin] 

VIENNA,  October  2nd,  1782 


Herewith  I  have  the  honour  to  send  your  Ladyship 
the  rondo  2  in  question,  the  two  volumes  of  plays  and 

1  In  the  autograph  this  sentence  is  in  English. 
2  Probably  K.  382.  See  p.  1189,  ^3- 



the  little  book  of  stories.  I  committed  a  terrible  blunder 
yesterday!  I  felt  all  the  time  that  I  had  something  more 
to  say  and  yet  I  could  cudgel  nothing  out  of  my  stupid 
skull.  But  it  was  to  thank  your  Ladyship  for  having  at 
once  taken  so  much  trouble  about  the  beautiful  coat, 
and  for  your  goodness  in  promising  to  give  me  one  like 
it.  But  it  never  occurred  to  me,  which  is  what  usually 
happens  with  me.  It  is  my  constant  regret  that  I  did  not 
study  architecture  instead  of  music,  for  I  have  often  heard 
it  said  that  he  is  the  best  architect  to  whom  nothing  ever 
occurs.1  I  can  say  with  truth  that  I  am  a  very  happy  and 
a  very  unhappy  man — unhappy  since  the  night  when  I 
saw  your  Ladyship  at  the  ball  with  your  hair  so  beauti 
fully  dressed — for — gone  is  my  peace  of  mind!  Nothing 
but  sighs  and  groans!  During  the  rest  of  the  time  I  spent 
at  the  ball  I  did  not  dance — I  skipped.  Supper  was 
already  ordered,  but  I  did  not  eat — I  gobbled.  During 
the  night  instead  of  slumbering  softly  and  sweetly — I 
slept  like  a  dormouse  and  snored  like  a  bear  and  (with 
out  undue  presumption)  I  should  almost  be  prepared  to 
wager  that  your  Ladyship  had  the  same  experience  a 
proportionl  You  smile!  you  blush!  Ah,  yes — I  am  indeed 
happy.  My  fortune  is  made!  But  alas!  Who  taps  me  on 
the  shoulder?  Who  peeps  into,  my  letter?  Alas,  alas,  alas! 
My  wife!  Well,  well,  in  the  name  of  Heaven,  I  have  taken 
her  and  must  keep  her!  What  is  to  be  done?  I  must  praise 
her — and  imagine  that  what  I  say  is  true!  How  happy  I 
am  that  I  need  no  Fraulein  Aurnhammer  as  a  pretext 
for  writing  to  your  Ladyship,  like  Herr  von  Taisen  or 
whatever  his  name  is!  (how  I  wish  he  had  no  name!),  for 
I  myself  had  something  to  send  to  your  Ladyship. 
Moreover,  apart  from  this,  I  should  have  had  occasion  to 
write  to  your  Ladyship,  though  indeed  I  do  not  dare  to 

1  Mozart  is  punning  on  the  word  "einfallen",  which  means  "to  collapse" 
and  "to  occur". 


Z.  468  LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  J.  G.  I.  BREITKOPF      1782 

mention  it.  Yet  why  not?  Well  then,  courage!  I  should 
like  to  ask  your  Ladyship  to — Faugh,  the  devil — that 
would  be  too  gross!  A  propos.  Does  not  your  Ladyship 
know  the  little  rhyme? 

A  woman  and  a  jug  of  beer, 
How  can  they  rhyme  together? 
The  woman  has  a  cask  of  beer 
Of  which  she  sends  a  jugful  here. 
Why,  then  they  rhyme  together. 

I  brought  that  in  very  neatly,  didn't  I?  But  now, 
senza  burled  If  your  Ladyship  could  sent  me  a  jugful 
this  evening,  you  would  be  doing  me  a  great  favour.  For 
my  wife  is — is — is — and  has  longings — but  only  for  beer 
prepared  in  the  English  way!  Well  done,  little  wife!  I  see 
at  last  that  you  are  really  good  for  something.  My  wife, 
who  is  an-  angel  of  a  woman,  and  I,  who  am  a  model 
husband,  both  kiss  your  Ladyship's  hands  a  thousand 
times  and  are  ever  your 

faithful  vassals, 
MOZART  magnus,  corpore  parvus, 

CONSTANTIA,  omnium  uxorum  pulcherrima 

et  prudentissima. 
Vienna,  October  2nd,  1782. 

Please  give  my  kind  regards  to  that  Aurnhammer  girl. 
(468)  Leopold  Mozart  to  J.  G.  I.  Breitkopf,  Leipzig 

[Extract]    [Autograph  formerly  in  the  possession  of  Dr.  E.  Prieger,  Bonn\ 

SALZBURG,  October  qth,  1782 

My  son  will  probably  remain  in  Vienna  for  good.  He 
has  written  a  German  opera,  "Die  Entflihrung  aus  dem 
Serail".  It  is  in  three  acts  and  is  a  free  adaptation  of 

1  Joking  apart. 

1782  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  469 

Bretzner's  libretto  and  has  been  arranged  for  the  Imperial 
National  Theatre.  That  it  has  won  applause  I  gather 
from  the  fact  that  it  has  already  been  performed  sixteen 

(469)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg\ 

MON  TRES   CHER  P£RE!  VlENNE,  ce  $  d* October,  1782 

I  can  only  reply  to  the  chief  points  of  your  letter,  as 
I  have  just  this  moment  received  it.  Unfortunately  I  have 
had  to  read  the  exact  reverse  of  what  I  expected.  I  went 
myself  to  see  Baron  von  Riedesel,  who  is  a  charming 
man,  and  as  I  was  fully  confident  that  my  opera  was 
already  being  copied,  I  promised  to  let  him  have  it  at 
the  end  of  this  month  or  the  beginning  of  November  at 
latest.  I  therefore  beg  you  to  make  sure  that  I  shall  have 
it  by  that  time.  But  in  order  to  relieve  you  of  all  care  and 
anxiety  on  the  subject  (which,  however,  I  most  gratefully 
regard  as  a  proof  of  your  fatherly  love),  I  can  say  nothing 
more  convincing  than  that  I  am  extremely  grateful  to  the 
Baron  for  having  ordered  the  copy  from  me  and  not  from 
the  copyist,  from  whom  he  could  have  got  it  at  any  time 
by  paying  cash.  Besides,  it  would  mortify  me  very  much, 
if  my  talent  was  such  that  it  could  be  remunerated  once 
and  for  all — and  with  a  hundred  ducats  too!  At  the 
moment  I  shall  say  nothing  to  anyone,  simply  because  it 
is  unnecessary.  If  my  opera  is  given  in  Berlin,1  of  which 
there  seems  no  doubt  (which  is  to  me  the  most  pleasing 
feature  of  the  affair),  people  will  certainly  hear  about  it. 
And,  what  is  more,  my  enemies  will  not  mock  me,  nor 
treat  me  like  a  contemptible  fellow,  but  will  only  be  too 
glad  to  give  me  an  opera  to  compose  if  I  choose — though 

1  The  "Entfiihrung  aus  dem  Serail"  was  not  performed  in  Berlin  until 
1788.  It  was  given  in  Prague,  Mannheim,  Frankfurt,  Bonn  and  Leipzig  in 
1783,  Salzburg  in  1784,  Kassel  in  1785,  and  Breslau  and  Coblenz  in  1787. 


Z.  469  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

very  likely  I  shall  not  choose.  What  I  mean  is  that  I  am 
willing  to  write  an  opera,  but  not  to  look  on  with  a  hun 
dred  ducats  in  my  pocket  and  see  the  theatre  making  four 
times  as  much  in  a  fortnight.1  I  intend  to  produce  my 
opera  at  my  own  expense,  I  shall  clear  at  least  1200 
gulden  by  three  performances  and  then  the  management 
may  have  it  for  fifty  ducats.  If  they  refuse  to  take  it,  I 
shall  have  made  some  money  and  can  produce  the  opera 
anywhere.  Well,  I  hope  that  hitherto  you  have  not 
detected  the  least  sign  of  an  inclination  on  my  part  to 
act  shabbily.  No  man  ought  to  be  mean,  but  neither 
ought  he  to  be  such  a  simpleton  as  to  let  other  people  take 
the  profits  from  his  work,  which  has  cost  him  so  much 
study  and  labour,  by  renouncing  all  further  claims  upon  it. 
The  Grand  Duke  arrived  yesterday.  Well,  the  dis 
tinguished  clavier  teacher  for  the  Princess  has  at  last 
been  appointed.  I  need  only  mention  his  pay  and  you 
will  easily  estimate  the  competence  of  this  master — 400 
gulden.  His  name  is  Summer.2  Even  if  I  were  dis 
appointed,  I  should  do  my  best  not  to  let  it  be  seen.  But 
as  things  are,  I  need  not,  thank  God,  make  any  pretence, 
for  the  only  thing  which  would  have  mortified  me  would 
have  been  my  appointment,  which,  of  course,  I  should 
have  had  to  decline — always  an  unpleasant  proceeding, 
when  one  is  in  the  unfortunate  position  of  having  to 
refuse  a  great  lord.  I  must  urge  you  once  more  to  hurry 
up  as  much  as  possible  the  copying,  of  my  opera.  And 
while  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  I  am  ever  your 
most  obedient  son 


1  According  to  a  letter  from  Schroder  to  Dalberg  of  May  22nd,  1784 
(quoted  in  Abert,  vol.  i.  p.  896,  n.  3),  Mozart  received  50  ducats  for  his 
opera.  The  usual  sum  paid  to  a  composer  was  100  ducats. 

2  Georg  Summer  (1742-1809)  was  appointed  in  1781  instructor  on  the 
clavier  to  the  Imperial  Court.  From  1791  until  his  death  he  was  organist  in 
the  Vienna  Court  Chapel. 




From  a  portrait  by  an  unknown  artist 

(Mozart  Museum,  Salzburg) 

1782  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  £.470 

My  dear  wife  kisses  your  hands  and  we  both  embrace  our 
dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts.  We  saw  the  cross  which  my 
sister  received  from  Baroness  Waldstadten  the  day  before 
she  sent  it  to  her.  I  despatched  by  the  mail  coach  to-day 
five  quires  of  ruled  paper  with  twelve  staves  to  a  page. 

We  do  not  yet  know — nor  indeed  does  the  Baroness 
herself — when  she  is  going  into  the  country.  But  as  soon 
as  I  hear,  I  shall  write  and  tell  you.  Adieu. 

(470)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 
MON    TRES    CHER    PERE!  VIENNA,  October  I2th,  1782 

If  I  could  have  foreseen  that  the  copyists  in  Salzburg 
would  have  so  much  to  do,  I  should  have  decided 
to  have  the  opera  copied  here  in  spite  of  the  extra 
expense.  Well,  I  must  go  off  to  the  Ambassador  and 
explain  the  real  reason  to  him.  But  please  do  your  very 
best  to  have  it  sent  to  me  soon,  and  the  sooner,  the  better. 
You  think  that  I  should  not  have  got  it  in  a  shorter  time 
from  a  Vienna  copyist?  Why,  I  could  have  got  it  from  the 
theatrical  copyist  here  within  a  week  or  at  most  ten  days. 
The  fact  that  that  ass  Gatti  asked  the  Archbishop  to 
be  allowed  to  compose  a  serenade,  alone  renders  him 
worthy  of  the  name  and  makes  me  surmise  that  it  is  equally 
applicable  to  his  learning  in  music. 

You  say  that  400  gulden  a  year  as  an  assured  salary  are 
not  to  be  despised.  What  you  say  would  be  true  if  in 
addition  I  could  work  myself  into  a  good  position  and 
could  treat  these  400  gulden  simply  as  an  extra.  But 
unfortunately  that  is  not  the  case.  I  should  have  to  con 
sider  the  400  gulden  as  my  chief  income  and  everything 
I  could  earn  besides  as  a  windfall,  the  amount  of  which 
would  be  very  uncertain  and  consequently  in  all  proba- 
VOL.  in  1233  N 

L.  470  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

bility  very  meagre.  For  you  can  easily  understand  that 
you  cannot  act  as  independently  towards  a  pupil  who  is  a 
Princess  as  towards  other  ladies.  If  a  Princess  does  not 
feel  inclined  to  take  a  lesson,  why,  you  have  the  honour 
of  waiting  until  she  does.  She  is  living  with  the  Salesians 
auf  der  Wieden,  so  that  if  you  do  not  care  to  walk,  you 
have  the  honour  of  paying  at  least  a  zwanziger *  to  drive 
there  and  back.  Thus  of  my  pay  only  304  gulden  would 
remain,  I  mean,  if  I  were  only  to  give  three  lessons  a  week; 
and  if  I  were  obliged  to  wait,  I  should  be  neglecting  in  the 
meantime  my  other  pupils  or  other  work  (by  which  I 
might  easily  make  more  than  400  gulden).  If  I  wanted  to 
come  in  to  Vienna,  I  should  have  to  pay  double,  as  I 
should  be  obliged  to  drive  out  again.  If  I  stayed  auf  der 
Wieden  and  were  giving  my  lesson  in  the  morning,  as 
no  doubt  I  should  be  doing,  I  should  have  to  go  at  lunch, 
time  to  some  inn,  take  a  wretched  meal  and  pay  extrava 
gantly  for  it.  Moreover,  by  neglecting  my  other  pupils,  I 
might  lose  them  altogether — for  everyone  considers  that 
his  money  is  just  as  good  as  that  of  a  Princess.  At  the  same 
time  I  should  be  losing  the  time  and  inclination  to  earn 
more  money  by  composition.  To  serve  a  great  lord  (be 
the  office  what  it  may)  a  man  should  be  paid  a  sufficient 
income  to  enable  him  to  serve  his  patron  alone,  without 
being  obliged  to  seek  additional  earnings  in  order  to 
avoid  penury.  A  man  must  provide  against  want.  Please 
do  not  think  that  I  am  so  stupid  as  to  tell  all  this  to  anyone 
else.  But  believe  me,  (the  Emperor)  himself  is  well  aware 
of  his  own  meanness  and  has  passed  me  over  solely  on 
this  account.  No  doubt,  if  I  had  applied  for  the  appoint 
ment  I  should  certainly  have  got  it,  but  with  more  than 
400  gulden,  though  probably  with  a  less  salary  than 
would  have  been  fair  and  just.  I  am  not  looking  for  pupils, 
for  I  can  have  as  many  as  I  please;  and  from  two  of  them, 

1  See  p.  1147,  n.  2. 


without  causing  me  the  slightest  hindrance  or  incon 
venience,  I  get  as  much  as  the  Princess  gives  her  master, 
who  has  thus  no  better  prospect  than  that  of  avoiding 
starvation  for  the  rest  of  his  life.  You  know  well  how 
services  are  generally  rewarded  by  great  lords.  Well,  I 
must  close,  for  the  post  is  going.  We  kiss  your  hands  a 
thousand  times  and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our 
hearts  and  are  ever  your  most  obedient  children 

More  the  next  time. 

(471)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

\_Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  19  d'octobre,  1782 

I  must  again  write  in  a  hurry.  I  do  not  understand 
how  it  is,  but  formerly  I  always  used  to  get  a  letter  from 
you  on  Friday  after  lunch;  but  now,  send  as  I  will,  I  never 
get  it  until  Saturday  evening.  I  am  very  sorry  that  you 
have  had  so  much  trouble  over  my  opera.  Indeed  I  have 
heard  about  England's  victories1  and  am  greatly  delighted 
too,  for  you  know  that  I  am  an  out-and-out  Englishman. 

The  Russian  Royalties  left  Vienna  to-day.  My  opera 
was  performed  for  them  the  other  day,  and  on  this  occa 
sion  I  thought  it  advisable  to  resume  my  place  at  the 
clavier  and  conduct  it.  I  did  so  partly  in  order  to  rouse 
the  orchestra  who  had  gone  to  sleep  a  little,  partly  (since 
I  happen  to  be  in  Vienna)  in  order  to  appear  before  the 
royal  guests  as  the  father  of  my  child. 

My  dearest  father,  I  must  confess  that  I  have  the  most 
impatient  longing  to  see  you  again  and  to  kiss  your  hands; 
and  for  this  reason  I  wanted  to  be  in  Salzburg  on 
November  I5th,  which  is  your  name-day.  But  the  most 

1  The  relief  of  Gibraltar  by  Lord  Howe  and  Sir  Edward  Hughes's  crush 
ing  defeat  of  the  French  navy  off  Trincomalee. 


L.  432  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

profitable  season  in  Vienna  is  now  beginning.  The 
nobility  are  returning  from  the  country  and  are  taking 
lessons.  Moreover,  concerts  are  starting  again.  I  should 
have  to  be  back  in  Vienna  by  the  beginning  of  December. 
How  hard  it  would  be  for  my  wife  and  myself  to  be  obliged 
to  leave  you  so  soon!  For  we  would  much  rather  enjoy  for 
a  longer  period  the  company  of  our  dear  father  and  our 
dear  sister.  So  it  depends  on  you — whether  you  prefer  to 
have  me  for  a  longer  or  shorter  time.  We  are  thinking  of 
going  to  you  in  the  spring.  If  I  only  mention  Salzburg 
to  my  dear  wife,  she  is  already  beside  herself  with  joy. 
The  barber  of  Salzburg  (not  of  Seville)  called  on  me  and 
delivered  kind  messages  from  you,  from  my  sister  and 
from  KatherL  Now  farewell.  We  both  kiss  your  hands  a 
thousand  times  and  embrace  my  dear  sister  with  all  our 
hearts  and  are  ever  your  most  obedient  children 

M:  C:  ET  W:  A:  MOZART 

(472)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VIENNE,  ce  26  cToctobre,  '82 

How  gladly  would  we  take  the  post-chaise  and  alia 
Wolfgang  Mozart  fly  to  Salzburg!  But  this  is  quite  out 
of  the  question,  because  I  cannot  get  away  from  here 
before  November  3rd  without  ruining  someone,  as 
Fraulein  von  Aurnhammer  (whom  I  have  placed  with 
Baroness  von  Waldstadten,  who  gives  her  board  and 
lodging)  is  giving  a  concert  in  the  theatre  on  that  day  and 
I  have  promised  to  play  with  her.  My  wife's  boundless 
desire  and  my  own  to  kiss  your  hands  and  to  embrace 
our  dear  sister  will  make  us  do  all  in  our  power  to  enjoy 
this  happiness  and  pleasure  as  soon  as  possible.  Enough! 
All  I  can  say  as  yet  is  that  the  month  of  November  is  not 
favourable  to  those  natives  of  Salzburg  who  may  not 



be  able  to  tolerate  my  presence.  I  have  many  things  too 
to  discuss  with  you,  my  dearest  father,  on  the  subject  of 
music.  It  is  all  the  same  to  me  whether  the  opera  is 
stitched  together  or  bound;  I  should  have  it  bound  in  blue 
paper.  You  will  see  by  my  writing  that  I  am  in  a  desperate 
hurry.  It  is  now  seven  o'clock  and  in  spite  of  all  my 
enquiries  I  have  only  this  moment  received  your  letter. 
Well,  adieu.  My  dear  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a 
thousand  times  and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our 
hearts  and  are  ever  your  most  obedient  children 


(473)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

{Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum^  Salzburg] 
MON    TRES    CHER    PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  13  de  9*",  1782 

We  are  in  considerable  perplexity.  I  did  not  write  to 
you  last  Saturday,  because  I  thought  we  were  certain  to 
leave  Vienna  on  Monday.  But  on  Sunday  the  weather 
became  so  dreadful  that  carriages  could  scarcely  make 
their  way  through  the  town.  I  still  wished  to  set  off  on 
Monday  afternoon,  but  I  was  told  at  the  post  that  not 
only  would  each  stage  take  four  or  five  hours,  but  we 
should  not  be  able  to  get  much  beyond  the  first  and 
should  have  to  turn  back.  The  mail  coach  with  eight 
horses  did  not  even  reach  the  first  stage  and  has  returned 
to  Vienna.  I  then  intended  to  leave  to-morrow,  but  my 
wife  has  such  a  severe  headache  to-day  that,  although  she 
insists  on  setting  out,  I  dare  not  allow  her  to  run  such  a 
risk  in  this  odious  weather.  So  I  am  waiting  for  another 
letter  from  you  (I  trust  that  in  the  meantime  road  con 
ditions  will  have  improved)  and  then  we  shall  be  off. 
For  the  pleasure  of  embracing  you  again,  my  dearest 
father,  outweighs  all  other  considerations.  My  pupils  can 


Z.  474  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

quite  well  wait  for  me  for  three  or  four  weeks.  For 
although  the  Countesses  Zichy  and  Rumbeck  have 
returned  from  the  country  and  have  already  sent  for  me, 
it  is  not  at  all  likely  that  they  will  engage  another  master 
in  the  meantime.  Well,  as  I  have  not  been  so  fortunate  as 
to  be  able  to  congratulate  you  in  person,  I  now  do  so  in 
writing  and  send  you  the  wishes  of  my  wife  and  your 
future  grandson  or  granddaughter.  We  wish  you  a  long 
and  happy  life,  health  and  contentment  and  whatever  you 
wish  for  yourself.  We  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times 
and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  are 
ever  your  most  obedient  children 

W:  et  C:  MOZART 

(474)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

\Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 
MON    TRES    CHER    PEREJ  VlENNE,  ce  2O  de  9*",  1782 

I  see  alas!  that  the  pleasure  of  embracing  you  must 
be  postponed  until  the  spring,  for  my  pupils  positively 
refuse  to  let  me  go,  and  indeed  the  weather  is  at  present 
far  too  cold  for  my  wife.  Everyone  implores  me  not  to 
take  the  risk.  In  spring  then  (for  I  call  March,  or  the 
beginning  of  April  at  latest  spring,  as  I  reckon  it  accord 
ing  to  my  circumstances),  we  can  certainly  travel  to 
Salzburg,  for  my  wife  is  not  expecting  her  confinement 
before  the  month  of  June,  So  I  am  unpacking  our  trunks 
to-day,  as  I  left  everything  packed  until  I  heard  from  you. 
For  had  you  desired  us  to  come,  we  should  have  been  off 
at  once  without  telling  a  soul,  just  to  show  you  that  we 
were  not  to  blame  in  the  matter.  M.  and  Mme  Fischer 
and  the  old  lady  (who  all  send  their  greetings)  can  best 
tell  you  how  sorry  I  am  not  to  be  able  to  make  the  journey 
at  present.  Yesterday  Princess  Elizabeth  (as  it  was  her 
name-day)  received  from  the  Emperor  a  present  of 


1782  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  475 

90,000  gulden  as  well  as  a  gold  watch  set  with  brilliants. 
She  was  also  proclaimed  an  Archduchess  of  Austria,  so 
she  now  has  the  title  of  Royal  Highness.  The  Emperor 
has  had  another  attack  of  fever.  <  I  fear  that  he  will  not 
live  long)  and  only  hope  that  I  am  mistaken. 

Madame  Heisig,  nee  De  Luca,  who  visited  Salzburg 
with  her  husband  and  played  the  psaltery  in  the  theatre,  is 
in  Vienna  and  is  giving  a  strumming  recital.  She  sent  me 
a  written  invitation  and  begged  me  to  speak  well  of  her, 
adding  that  she  attached  great  value  to  my  friendship. 
Well,  I  must  close.  My  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a 
thousand  times  and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our 
hearts  and  are  ever  your  most  obedient  children 

W:  et  C:  MOZART 

(475)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[A  utograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  21  de  decembre,  1782 
Passionate  as  was  my  longing  to  get  a  letter  from 
you  again  after  a  silence  of  three  weeks,  I  was  none 
the  less  amazed  at  its  contents.  In  short,  we  have  both 
been  in  the  same  state  of  anxiety.  You  must  know 
that  I  replied  to  your  last  letter  on  December  4th  and 
expected  an  answer  from  you  in  eight  days.  Nothing 
came.  Well,  I  thought  that  perhaps  you  had  not  had  time 
to  write;  and  from  a  rather  pleasant  hint  in  your  previous 
letter,  we  almost  thought  that  you  would  arrive  yourself. 
The  next  post  again  brought  us  nothing.  All  the  same  I 
intended  to  write,  but  was  unexpectedly  summoned  to  the 
Countess  Thun  and  consequently  was  prevented  from 
doing  so.  Then  our  anxiety  began.  We  consoled  ourselves, 
however,  with  the  thought  that  if  anything  had  been 
wrong,  one  of  you  would  have  written.  At  last  your  letter 


L.  475  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

came  to-day,  by  which  I  perceive  that  you  never  received 
my  last  letter.  I  can  scarcely  think  that  it  was  lost  in  the 
post,  so  no  doubt  the  maid  must  have  pocketed  the 
money.  But,  by  Heaven!  I  would  far  rather  have  made  a 
present  of  six  kreutzers  to  such  a  brute  than  have  lost 
my  letter  so  mal apropos]  and  yet  it  is  not  always  possible 
to  post  the  letter  oneself.  We  have  now  got  another  maid, 
whom  I  have  lectured  well  on  the  subject.  What  annoys 
me  most  of  all  is  that  it  has  caused  you  so  much  anxiety 
and  also  that  I  can  no  longer  remember  exactly  what  I 
wrote.  I  know  that  I  was  at  a  concert  at  Galitzin's  that 
same  evening  and  that  I  mentioned  among  other  things 
that  my  poor  little  wife  was  obliged  to  content  herself  for 
the  present  with  a  little  silhouette  portrait  of  yourself,  which 
she  always  carries  about  in  her  bag  and  kisses  more  than 
twenty  times  a  day.  I  also  asked  you  to  send  me  by  the 
first  opportunity  which  presents  itself  the  new  symphony 
which  I  composed  for  Haffner  at  your  request.1  I  should 
like  to  have  it  for  certain  before  Lent,  for  I  should  very 
much  like  to  have  it  performed  at  my  concert.  I  asked  you 
too  whether  you  would  like  to  know  to  what  little  silhouette 
portrait  I  was  referring?  Ah!  Yes!  I  added  that  I  was 
most  anxious  to  know  what  very  urgent  matter  you  wished 
to  discuss  with  me.  And  then  about  our  visit  in  the  spring! 
That  is  all  that  I  can  remember.  Confound  the  creature! 
For  how  can  I  know  whether  that  letter  did  not  contain 
something  which  I  should  be  very  sorry  to  see  falling  into 
other  hands?  But  I  do  not  think  that  it  did  and  I  trust 
that  it  didn't;  and  I  am  only  pleased  and  happy  to  hear 
that  you  are  both  in  good  health.  My  wife  and  I,  thank 
God,  are  very  well. 

Is  it  true  that  the  Archbishop  is  coming  to  Vienna  after 
the  New  Year?  Countess  Liitzow  has  been  here  for  three 
weeks  and  I  only  heard  of  her  arrival  yesterday.  Prince 

,      '  K.  385. 

1782  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  475 

Galitzin  told  me  of  it.  I  am  engaged  for  all  his  concerts. 
I  am  always  fetched  in  his  coach  and  brought  to  his  house 
and  treated  there  most  magnificently.  On  the  loth  my 
opera  was  performed  again  with  the  greatest  applause.  It 
was  the  fourteenth  time  and  the  theatre  was  as  full  as  on 
the  first  night,  or  rather  it  was  as  packed  as  it  has  in 
variably  been.  Count  Rosenberg  himself  spoke  to  me  at 
Prince  Galitzin's  and  suggested  that  I  should  write  an 
Italian  opera.  I  have  already  commissioned  someone  to 
procure  for  me  from  Italy  the  latest  opere  buffe  texts  to 
choose  from,  but  as  yet  I  have  not  received  any,  although 
I  myself  wrote  to  Ignaz  Hagenauer  about  it.  Some 
Italian  male  and  female  singers  are  coming  here  at 
Easter.  Please  send  me  Lugiati's  address  at  Verona,  for 
I  should  like  to  try  this  channel  too. 

A  new  opera,  or  rather  a  comedy  with  ariettas  by 
Umlauf,  entitled  "Welche  ist  die  beste  Nation?"  was 
performed  the  other  day  I — a  wretched  piece  which  I 
could  have  set  to  music,  but  which  I  refused  to  undertake, 
adding  that  whoever  should  compose  music  for  it  without 
altering  it  completely  would  run  the  risk  of  being  hooted 
off  the  stage;  had  it  not  been  Umlauf  s,  it  would  certainly 
have  been  hooted;  but,  being  his,  it  was  only  hissed.  Indeed 
it  was  no  wonder,  for  even  with  the  finest  music  no  one 
could  have  tolerated  such  a  piece.  But,  what  is  more,  the 
music  is  so  bad  that  I  do  not  know  whether  the  poet  or 
the  composer  will  carry  off  the  prize  for  inanity.  To  its 
disgrace  it  was  performed  a  second  time;  but  I  think  we 
may  now  say,  Punctum  satis. 

Well,  I  must  close,  or  I  shall  miss  the  post,  My  dear 
wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace 
our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  are  ever  your  most 
obedient  children 

W.  et  C.  MOZART 

*  On  December  I3th. 

L.  476  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1782 

(476)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!        VlENNE,  ce  28  de  decembre,  1782 
I  must  write  in  the  greatest  haste,  as  it  is  already 
half  past  five  and  I  have  asked  some  people  to  come  here 
at  six  for  a  little  concert.  Altogether  I  have  so  much  to  do 
that  often  I  do  not  know  whether  I  am  on  my  head  or  my 
heels.  I  spend  the  whole  forenoon  giving  lessons  until 
two  o'clock,  when  we  have  lunch.  After  this  meal  I  must 
give  my  poor  stomach  an  hour  for  digestion.  The  evening 
is  therefore  the  only  time  I  have  for  composing  and  of 
that  I  can  never  be  sure,  as  I  am  often  asked  to  perform 
at  concerts.  There  are  still  two  concertos  wanting  to  make 
,up  the  series  of  subscription  concertos.1  These  concertos 
are  a  happy  medium  between  what  is  too  easy  and  too 
difficult;  they  are  very  brilliant,  pleasing  to  the  ear,  and 
natural,  without  being  vapid.  There  are  passages  here  and 
there  from  which  connoisseurs  alone  can  derive  satis 
faction;  but  these  passages  are  written  in  such  a  way  that 
the  less  learned  cannot  fail  to  be  pleased,  though  without 
knowing  why.  I  am  distributing  the  tickets  at  six  ducats 
apiece.  I  am  now  finishing  too  the  piano  arrangement  of 
my  opera,  which  is  about  to  be  published;  and  at  the  same 
time  I  am  engaged  in  a  very  difficult  task,  the  music  for 
a  bard's  song  by  Denis  2  about  Gibraltar.  But  this  is  a 
secret,  for  it  is  a  Hungarian  lady  who  wishes  to  pay  this 
compliment  to  Denis.  The  ode  is  sublime,  beautiful,  any 
thing  you, like,  but  too  exaggerated  and  pompous  for  my 

1  •  K.  413-415,  composed  in  1782.  According  to  Kochel,  p.  502,  K.  414  was 
composed  before  K.  413. 

2  An  ode  entitled  "Gibraltar"  by  J.  N.  C.  Michael  Denis  (1729-1800), 
Jesuit  priest  and  poet.  The  poem  was  written  in  the  style  of  Klopstock. 
Mozart's  setting  was  never  finished.  The  fragment  "0  Calpe!"  K.  App.  25, 
consists  of  58  bars. 


1783  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  £.477 

fastidious  ears.  But  what  is  to  be  done?  The  golden  mean 
of  truth  in  all  things  is  no  longer  either  known  or  appre 
ciated.  In  order  to  win  applause  one  must  write  stuff  which 
is  so  inane  that  a  fiacre  could  sing  it,  or  so  unintelligible 
that  it  pleases  precisely  because  no  sensible  man  can 
understand  it.  This  is  not  what  I  have  been  wanting  to 
discuss  with  you;  but  I  should  like  to  write  a  book,  a  short 
introduction  to  music,  illustrated  by  examples,  but,  I 
need  hardly  add,  not  under  my  own  name. 

I  send  you  an  enclosure  from  Baroness  Waldstadten, 
who  fears  that  her  second  letter  may  have  gone  astray. 
You  cannot  have  received  her  last  letter,  for  you  have  not 
mentioned  it.  I  asked  you  about  it  in  the  letter  which  was 
lost.  Well,  adieu.  More  next  time.  My  little  wife  and  I 
kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  our  dear 
sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  are  ever  your  most  obedient 

W.  et  C.  MZT. 

(477)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

{Autograph  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin\ 
MON   TRES    CHER    PERE!  -  VlENNE,  ce  4  de  Janvier,  1783 

It  is  impossible  for  me  to  write  very  much,  as  we  have 
just  got  home  from  Baroness  Waldstadten's  and  I  have  to 
change  all  my  clothes,  as  I  am  invited  to  a  concert  at 
Court  Councillor  Spielmann's.  We  both  thank  you  for 
your  New  Year  wishes  and  confess  of  our  own  accord  that 
we  were  absolute  owls  to  have  forgotten  our  duty  so 
completely.  So,  laggards  as  we  are,  we  are  sending  you, 
not  our  New  Year  wishes,  but  our  general  everyday  wishes; 
and  we  must  leave  it  at  that.  It  is  quite  true  about  my 
moral  obligation  and  indeed  I  let,  the  word  flow  from  my 





pen  on  purpose.  I  made  the  promise  in  my  heart  of  hearts 
and  hope  to  be  able  to  keep  it.  When  I  made  it,  my  wife 
was  not  yet  married;  yet,  as  I  was  absolutely  determined 
to  marry  her  after  her  recovery,  it  was  easy  for  me  to 
make  it — but,  as  you  yourself  are  aware,  time  and  other 
circumstances  made  our  journey  impossible.  The  score 
of  half  of  a  mass,1  which  is  still  lying  here  waiting  to 
be  finished,  is  the  best  proof  that  I  really  made  the 

I  got  a  new  pupil  to-day,  the  elder  Countess  Palfy,,  the 
daughter  of  (the  Archbishop's  sister.)  But  please  keep 
this  news  to  yourself  for  the  present,  for  I  am  not  quite 
sure  whether  her  family  would  like  it  to  be  known.  It  is 
all  the  same  to  me  whether  you  send  me  the  symphony  of 
the  last  Haffner  music2  which  I  composed  in  Vienna, 
in  the  original  score  or  copied  out,  for,  as  it  is,  I  shall 
have  to  have  several  copies  made  for  my  concert.  I 
should  like  to  have  the  following  symphonies  as  soon  as 

1  K.  427,  Mozart's  mass  in  C  minor,  at  which  he  worked  during  the  years 
1782  and  1783  and  which  he  left  unfinished.  It  was  performed  in  the  Peters- 
kirche  in  Salzburg  on  August  25th,  Constanze  singing  the  soprano  part. 
Mozart  used  portions  of  this  mass  for  his  cantata  "Davidde  penitente", 
written  in  1785. 

2  K.  385.  3  K  204,  a  serenade,  composed  in  1775. 
4  K.  201,  composed  in  1774. 



tr       bis 

Z.  477 

Then  there  are  a  few  counterpoint  works  by  Eberlin 
copied  out  on  small  paper  and  bound  in  blue,3  and  some 





things  of  Haydn,4  which  I  should  like  to  have  for  Baron 
van  Swieten,  to  whose  house  I  go  every  Sunday  from 
twelve  to  two.  Tell  me,  are  there  any  really  good  fugues 
in  Haydn's  last  mass  or  vesper  music,  or  possibly  in  both? 
If  so,  I  should  be  very  much  obliged  to  you  if  you  would 
have  them  both  scored  for  me  bit  by  bit.  Well,  I  must 
close.  You  will  have  received  my  last  letter  with  the 
enclosure  from  the  Baroness.  She  did  not  tell  me  what  she 
had  written  to  you;  she  just  said  that  she  had  asked  you 
about  something  to  do  with  music.  But  the  next  time  I  go 
to  see  her,  she  will  certainly  tell  me  all  about  it,  as  she 
knows  that  I  am  not  at  all  inquisitive.  Indeed  she  is  a 
dreadful  chatterbox.  I  have  it,  however,  from  a  third 
party  that  she  would  like  to  have  someone  for  herself, 
as  she  is  leaving  Vienna.  Well,  I  just  want  to  warn  you 
that,  if  this  is  the  case,  you  should  be  a  little  bit  on  your 
guard,  as  she  is  as  changeable  as  the  wind.  Besides,  I 
feel  sure  that  however  much  she  may  imagine  that  she  is 

2  K.  183,  composed  in  1773. 
4  Michael  Haydn. 

1  K.  182,  composed  in  1773. 
3  Cp.  p.  469,  n.  I. 


L.  478  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1783 

going  to  leave  Vienna,  she  will  hardly  do  so;  for  as  long 
as  I  have  had  the  honour  of  her  acquaintance,  she  has 
always  been  on  the  point  of  leaving.  Well,  adieu.  We  kiss 
your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  our  dear  sister 
with  all  our  hearts  and  are  ever  your  obedient  children 

W.  et  C.  MOZART 

P.S. — Only  three  concertos1  are  being  published  and 
the  price  is  four  ducats. 

(478)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 
MON   TRES   CHER   PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  8  de  Janvier,  1783 

Were  it  not  on  account  of  poor  Finck,2 1  should  really 
have  to  ask  you  to  excuse  me  to-day  and  put  off  writing 
until  next  post-day,  as  I  have  to  finish  a  rondo  3  this 
evening  for  my  sister-in-law  Aloysia  Lange,  which  she  is 
to  sing  on  Saturday  at  a  big  concert  in  the  Mehlgrube. 
Meanwhile  you  will  have  received  my  last  letter  and 
you  will  have  seen  from  it  that  I  knew  nothing  whatever 
about  the  Baroness's  commission,  that  I  guessed  what  it 
might  be  and  had  heard  about  it  privately  from  another 
quarter,  upon  which,  as  I  know  this  lady  only  too  well,  I 
warned  you  to  be  a  little  bit  on  your  guard.  First  of  all,  I 
must  tell  you  that  Finck  would  not  be  at  all  suitable  for 
her,  as  she  wants  to  have  someone  for  herself  and  not  for 
her  children.4  You  see,  therefore,  that  what  is  important 
is  that  he  should  play  with  taste,  feeling  and  brilliancy; 
and  that  a  knowledge  of  thorough  bass  and  extemporising 
in  the  style  of  the  organ  would  be  of  no  use  to  him  what- 

1  K.  413-415. 

*  Ignaz  Finck,  court  trumpeter  in  Salzburg.  Evidently  he  had  offered  to 
take  a  letter  to  Mozart's  father. 

3  K.  416.  Recitative  "Mia  speranza  adorata";  rondo  "Ah,  non  sai,  qual 
pena".  Aloysia  sang  this  aria  too  at  Mozart's  concert  on  March  23rd.  See 
p.  1257.  4  The  Baroness  had  three  sons. 


1783  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  479 

ever.  Further,  I  should  like  you  to  realise  that  the  words 
which  I  used,  "herself — "for  herself3 ,  imply  a  good  deal. 
She  has  often  had  someone  of  the  kind  in  her  house,  but 
the  arrangement  has  never  lasted  very  long.  You  may  put 
whatever  construction  you  like  on  this.  Suffice  it  to  say 
that  the  result  of  these  scenes  is  that  people  speak  very 
lightly  about  her.  She  is  weak;  but  I  shall  say  no  more — 
and  the  little  I  have  said  is  only  for  yourself;  for  I  have 
received  a  great  many  kindnesses  from  her  and  so  it  is 
my  duty  to  defend  her  so  far  as  possible,  or  at  least  to  say 
nothing.  Well,  she  is  talking  of  going  off  in  a  few  days  to 
Pressburg  and  of  staying  there.  My  opinion  is  that  she 
may  do  so — or  that  she  may  not.  If  I  were  in  your  place, 
I  should  politely  decline  to  have  anything  to  do  with  the 
whole  business.  Well,  I  must  close  or  my  aria  will  never 
be  finished.  My  opera  was  given  again  yesterday  in  a 
crowded  theatre  and  with  the  greatest  applause.  Do  not 
forget  my  symphonies.1  Adieu.  My  little  wife  who  is 
quite  plump  (but  only  about  the  belly)  and  I  both  kiss 
your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  our  dear  sister 
with  all  our  hearts  and  are  ever  your  most  obedient 

W.  et  C.  MOZART 

(479)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg\ 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VlENNE,  ce.  22  de  Janvier,  1783 
You  need  have  no  fear  that  the  three  concertos  2  are 
too  dear.  I  think  after  all  that  I  deserve  a  ducat  for  each 
concerto — and  besides — I  should  like  to  know  who  could 
get  them  copied  for  a  ducat!  They  cannot  be  copied,  as  I 
shall  not  let  them  out  of  my  hands  until  I  have  secured  a 
certain  number  of  subscribers.  They  have  been  advertised 

1  Seep.  1244.  *  K.  413-415. 


L.  479  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1783 

three  times  in  the  Wiener  Diarium\ I  and  subscription 
tickets  at  four  ducats  each  have  been  on  sale  since  the 
2Oth  at  my  house,  where  the  concertos  can  be  obtained 
during"  the  month  of  April. 

I  shall  send  the  cadenzas  and  introductions2  to  my  dear 
sister  at  the  first  opportunity.  I  have  not  yet  altered  the 
introductions  in  the  rondo,3  for  whenever  I  play  this  con 
certo,  I  always  play  whatever  occurs  to  me  at  the  moment. 
Please  send  me  the  symphonies  4  I  asked  for  as  soon  as 
possible,  for  I  really  need  them.  And  now,  one  more 
request,  for  my  wife  is  giving"  me  no  peace  on  the  subject. 
You  are  doubtless  aware  that  this  is  carnival  time  and 
that  there  is  as  much  dancing  here  as  in  Salzburgf  and 
Munich.  Well,  I  should  very  much  like  to  go  as  Harlequin 
(but  not  a  soul  must  know  about  it) — because  here  there 
are  so  many — indeed  nothing  but — silly  asses  at  the 
Redoutes.  So  I  should  like  you  to  send  me  your  Harlequin 
costume.  But  please  do  so  very  soon,  for  we  shall  not 
attend  the  Redoutes  until  I  have  it,  although  they  are 
now  in  full  swing.  We  prefer  private  balls.  Last  week  I 
gave  a  ball  in  my  own  rooms,  but  of  course  the  chapeaux 
each  paid  two  gulden.  We  began  at  six  o'clock  in  the 
evening  and  kept  on  until  seven.  What!  Only  an  hour? 
Of  course  not.  I  meant,  until  seven  o'clock  next  morning. 
You  will  wonder  how  I  had  so  much  room?  Why,  that 
reminds  me  that  I  have  always  forgotten  to  tell  you  that 
for  the  last  six  weeks  I  have  been  living  in  a  new  lodging 
— but  still  on  the  Hohe  Briicke,  and  only  a  few  houses  off. 
We  are  now  in  the  small  Herberstein  house,  No.  41 2,  on  the 
third  floor.5  The  house  belongs  to  Herr  von  Wetzlar — a 
rich  Jew.  Well,  I  have  a  room  there— 1000  feet  long  and 

1  A  Vienna  daily  paper. 

2  The  German  expression  "Eingange"  really  means  "short  ornamental 
cadenzas".  Seep.  1252,  n.  2.         3  K.  382.  Seep.  1189,  n.  3.         4  See  p.  1244. 

5  Now  Wipplingerstrasse  no.  17.  This  was  Mozart's  fourth  move  since  his 
arrival  in  Vienna. 


1783  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  480 

one  foot  wide T — and  a  bedroom,  an  anteroom  and  a  fine 
large  kitchen.  Then  there  are  two  other  fine  big  rooms 
adjoining  ours,  which  are  still  empty  and  which  I  used  for 
this  private  ball.  Baron  Wetzlar  and  his  wife  were  there, 
Baroness  Waldstadten,  Herr  von  Edelbach,  that  gas 
bag  Gilowsky,2  Stephanie  junior  et  uxor,  Adamberger 
and  his  wife,  Lange  and  his,  and  so  forth.  It  would  be 
impossible  to  name  them  all.  Well,  I  must  close,  as  I  still 
have  a  letter  to  write  to  Madame  Wendling  at  Mannheim 
about  my  concertos.  Please  remind  that  ever  ready 
operatic  composer,3  Gatti,  about  the  opera  libretti.4  I  do 
wish  I  had  them  already.  Well,  adieu.  We  kiss  your  hands 
a  thousand  times  and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our 
hearts  and  are  ever  your  most  obedient  children 

W.  et  Co:  MOZART 

(480)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg\ 

MON  TR&S  CHER  PERE!  ViENNE,  ce  5  defevrier,  1783 

I  have  received  your  last  letter  and  trust  that  in  the 
meantime  you  have  also  received  my  last  one  with  my 
request  for  the  Harlequin  costume.  I  now  repeat  it,  beg 
ging  you  at  the  same  time  to  be  so  very  kind  as  to  dis 
patch  it  with  all  possible  speed.  And  please  send  the 
symphonies,5  especially  the  last  one?  as  soon  as  possible, 
for  my  concert  is  to  take  place  on  the  third  Sunday  in 

1  A  favourite  joke  of  the  Mozart  family.  See  p.  n. 

2  Franz  Wenzel  Gilowsky  de  Urazowa  (1757-1816),  brother  of  Katherl 
Gilowsky.  He  was  now  a  young  surgeon  in  Vienna  and  had  been  best  man 
at  Mozart's  wedding. 

3  Dr.  A.  Einstein  suggests  an  allusion  to  Johann  P.  Kirnberger's  Der 
allezeit  fertige  Polonaisen-  und  Menuettenkomponist,  Berlin,  1757. 

4  Abbate  Luigi  Gatti,  a  native  of  Mantua,  had  lived  in  Italy  until  1783, 
when  he  took  up  his  appointment  as  Kapellmeister  to  the  Salzburg  court 
orchestra.  Mozart  hoped  that  through  him  he  might  find  a  suitable  Italian 
text  for  an  opera  buffa.  s  See  p.  1244.  6  K.  385. 

VOL.  Ill  1249  O 

L.  480  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1783 

Lent,  that  is,  on  March  23rd,  and  I  must  have  several 
copies  made.  I  think,  therefore,  that  if  it  is  not  copied 
already,  it  would  be  better  to  send  me  back  the  original 
score  just  as  I  sent  it  to  you;  and  remember  to  put  in 
the  minuets.1 

Is  Ceccarelli  no  longer  in  Salzburg?  Or  was  he  not 
given  a  part  in  Gatti's  cantata?  This  I  ask,  as  you  do 
not  mention  him  among  the  squabblers  and  wranglers. 

My  opera  was  performed  yesterday  for  the  seventeenth 
time  with  the  usual  applause  and  to  a  full  house. 

On  Friday,  the  day  after  to-morrow,  a  new  opera  is  to 
be  given,  the  music  of  which,  a  galimatias,  is  by  a  young 
Viennese,  a  pupil  of  Wagenseil,  who  is  called  gallus 
cantans,  in  arbore  sedens,  gigirigi  faciens.2  It  will  prob 
ably  not  be  a  success.  Still,  it  is  better  stuff  than  its  pre 
decessor,  an  old  opera  by  Gassmann,  "La  notte  critica", 
in  German  "Die  unruhige  Nacht' V  which  with  difficulty 
survived  three  performances.  This  in  its  turn  had  been 
preceded  by  that  execrable  opera  of  Umlauf,4  about 
which  I  wrote  to  you  and  which  never  got  so  far  as  a 
third  performance.  It  really  seems  as  if  they  wished  to 
kill  off  before  its  time  the  German  opera,  which  in  any 
case  is  to  come  to  an  end  after  Easter;  and  Germans 
themselves  are  doing  this — shame  upon  them! 

I  asked  you  in  my  last  letter  to  keep  on  reminding 
Gatti  about  the  Italian  opera  libretti  and  I  again  repeat 
my  request.  Let  me  now  tell  you  of  my  plan.  I  do  not 
believe  that  the  Italian  opera  will  keep  going  for  long, 
and  besides,  I  hold  with  the  Germans.  I  prefer  German 

1  See  p.  1207,  n.  4. 

2  Johann  Mederitsch  (1755-1835),  called  Gallus.  His  opera  "Rose,  oder 
Pflicht  und  Liebe  im  Streit"  was  performed  on  February  9th,  1783.  He  is 
better  known  as  a  successful  composer  of  Viennese  folk  songs.  See  MM, 
February  1919,  p.  21  ff. 

3  Gassmann's  opera  "La  notte  critica"  was  performed  on  January  loth, 
1783.  4  Umlauf  s  opera  "Welche  ist  die  beste  Nation?".  See  p.  1241. 


1783  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z.  480 

opera,  even  though  it  means  more  trouble  for  me.  Every 
nation  has  its  own  opera  and  why  not  Germany?  Is  not 
German  as  singable  as  French  and  English?  Is  it  not  more 
so  than  Russian?  Very  well  then!  I  am  now  writing  a 
German  opera  for  myself.  I  have  chosen  Goldoni's  comedy 
"II  servitore  di  due  padroni",  and  the  wholeof  thefirst  act 
has  now  been  translated.  Baron  Binder  is  the  translator. 
But  we  are  keeping  it  a  secret  until  it  is  quite  finished.1 
Well,  what  do  you  think  of  this  scheme?  Do  you  not  think 
that  I  shall  make  a  good  thing  of  it?  Now  I  must  close. 
Fischer,  the  bass  singer,  is  with  me  and  has  just  asked 
me  to  write  about  him  to  Le  Gros  in  Paris,  as  he  is  going 
off  there  in  Lent.  The  Viennese  are  making  the  foolish 
mistake  of  letting  a  man  go  who  can  never  be  replaced. 
My  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and 
embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  are  ever 
your  most  obedient  children 

W:  et  C:  MOZART 
Gaetano  Majorano  (Caffarelli) 
Amphion  Thebas 
Ego  Domum.2 

1  This  plan  was  never  carried  out.  Saint-Foix,  vol.  iii.  p.  389,  n.,  suggests 
that  the  arias  K.  433,  435,  composed  for  bass  and  tenor  respectively,  have 
some  connection  with  this  project.  See  also  Kochel,  pp.  515,  517. 

2  These  words  are  written  on  the  cover  of  the  letter. 

Gaetano  Majorano  (1703-1783),  a  famous  castrato,  who  took  the  name 
of  Caffarelli  from  his  friend  and  patron,  Pasquale  Caffaro,  the  Neapolitan 
composer,  studied  under  Porpora  and  in  1724  made  his  first  appearance  in 
Rome.  In  1 738  he  sang  in  London  and  then  returned  to  Italy.  When  he  was 
65  he  had  amassed  an  immense  fortune  and  built  a  palace  near  Naples,  over 
the  door  of  which  was  the  inscription  'Amphion  Thebas,  ego  domum',  refer 
ring  to  the  classical  legend  of  Amphion,  who  is  said  to  have  built  the  walls 
of  Thebes  by  the  magic  strains  of  his  lute. 

Caffarelli  is  not  mentioned  previously  in  the  letters,  but  his  name  appears 
in  Leopold  Mozart's  Reiseaufzeichnungen,  p.  53,  in  the  handwriting  of 
Mozart  himself,  who  adds  the  remark:  "Musico  ricchissimo,  va  nelle  chiese 
per  chiappare  qualche  denaro"  (a  very  rich  castrato,  who  goes  and  sings  in 
churches  in  order  to  scrape  up  a  few  coins). 

Caffarelli  died  on  February  1st,  1783. 


L.  481  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  x?83 

(481)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

\Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TR£S  CHER  PERE!  VIENNE,  ce  15  defevrier,  1783 
Most  heartfelt  thanks  for  the  music  you  have  sent 
me.  I  am  extremely  sorry  that  I  shall  not  be  able  to  use 
the  music  of  "Thames",1  but  this  piece,  which  failed  to 
please  here,  is  now  among  the  rejected  works  which  are  no 
longer  performed.  For  the  sake  of  the  music  alone  it  might 
possibly  be  given  again,  but  that  is  not  likely.  Certainly 
it  is  a  pity!  Herewith  I  send  my  sister  the  three  cadenzas 
for  the  concerto  in  D  and  the  two  short  cadenzas  for 
the  one  in  E^.*  Please  send  me  at  once  the  little  book 
which  contains  the  oboe  concerto3  I  wrote  for  Ramm, 
or  rather  for  Ferlendis.  Prince  Esterhazy's  oboist  is 
giving  me  three  ducats  for  it  and  has  offered  me  six,  if  I 
will  compose  a  new  concerto  for  him.4  But  if  you  have 
already  gone  to  Munich,  well,  then,  by  Heaven,  there  is 
nothing  to  be  done;  for  the  only  person  to  whom  in  that 
case  we  could  apply,  I  mean,  Ramm  himself,  is  not  there 
either.  I  should  like  to  have  sat  in  a  corner  at  Strassburg 
— but  indeed  not — for  I  don't  think  I  should  have  spent 
a  peaceful  night.5  My  new  Haffner  symphony6  has 
positively  amazed  me,  for  I  had  forgotten  every  single 
note  of  it.  It  must  surely  produce  a  good  effect.  I  think 
that  during  the  last  carnival  days  we  shall  collect  a  com 
pany  of  masqueraders  and  perform  a  small  pantomime. 

1  K.  345.  Mozart's  incidental  music  to  Baron  von  Gebler's  drama  "Thamos, 
Konig  von  Agypten",  composed  during  the  years  1773-1779.    See  Kochel, 
p.  418  f. 

2  Cadenzas  for  K.  175,  composed  in  1773,  and  short  cadenzas  for  K.  271, 
composed  in  1777.  These  are  to  be  found  under  K.  624. 

3  Probably  K.  314.  Cp.  p.  466,  n.  i. 

4  Possibly  K.  293,  a  fragment,  61  bars,  of  an  oboe  concerto. 

5  Mozart  may  be  referring  to  a  performance  at  Strassburg  of  his  "Entfiihrung 
aus  dem  Serail".  6  K,  385. 



But  please  do  not  betray  us.  I  have  at  last  been  fortunate 
enough  to  meet  the  Chevalier  Hy polity,  who  had  never 
been  able  to  find  me.  He  is  a  charming  person.  He  has 
been  to  see  me  once  and  he  is  to  come  again  soon  and 
bring  an  aria  so  that  I  may  hear  him.  I  must  close,  as  I 
am  off  to  the  theatre.  My  little  wife  and  I  kiss  your 
hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with 
all  our  hearts  and  are  ever  your  most  obedient  children 


(482)  Mozart  to  Baroness  von  Waldstadten 

[Autograph  sold  by  Artaria  and  Co.,  Vienna^  March  und,  1934,  No.  636] 

VIENNA,  February  \^th,  1783 

Here  I  am  in  a  fine  dilemma!  Herr  von  Tranner  and 
I  discussed  the  matter  the  other  day  and  agreed  to  ask 
for  an  extension  of  a  fortnight.  As  every  merchant  does 
this,  unless  he  is  the  most  disobliging  man  in  the  world, 
my  mind  was  quite  at  ease  and  I  hoped  that  by  that  time,  if 
I  were  not  in  the  position  to  pay  the  sum  myself,  I  should 
be  able  to  borrow  it.  Well,  Herr  von  Tranner  now  in 
forms  me  that  the  person  in  question  absolutely  refuses 
to  wait  and  that  if  I  do  not  pay  the  sum  before  to-morrow, 
he  will  bring  an  action  against  me.  Only  think,  your 
Ladyship,  what  an  unpleasant  business  this  would  be  for 
me!  At  the  moment  I  cannot  pay — not  even  half  the  sum! 
If  I  could  have  foreseen  that  the  subscriptions  for  my 
concertos x  would  come  in  so  slowly,  I  should  have  raised 
the  money  on  a  longer  time-limit.  I  entreat  your  Lady 
ship  for  Heaven's  sake  to  help  me  to  keep  my  honour 
and  my  good  name! 

My  poor  little  wife  is  slightly  indisposed,  so  I  cannot 

1  K.  413-415. 

L.  483  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1783 

leave  her;  otherwise  I  should  have  come  to  you  myself  to 
ask  in  person  for  your  Ladyship's  assistance.  We  kiss 
your  Ladyship's  hands  a  thousand  times  and  are  both 
your  Ladyship's  most  obedient  children 

W.  A.  and  C.  MOZART 

At  home,  February  i5th,  1783. 

(483)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VIENNE,  ce  12  de  Mars,  1783 

I  hope  that  you  have  not  been  uneasy  but  have 
guessed  the  cause  of  my  silence,  which  was  that,  as  I  did 
not  know  for  certain  how  long  you  would  stay  in  Munich,1 
I  delayed  writing  until  now,  when  I  am  almost  sure  that 
my  letter  will  find  you  in  Salzburg.  My  sister-in-law, 
Madame  Lange,  gave  her  concert  yesterday  in  the 
theatre  and  I  played  a  concerto.2  The  theatre  was  very 
full  and  I  was  received  again  by  the  Viennese  public  so 
cordially  that  I  really  ought  to  feel  delighted.  I  had 
already  left  the  platform,  but  the  audience  would  not 
stop  clapping  and  so  I  had  to  repeat  the  rondo;  upon 
which  there  was  a  regular  torrent  of  applause.  It  is  a  good 
advertisement  for  my  concert  which  I  am  giving  on 
Sunday,  March  23rd.  I  added  my  symphony  which  I 
composed  for  the  Concert  Spirituel.3  My  sister-in-law  sang 
the  aria  "Non  so  d'onde  viene".4  Gluck  had  a  box  beside 
the  Langes,  in  which  my  wife  was  sitting.  He  was  loud  in 
his  praises  of  the  symphony  and  the  aria  and  invited  us 

1  Leopold  Mozart  had  been  to  Munich  on  one  of  his  frequent  visits  to  the 
family  of  Theobald  Marchand. 
a  Probably  K.  175  with  the  rondo  K.  382.  See  p.  1189,  n.  3. 

3  K.  297,  composed  in  1778. 

4  K.  294,  written  in  1778. 

1783  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  483 

all  four  to  lunch  with  him  next  Sunday.  It  is  possible  that 
the  German  opera  may  be  continued,  but  no  one  knows 
what  will  happen.  One  thing  is  certain,  and  that  is,  that 
Fischer  is  off  to  Paris  in  a  week.  I  entreat  you  most 
earnestly  to  send  me  the  oboe  concerto l  I  gave  to  Ramm 
— and  as  soon  as  possible.  When  doing  so,  you  might  put 
in  something  else,  for  example,  the  original  scores  of  my 
masses  2  and  of  my  two  vesper  compositions.3  This  is 
solely  with  a  view  to  Baron  van  Swieten  hearing  them. 
He  sings  treble,  I  sing  alto  (and  play  at  the  same  time), 
Starzer  sings  tenor  and  young  Teiber4  from  Italy  sings 
bass.  Send  me  in  the  meantime  the  "Tres  sunt"  by 
Haydn,  which  will  do  until  you  can  let  me  have  some 
thing  else  of  his.  Indeed  I  should  very  much  like  them 
to  hear  the  "Lauda  Sion".  The  full  score  of  the  "Tres 
sunt"  copied  out  in  my  own  handwriting  must  be  some 
where  at  home.5  The  fugue  "In  te  Domine  speravi"  has 
won  great  applause  and  so  have  the  "Ave  Maria"  and 
the  "Tenebrae"  and  so  forth.  I  beg  you  to  enliven  our 
Sunday  music  practices  6  with  something  soon. 

On  Carnival  Monday  our  company  of  masqueraders 
went  to  the  Redoute,  where  we  performed  a  pantomime 
which  exactly  filled  the  half  hour  when  there  is  a  pause  in 
the  dancing.  My  sister-in-law  was  Columbine,  I  Harle 
quin,  my  brother-in-law  Pierrot,  an  old  dancing  master 
(Merk)  Pantaloon,  and  a  painter  (Grassi)  the  doctor.  Both 
the  plot  and  the  music  of  the  pantomime  were  mine.7 

1  See  p.  1252,  n.  3. 

2  Probably  K.  275,  317  and  337. 

3  K.  321,  composed  in  1779,  and  K.  339,  composed  in  1780. 

4  Anton  Teiber  (1754-1822),  a  brother  of  the  famous  singers,  Elizabeth 
and  Therese  Teiber. 

5  See  p.  469,  n.  i.  Haydn's  "Tres  simt"  and  "Lauda  Sion"  appear  to 
have  been  lost. 

6  At  the  house  of  Baron  van  Swieten. 

7  K.  446,  The  autograph,  a  fragment,  has  only  the  first  violin  part  for  a 
string  quartet.  See  Kochel,  p.  518  f. 


L.  484  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1783 

Merk,  the  dancing  master,  was  so  kind  as  to  coach  us, 
and  I  must  say  that  we  played  it  charmingly.  I  am 
enclosing  the  programme  which  was  distributed  to  the 
company  by  a  mask,  dressed  as  a  postillion.  The  verses, 
although  only  doggerel,  might  have  been  done  better.  I 
had  nothing  to  do  with  them.  Miiller,1  the  actor,  dashed 
them  off.  Well,  I  must  close,  for  I  am  going  to  a  concert 
at  Count  Esterhazy's.  Meanwhile  farewell.  Please  do  not 
forget  about  the  music.  My  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a 
thousand  times  and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our 
hearts  and  I  am  ever  your  most  obedient  son 

W:  A:  et  C:  MOZART 

(484)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TRfis  CHER  PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  29  de  mars,  1783 

I  need  not  tell  you  very  much  about  the  success  of 
my  concert,2  for  no  doubt  you  have  already  heard  of  it. 
Suffice  it  to  say  that  the  theatre  could  not  have  been 
more  crowded  and  that  every  box  was  full.  But  what 
pleased  me  most  of  all  was  that  His  Majesty  the  Emperor 
was  present  and,  goodness! — how  delighted  he  was  and 
how  he  applauded  me!  It  is  his  custom  to  send  the  money 
to  the  box-office  before  going  to  the  theatre;  otherwise  I 
should  have  been  fully  justified  in  counting  on  a  larger 
sum,  for  really  his  delight  was  beyond  all  bounds.  He 
sent  twenty-five  ducats.  Our  programme  was  as  follows: 

(1)  The  new  Haffner  symphony.3 

(2)  Madame  Lange  sang  the  aria  "Se  il  padre  perdei" 

1  Possibly  Johann  Heinrich  Friedrich  Miiller  (1734-1815),  an  actor  at 
the  National  Theatre  in  Vienna,  who  was  particularly  successful  in  comic 
parts.  See  Dr.  R.  Payer  von  Thurn,  Joseph  II  als  Theaterdirektor ;  Vienna, 
1920, passim.  2  On  March  23rd.  3  K.  385. 


1783  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  484 

from  my   Munich  opera,   accompanied  by  four 

(3)  I  played  the  third  of  my  subscription  concertos.2 

(4)  Adamberger  sang  the  scena  which  I  composed  for 
Countess  Baumgarten.3 

(5)  The  short  concertante  symphonic  from  my  last 

(6)  I  played  my  concerto  in  D  major,  which  is  such  a 
favourite  here,  and  of  which  I  sent  you  the  rondo 
with  variations.5 

(7)  Mile  Teiber  sang  the  scena  "Parto,  m'affretto" 
out  of  my  last  Milan  opera.6 

(8)  I  played  alone  a  short  fugue  (because  the  Emperor 
was  present)  and  then  variations  on  an  air  from  an 
opera  called  "Die  Philosophen",  which  were  en 
cored.  So  I  played  variations  on  the  air  "Unser 
dummer  Pobel  meint"  from  Gluck's  "Pilgrimme 
von  Mekka".7 

(9)  Madame  Lange  sang  my  new  rondo.8 
(10)  The  last  movement  of  the  first  symphony.9 
Mile  Teiber I0  is  giving  a  concert  to-morrow,  at  which 

I  am  going  to  play.  Von  Daubrawaick  and  Gilowsky  are 
off  to  Salzburg  next  Thursday  and  will  bring  you  my 
Munich  opera,11  the  two  copies  of  my  sonatas,12  some 
variations  for  my  sister  and  also  the  money  which  I  owe 
you  for  having  my  opera13  copied.  I  have  received  the 

1  Ilia's  aria  in  Act  II  of  "Idomeneo",  with  flute,  oboe,  bassoon  and  horn 
obbligatos.     It  was  written  originally  for  Dorothea  Wendling. 

2  K.  415.  3  K.  369.  4  K.  320,  composed  in  1779. 

5  K.  175,  for  which  Mozart  wrote  the  rondo  K.  382. 

6  Aria  no.  16  in  "Lucio  Silla",  composed  in  1772. 

7  The  first  set  of  variations  are  K.  398,  six  variations  on  "Salve  tu,  Domine" 
from  Paisiello's  opera  "Socrate  immaginario",  which  was  performed  in 
Vienna  in  1781  as  "Der  eingebildete  Philosoph".  The  second  set  are  K.  455, 
ten  variations  on  "Unser  dummer  Pobel  meint".  8  K.  416. 

9  The  "Haffner"  symphony,  K.  385.  I0  Probably  Therese  Teiber. 

11  "Idomeneo."  l2  K.  296  and  376-380. 

13  "Die  Entfuhrung  aus  dem  Sereil." 


Z.  485  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1783 

parcel  of  music  and  thank  you  for  it.  Please  do  not  forget 
about  the  "Lauda  Sion";1  and  what  we  should  like  to 
have  as  well,  my  dearest  father,  is  some  of  your  best 
church  music,  for  we  like  to  amuse  ourselves  with  all 
kinds  of  masters,  ancient  and  modern.  So  I  beg  you  to 
send  us  very  soon  some  of  your  own  compositions.  Well, 
I  must  close.  My  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand 
times  and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and 
are  ever  your  most  obedient  children 


(485)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

\Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg\ 

MON   TRES   CHER   PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  3  cTavril,  1783 

I  send  you  herewith  my  Munich  opera  2  and  the  two 
copies  of  my  sonatas! 3  The  variations4  I  promised  will  be 
sent  to  you  by  the  first  opportunity,  for  the  copyist  could 
not  finish  them  in  time.  The  two  portraits5  will  follow 
too.  I  only  hope  that  you  will  be  pleased  with  them.  I 
think  they  are  both  good  likenesses  and  all  who  have  seen 
them  are  of  the  same  opinion.  Well,  I  am  afraid  you  have 
read  a  lie  at  the  beginning  of  my  letter — I  mean,  about 
the  two  copies  of  my  sonatas.  But  it  is  not  my  fault.  When 
I  went  to  buy  them,  I  was  told  that  there  was  not  a  single 
copy  left,  but  that  I  could  have  them  to-morrow  or  the 
day  after.  It  is  too  late  to  get  them  off  now,  so  I  shall  send 
them  along  with  the  variations.  I  enclose  the  sum  I  owe 

1  Michael  Haydn's  composition.  See  p.  1255.  *  "Idomeneo." 

3  K.  296  and  376-380.  4  K.  359,  360,  352. 

5  Probably  the  oil  paintings  of  Mozart  and  his  wife,  which  were  done  by 
his  brother-in-law  Josef  Lange.  Mozart's  portrait  is  unfinished.  It  is  at  present 
in  the  Mozart  Museum,  Salzburg.  Constanze's  portrait  is  in  the  Hunterian 
Museum,  University  of  Glasgow.  For  a  discussion  of  the  latter  see  Farmer  and 
Smith,  New  Mozartiana,  1935,  pp.  29-52.  See  illustrations  nos.  26  and  29. 


1783  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  486 

for  the  copying  of  my  opera  and  I  only  hope  that  the 
balance  may  be  of  some  use  to  you.  I  cannot  spare  any 
more  at  present,  as  I  foresee  many  expenses  in  connection 
with  my  wife's  confinement,  which  will  probably  take 
place  towards  the  end  of  May  or  the  beginning  of  June. 
Well,  I  must  close,  as  Von  Daubrawaick  is  leaving  very 
early  in  the  morning  and  I  must  send  him  the  letter.  My 
wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace 
our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  are  ever  your  most 
obedient  children 

W:  A:  et  C:  MOZART 

(486)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

{Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  12  tfavril,  1783 

I  received  this  morning  your  last  letter  of  the  8th 
and  see  from  it  that  you  have  got  everything  which  I 
entrusted  to  Daubrawaick.  I  am  sorry  to  say  that  the 
mail  coach  does  not  leave  until  this  day  week,  so  I  can 
not  send  you  the  two  copies  of  my  sonatas  J  until  then. 
But  you  shall  also  have  the  voice  part  with  variations  of 
the  aria  "Non  so  d'onde  viene".2  The  next  time  you  send 
me  a  parcel,  please  let  the  rondo  for  an  alto  voice  which 
I  composed  for  the  castrato  who  was  with  the  Italian 
company  in  Salzburg  3  and  the  one  which  I  composed 
for  Ceccarelli  in  Vienna 4  take  the  same  trip.  When  the 
weather  gets  warmer,  please  make  a  search  in  the  attic 
under  the  roof  and  send  us  some  of  your  own  church 
music.  You  have  no  reason  whatever  to  be  ashamed  of 
it.  Baron  van  Swieten  and  Starzer  know  as  well  as  you 

1  K.  296  and  376-380.  2  K.  294. 

3  K.  255,  a  recitative  and  aria,  "Ombra  felice",  composed  in  1776  for 
Francesco  Fortini,  a  member  of  a  company  under  Pietro  Rosa,  who  were 
performing  comic  operas  at  Salzburg  and  Innsbruck.  4  K.  374. 


L.  486  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1783 

and  I  that  musical  taste  is  continually  changing — and, 
what  is  more,  that  this  extends  even  to  church  music, 
which  ought  not  to  be  the  case.  Hence  it  is  that  true 
church  music  is  to  be  found  only  in  attics  and  in  a  worm- 
eaten  condition.  When  I  come  to  Salzburg  with  my  wife 
in  July,  as  I  hope  to  do,  we  shall  discuss  this  point  at 
greater  length.  When  Daubrawaick  went  off,  I  really 
could  scarcely  hold  back  my  wife,  who  insisted  absolu- 
ment  on  our  following  him  to  Salzburg.  She  thought  that 
we  might  even  get  there  first.  And  had  it  not  been  for  the 
very  short  time  we  could  have  stayed — what  am  I  saying 
— why,  she  might  have  had  to  be  confined  in  Salzburg — 
which  made  this  plan  impossible,  our  most  ardent  wish  to 
embrace  you,  most  beloved  father,  and  my  dearest  sister 
would  by  this  time  have  been  fulfilled;  for,  as  far  as  my 
wife  is  concerned,  I  should  have  had  no  fears  about  this 
short  journey.  She  is  in  such  excellent  health  and  has  be 
come  so  robust  that  all  women  should  thank  God  if  they 
are  so  fortunate  in  their  pregnancy.  As  soon  as  my  wife 
has  sufficiently  recovered  from  her  confinement,  we  shall 
certainly  go  off  to  Salzburg  at  once.  You  will  have  seen 
from  my  last  letter  that  I  was  to  play  at  another  concert, 
that  is,  at  Mile  Teiber's.  The  Emperor  was  there  too.  I 
played  my  first  concerto  which  I  played  at  my  concert.1 
I  was  asked  to  repeat  the  rondo.  So  I  sat  down  again; 
but  instead  of  repeating  it  I  had  the  conductor's  stand 
removed  and  played  alone.  You  should  have  heard  how 
delighted  the  public  were  with  this  little  surprise.  They 
not  only  clapped  but  shouted  "bravo"  and  "bravissimo". 
The  Emperor  too  stayed  to  hear  me  to  the  end  and  as 
soon  as  I  left  the  piano  he  left  his  box;  evidently  he  had 
only  remained  to  listen  to  me.  Please  send  me,  if  possible, 
the  reports  about  my  concert.  I  rejoice  with  my  whole 
heart  that  the  small  sum  which  I  was  able  to  send  has 

1  K.  175  with  the  rondo,  K.  382.  See  p.  1252. 

1783  MOZART  TO  J.  G.  SIEBER  Z.  487 

been  so  useful  to  you.  I  have  a  great  deal  more  to  write 
about,  but  I  am  afraid  that  the  post  may  ride  off  without 
this  letter,  as  it  is  a  quarter  to  eight.  So  goodbye  for  the 
present.  My  dear  little  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a 
thousand  times  and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our 
hearts  and  are  ever  your  most  obedient  children 

W:  et  C:  MOZART 

Our  compliments  to  the  whole  of  Salzburg.  Adieu. 

(487)  Mozart  to  J.  G.  Sieber,  Paris 

[From  the  "Bulletin  de  la  Societl franfaise  de  musicologie" ,  July  1921] 

MONSIEUR!  VIENNA,  April  26th,  1783 

I  have  now  been  in  Vienna  for  two  years.  You  have 
probably  heard  about  my  pianoforte  sonatas  with  accom 
paniment  for  one  violin T  which  I  have  had  engraved  here 
by  Artaria  and  Co.  I  am  not  very  well  pleased,  however, 
with  the  way  in  which  works  are  engraved  in  Vienna  and, 
even  if  I  were,  I  should  like  some  of  my  compositions 
once  more  to  find  their  way  into  the  hands  of  my  fellow- 
countrymen  in  Paris.  Well,  this  letter  is  to  inform  you 
that  I  have  three  piano  concertos2  ready,  which  can  be 
performed  with  full  orchestra,  or  with  oboes  and  horns, 
or  merely  a  quattro.  Artaria  wants  to  engrave  them.  But 
I  give  you,  my  friend,  the  first  refusal.  And  in  order  to 
avoid  delay,  I  shall  quote  my  lowest  terms  to  you.  If  you 
give  me  thirty  louis  d'or  for  them,  the  matter  is  settled. 
Since  I  wrote  those  piano  concertos,  I  have  been  com 
posing  six  quartets  for  two  violins,  viola  and  cello.3  If  you 

1  K.  296  and  376-380,  published  by  Artaria  and  Co.  in  November  1781. 

2  K.  413-415.  They  were  published  by  Artaria  and  Co.  in  March  1785. 

3  K.  387,  421,  458,  428,  464,  465,  the  six  quartets  which  Mozart  dedicated 
in  September  1785  to  Joseph  Haydn.  K.  387  was  composed  in  1782,  K.  421 
and  428  in  1783.  They  were  published  by  Artaria  and  Co.  in  October  1785. 



would  like  to  engrave  these  too,  I  will  gladly  let  you  have 
them.  But  I  cannot  allow  these  to  go  so  cheaply,  I  mean 
that  I  cannot  let  you  have  these  six  quartets  under  fifty 
louis  d'or.  If  you  can  and  will  make  a  deal  with  me  on 
these  conditions,  I  shall  send  you  an  address  in  Paris 
where  you  will  be  handed  my  compositions  in  exchange 
for  the  sums  I  have  quoted.  Meanwhile,  I  remain  your 
most  obedient  servant 


(488)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Bibliotheque  de  Nantes} 

VlENNE,  in  the  Prater,  ce  3  de  may,  1 783 
MON    TRES    CHER    P£RE! 

I  simply  cannot  make  up  my  mind  to  drive  back  into 
town  so  early.  The  weather  is  far  too  lovely  and  it  is  far 
too  delightful  in  the  Prater  to-day.  We  have  taken  our 
lunch  out  of  doors  and  shall  stay  on  until  eight  or  nine  in 
the  evening.  My  whole  company  consists  of  my  little  wife 
who  is  pregnant,  and  hers  consists  of  her  little  husband, 
who  is  not  pregnant,  but  fat  and  flourishing.  I  went 
straight  to  Herr  Peisser,  got  from  him  the  address  of  the 
banker  Scheffler  and  then  went  off  to  the  said  banker. 
But  he  knew  nothing  whatever  about  a  merchant's  son 
called  Rosa,  who  might  have  an  introduction  to  him.  For 
safety's  sake  I  left  my  address  with  him.  I  shall  now  wait 
and  see  what  happens.  I  must  ask  you  to  wait  patiently 
for  a  longer  letter  and  the  aria  with  variations  T — for,  of 
course,  I  cannot  finish  them  in  the  Prater;  and  for  the 
sake  of  my  dear  little  wife  I  cannot  miss  this  fine  weather. 
Exercise  is  good  for  her.  So  to-day  I  am  only  sending  you 
a  short  letter  to  say  that,  thank  God,  we  are  both  well  and 

1  K.  294. 

1783  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  489 

have  received  your  last  letter.  Now  farewell.  We  kiss  your 
hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with 
all  our  hearts  and  are  ever  your  obedient  children 

W.  A.  and  C.  MOZART 

(489)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
MON   TRES    CHER    PERE!  VIENNA,  May  Jib,  1783 

Another  short  letter!  I  intended  to  postpone  writing 
until  next  Saturday,  as  I  have  to  go  to  a  concert  to-day; 
but  as  I  have  something  to  say  which  is  of  considerable 
importance  to  myself,  I  must  steal  time  in  order  to  write 
at  least  a  few  lines.  I  have  not  yet  received  the  music  I 
wanted,  nor  do  I  know  what  has  happened.  Well,  the 
Italian  opera  bufifa  has  started  again  here  and  is  very- 
popular.  The  buffo  is  particularly  good — his  name  is 
Benucci.1  I  have  looked  through  at  least  a  hundred 
libretti  and  more,  but  I  have  hardly  found  a  single  one 
with  which  I  am  satisfied;  that  is  to  say,  so  many  alterations 
would  have  to  be  made  here  and  there,  that  even  if  a  poet 
would  undertake  to  make  them,  it  would  be  easier  for 
him  to  write  a  completely  new  text — which  indeed  it  is 
always  best  to  do.  Our  poet  here  is  now  a  certain  Abbate 
Da  Ponte.2  He  has  an  enormous  amount  to  do  in 

1  Francesco  Benucci,  a  basso  buffo,  who  was  the  original  Figaro  in  Mozart's 
opera,  which  had  its  first  performance  on  May  ist,  1786.  Benucci  first  sang 
in  Venice,  1778-1779,  and  after  the  re-establishment  of  Italian  opera  by  the 
Emperor  Joseph  II,  was  summoned  to  Vienna  in  1781.  In  1788  he  sang  in 
London,  but  with  little  success. 

2  Lorenzo    Da   Ponte   (1749-1838),   the  famous  librettist   of  Mozart's 
"Figaro",  "Don  Giovanni",  "Cosi  fan  tutte",  and  probably  of  his  unfinished 
"Lo  sposo  deluso".  After  an  adventurous  youth  Da  Ponte  was  appointed  poet 
to  the  Imperial  Theatre  in  Vienna,  but  left  in  1 79 1  on  the  death  of  Joseph  II.  He 
then  lived  for  a  time  in  London,  where  he  tried  to  sell  Italian  books.  Owing  to 
money  difficulties  he  was  forced  to  leave  England,  and  fled  in  1805  to  New 
York  where  he  settled  for  the  rest  of  his  life,  and  where  he  wrote  his  well-known 


Z.  489  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  i783 

revising  pieces  for  the  theatre  and  he  has  to  write  per 
obbligo  an  entirely  new  libretto  for  Salieri,1  which  will 
take  him  two  months.  He  has  promised  after  that  to  write 
a  new  libretto  for  me.  But  who  knows  whether  he  will  be 
able  to  keep  his  word — or  will  want  to?  For,  as  you  are 
aware,  these  Italian  gentlemen  are  very  civil  to  your  face. 
Enough,  we  know  them!  If  he  is  in  league  with  Salieri, 
I  shall  never  get  anything  out  of  him.  But  indeed  I 
should  dearly  love  to  show  what  I  can  do  in  an  Italian 
opera!  So  I  have  been  thinking  that  unless  Varesco  is 
still  very  much  annoyed  with  us  about  the  Munich  opera,2 
he  might  write  me  a  new  libretto  for  seven  characters. 
Basta!  You  will  know  best  if  this  can  be  arranged.  In  the 
meantime  he  could  jot  down  a  few  ideas,  and  when  I  come 
to  Salzburg  we  could  then  work  them  out  together.  The 
most  essential  thing  is  that  on  the  whole  the  story  should 
be  really  comic,  and,  if  possible,  he  ought  to  introduce  two 
equally  good  female  parts,  one  of  these  to  be  seria,  the  other 
mezzo  carattere,  but  both  parts  equal  in  importance  and 
excellence.  The  third  female  character,  however,  may  be 
entirely  buffa,  and  so  may  all  the  male  ones,  if  necessary. 
If  you  think  that  something  can  be  got  out  of  Varesco, 
please  discuss  it  with  him  soon.  But  you  must  not  tell  him 
that  I  am  coming  to  Salzburg  in  July,  or  he  will  do  no 
work;  for  I  should  very  much  like  to  have  some  of  it 
while  I  am  still  in  Vienna.  Tell  him  too  that  his  share  will 
certainly  amount  to  400  or  500  gulden,  for  the  custom  here 
is  that  the  poet  gets  the  takings  of  the  third  performance. 
Well,  I  must  close,  for  I  am  not  yet  fully  dressed.  Mean 
while,  farewell.  My  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand 

memoirs  which  began  to  appear  in  1823.  For  the  best  accounts  of  Da  Ponte's 
life  see  E.  J.  Dent,  Mozarfs  Operas  (London,  1913),  p.  146  ff,  J.  L.  Russo, 
Lorenzo  Da  Ponte  (New  York,  1922),  and  the  introduction  to  L.  A.  Sheppard's 
Memoirs  of  Lorenzo  Da  Ponte  (London,  1929). 

1  Salieri's  "II  ricco  d'un  giorno",  performed  on  December  6th,  1784. 

*  "Idomeneo",  for  which  Abbate  Varesco  had  written  the  libretto. 



From  an  engraving  by  J.  Axmann  after  a  portrait  by  P.  Fendi 
(Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreunde,  Vienna) 


times  and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and 
are  ever  your  most  obedient  children 

Vienna,  May  7th,  1783. 

(490)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 

MON  TR£S  CHER  PERE!  VIENNE,  ce  21  de  may,  1783 

I  made  enquiries  the  other  day  from  the  banker 
Scheffler  about  a  person  of  the  name  of  Rosa  as  well  as 
Rossi.  Meanwhile  he  himself  has  been  to  see  me,  so  that 
at  last  I  have  received  the  music.  I  have  also  received 
Ceccarelli's  rondo x  from  Gilowsky,  for  which  I  thank  you* 
I  am  now  sending  you  the  voice  part  with  variations  of 
"Non  so  d'onde  viene"  2  and  only  hope  that  you  may  be 
able  to  read  it.  I  am  heartily  sorry  to  hear  about  poor  dear 
Frau  von  Robinig.3  My  wife  and  I  almost  lost  an  honest 
friend,  Baron  Raimund  Wetzlar,  in  whose  house  we  used 
to  live.  That  reminds  me,  we  have  been  living  in  another 
house  for  some  time  and  have  not  yet  told  you.  Baron 
Wetzlar  has  taken  a  lady  into  his  home;  so,  to  oblige  him, 
we  moved  before  the  time  to  a  wretched  lodging  in  the 
Kohlmarkt,4  in  return  for  which  he  refused  to  take  any 
rent  for  the  three  months  we  had  lived  in  his  house, 
and  also  paid  the  expenses  of  our  removal.  Meanwhile  we 
looked  round  for  decent  quarters  and  at  last  found  them 
in  the  Judenplatz,  where  we  are  now  living.  Wetzlar  paid 
for  us  too  when  we  were  in  the  Kohlmarkt.  Our  new 
address  is:  "Auf  dem  Judenplatz,  im  Burgischen  Hause, 

1  K.  374. 

2  K.  294.  See  p.  861,  n.  2.  No  doubt  Leopold  Mozart  was  proposing  to 
teach  these  coloratura  passages  to  his  pupil,  Margarete  Marchand. 

3  Frau  von  Robinig  died  on  April  24th,  1783. 

4  Nothing  is  known  about  these  quarters,  where  the  Mozarts  spent  three 
months.  * 

VOL.  Ill  1265  p 

Z.  491  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1783 

No.  244.  First  floor".1  Now  our  sole  desire  is  to  have  the 
happiness  of  embracing  you  both  soon.  But  do  you  think 
that  this  will  be  in  (Salzburg?)  I  (hardly)  think  so,  unfortu 
nately!  An  idea  has  been  worrying  me  for  a  long  time, 
but  as  it  never  seemed  to  occur  to  you,  my  dearest  father, 
I  banished  it  from  my  mind.  Herr  von  Edelbach  and 
Baron  Wetzlar,  however,  have  confirmed  <my  suspicion, 
which  is  that  when  I  come  to  Salzburg,  the  Archbishop 
may  have  me  arrested)  or  at  least — Basta! — What  chiefly 
makes  me  (dread)  this,  is  the  fact  that  I  have  not  yet 
received  my  formal  (dismissal.)  Perhaps  he  has  (purposely 
held  it  back,  in  order  to  catch  me  later,)  Well,  you  are  the 
best  judge;  and,  if  your  opinion  is  to  the  contrary,  then 
(we  shall  certainly  come;)  but  if  you  agree  with  me,  then 
we  must  choose  a  third  (place)  for  our  meeting — perhaps 
(Munich.  For  a  priest)  is  capable  of  anything.  A  propos, 
have  you  heard  about  the  famous  quarrel  between  the 
(Archbishop  and  Count  Daun)  and  that  (the  Archbishop 
received  an  infamous  letter  from  the  chapter  of  Passau?) 
Please  keep  on  reminding  Varesco  about  the  matter  you 
know  of.  The  chief  thing  must  be  the  comic  element,  for 
I  know  the  taste  of  the  Viennese.  Meanwhile  farewell. 
My  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and 
embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  are  ever 
your  most  obedient  children 

W.  et  C.  MOZART 

(491)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin] 

MON  TR£S  CHER  PERE!  VIENNE,  ce  7  Juin,  1783 

Praise  and  thanks  be  to  God,  I  am  quite  well  again! 

But  my  illness  has  left  me  a  cold  as  a  remembrance,  which 

1  Now  no.  3.  The  Mozarts'  first  child  was  born  here. 


was  very  charming  of  it!  I  have  received  my  dear  sister's 
letter.  My  wife's  name-day  is  neither  in  March  nor  in 
May,  but  on  February  i6th;  and  is  not  to  be  found  in  any 
calendar.  She  thanks  you  both,  however,  most  cordially 
for  your  kind  good  wishes,  which  are  always  acceptable, 
even  though  it  is  not  her  name-day.  She  wanted  to  write 
to  my  sister  herself,  but  in  her  present  condition  she  must 
be  excused  if  she  is  a  little  bit  commode — or,  as  we  say, 
indolent.  According  to  the  midwife's  examination  she 
ought  to  have  had  her  confinement  on  the  4th,  but  I  do 
not  think  that  the  event  will  take  place  before  the  I5th  or 
1 6th.  She  is  longing  for  it  to  happen  as  soon  as  possible, 
particularly  that  she  may  have  the  happiness  of  embracing 
you  and  my  dear  sister  in  Salzburg.  As  I  did  not  think 
that  this  would  happen  so  soon,  I  kept  on  postponing 
going  down  on  my  knees,  folding  my  hands  and  entreating 
you  most  submissively,  my  dearest  father,  to  be  godfather! 
As  there  is  still  time,  I  am  doing  so  now.  Meanwhile,  (in 
the  confident  hope  that  you  will  not  refuse)  I  have  already 
arranged  (I  mean,  since  the  midwife  took  stock  of  the 
visum  repertum)  that  someone  shall  present  the  child  in 
your  name,  whether  it  is  generis  masculini  or  feminini! 
So  we  are  going  to  call  it  Leopold  or  Leopoldine. 

Well,  I  have  a  few  words  to  say  to  my  sister  about 
dementi's  sonatas.  Everyone  who  either  hears  them  or 
plays  them  must  feel  that  as  compositions  they  are  worth- 
less.They  contain  no  remarkable  or  striking  passages  except 
those  in  sixths  and  octaves.  And  I  implore  my  sister  not  to 
practise  these  passages  too  much,  so  that  she  may  not  spoil 
her  quiet,  even  touch  and  that  her  hand  may  not  lose  its 
natural  lightness,  flexibility  and  smooth  rapidity.  For  after 
all  what  is  to  be  gained  by  it?  Supposing  that  you  do  play 
sixths  and  octaves  with  the  utmost  velocity  (which  no  one 
can  accomplish,  not  even  dementi)  you  only  produce 
an  atrocious  chopping  effect  and  nothing  else  whatever. 


L.  491  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1783 

Clement!  is  a  ciarlatano,  like  all  Italians.  He  writes 
Presto  over  a  sonata  or  even  Prestissimo  and  Alia  breve, 
and  plays  it  himself  A llegro  in  f  time.  I  know  this  is  the 
case,  for  I  have  heard  him  do  so.  What  he  really  does  well 
are  his  passages  in  thirds;  but  he  sweated  over  them 
day  and  night  in  London.  Apart  from  this,  he  can  do 
nothing,  absolutely  nothing,  for  he  has  not  the  slightest 
expression  or  taste,  still  less,  feeling. 

Now  for  Herr  von  Amann.  Herr  von  Fichtl  told  me  that 
Court  Councillor  Amann  has  been  locked  up,  as  he  is 
supposed  to  be  quite  mad.  I  was  not  at  all  surprised  to 
hear  this,  for  he  always  went  about  with  a  morose 
expression.  I  always  used  to  say  that  study  was  not  the 
cause  of  it;  upon  which  Herr  von  Fichtl  used  to  laugh 
heartily.  But  I  am  very  sorry  for  Basilius  Amann.  And 
indeed  I  should  never  have  thought  it  of  him.  I  would 
sooner  have  thought  that  he  would  become  saner.  Well, 
perhaps  he  will  take  me  into  his  service  when  I  come  to 
Salzburg?  I  shall  certainly  go  and  see  him.  If  you  can  get 
hold  of  some  German  song  which  he  has  written,  be  so 
kind  as  to  send  it  to  me,  so  that  I  may  have  something  to 
make  me  laugh.  I  shall  set  it  to  music.  No,  no!  I  know  a 
fool  here  who  will  do  the  job. 

Have  you  heard  anything  yet  from  Varesco?  Please  do 
not  forget  what  I  asked  you.  When  I  am  in  Salzburg  we 
should  have  such  an  admirable  opportunity  of  working 
together,  if  in  the  meantime  we  had  thought  out  a  plan. 

Now  farewell.  My  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand 
times  and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and 
are  ever  your  most  obedient  children 

W:  et  C:  MOZART 

P.S. — I  trust  that  you  received  the  voice  part  with 
variations  of  the  aria  "Non  so  d'onde  viene"?  * 

1  K.  294. 

1783  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  £.492 

(492)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Geheimrat  Henri  Hinrichsen,  Leipzig] 
MON   TRES   CHER   PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  1 8  de  Juin,  1783 

Congratulations,  you  are  a  grandpapa!  Yesterday, 
the  1 7th,  at  half  past  six  in  the  morning  my  dear  wife  was 
safely  delivered  of  a  fine  sturdy  boy,1  as  round  as  a  ball. 
Her  pains  began  at  half  past  one  in  the  morning,  so  that 
night  we  both  lost  our  rest  and  sleep.  At  four  o'clock  I 
sent  for  my  mother-in-law — and  then  for  the  midwife.  At 
six  o'clock  the  child  began  to  appear  and  at  half  past  six 
the  trouble  was  all  over.  My  mother-in-law  by  her  great 
kindness  to  her  daughter  has  made  full  amends  for  all  the 
harm  she  did  her  before  her  marriage.  She  spends  the 
whole  day  with  her. 

My  dear  wife,  who  kisses  your  hands  and  embraces  my 
dear  sister  most  affectionately,  is  as  well  as  she  can  be  in 
the  circumstances.  I  trust  with  God's  help  that,  as  she  is 
taking  good  care  of  herself,  she  will  make  a  complete 
recovery  from  her  confinement.  From  the  condition  of  her 
breasts  I  am  rather  afraid  of  milk-fever.  And  now  the 
child  has  been  given  to  a  foster-nurse  against  my  will, 
or  rather,  at  my  wish!  For  I  was  quite  determined  that 
whether  she  should  be  able  to  do  so  or  not,  my  wife  was 
never  to  feed  her  child.  Yet  I  was  equally  determined 
that  my  child  was  never  to  take  the  milk  of  a  stranger!  I 
wanted  the  child  to  be  brought  up  on  water,  like  my  sister 
and  myself.  However,  the  midwife,  my  mother-in-law  and 
most  people  here  have  begged  and  implored  me  not  to 
allow  it,  if  only  for  the  reason  that  most  children  here  who 
are  brought  up  on  water  do  not  survive,  as  the  people 

1  Raimund  Leopold,  who  died  on  August  I9th  during  his  parents*  visit 
to  Salzburg,  For  a  full  account  of  Mozart's  six  children  see  Blumml, 
pp.  1-9. 


L.  4gs  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  i783 

here  don't  know  how  to  do  it  properly.  That  induced  me 
to  give  in,  for  I  should  not  like  to  have  anything  to 
reproach  myself  with. 

Now  for  the  godfather  question.  Let  me  tell  you  what 
has  happened.  After  my  wife's  safe  delivery  I  immediately 
sent  a  message  to  Baron  Wetzlar,  who  is  a  good  and  true 
friend  of  mine.  He  came  to  see  us  at  once  and  offered  to 
stand  godfather.  I  could  not  refuse  him  and  thought  to 
myself:  "After  all,  my  boy  can  still  be  called  Leopold". 
But  while  I  was  turning  this  round  in  my  mind,  the 
Baron  said  very  cheerfully:  "Ah,  now  you  have  a  little 
Raimund" — and  kissed  the  child.  What  was  I  to  do? 
Well,  I  have  had  the  child  christened  Raimund  Leopold. 
I  must  frankly  confess  that  if  you  had  not  sent  me  in  a 
letter  your  opinion  on  the  matter,  I  should  have  been  very 
much  embarrassed,  and  I  am  not  at  all  sure  that  I  should 
not  have  refused  his  offer!  But  your  letter  has  comforted 
me  with  the  assurance  that  you  will  not  disapprove  of  my 
action!  After  all,  Leopold  is  one  of  his  names.  Well,  I 
must  close.  My  newly  confined  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands 
a  thousand  times  and  embrace  our  dear  sister  a  thousand 
times  and  are  ever  your  most  obedient  children 

W.  and  C.  MOZART 

(493)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Library  of  Congress,  Washington} 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VIENNE,  ce  21  de  Juin,  1783 

This  will  have  to  be  a  very  short  letter.  I  must  only 
tell  you  what  is  absolutely  necessary,  as  I  have  far  too 
much  to  do.  For  a  new  Italian  opera  is  being  produced,1 
in  which  for  the  first  time  two  German  singers  are 

1  Anfossi's  "II  curioso  indiscrete".  It  was  performed  on  June  3Oth,  1783. 



appearing,  Madame  Lange,  my  sister-in-law,  and  Adam- 
berger,  and  I  have  to  compose  two  arias  for  her  l  and  a 
rondo  for  him.2  I  hope  you  received  my  last  letter  of 
rejoicing.  Thank  God,  my  wife  has  now  survived  the  two 
critical  days,  yesterday  and  the  day  before,  and  in  the 
circumstances  is  very  welL  We  now  hope  that  all  will  go 
well.  The  child  too  is  quite  strong  and  healthy  and  has  a 
tremendous  number  of  things  to  do,  I  mean,  drinking, 
sleeping,  yelling,  pissing,  shitting,  dribbling  and  so  forth. 
He  kisses  the  hands  of  his  grandpapa  and  of  his  aunt. 
Now  for  Varesco.  I  like  his  plan  quite  well.3  But  I  must 
speak  to  Count  Rosenberg  at  once,  so  as  to  make  sure 
that  the  poet  will  get  his  reward.  Why,  I  consider  it  a 
great  insult  to  myself  that  Herr  Varesco  is  doubtful  about 
the  success  of  the  opera.  Of  one  thing  he  may  be  sure  and 
that  is,  that  his  libretto  will  certainly  not  go  down  if  the 
music  is  no  good.  For  in  the  opera  the  chief  thing  is  the 
music.  If  then  the  opera  is  to  be  a  success  and  Varesco 
hopes  to  be  rewarded,  he  must  alter  and  recast  the  libretto 
as  much  and  as  often  as  I  wish  and  he  must  not  follow  his 
own  inclinations,  as  he  has  not  the  slightest  knowledge  or 
experience  of  the  theatre.  You  may  even  give  him  to 
understand  that  it  doesn't  much  matter  whether  he  writes 
the  opera  or  not.  I  know  the  story  now;  and  therefore 
anyone  can  write  it  as  well  as  he  can.  Besides,  I  am 
expecting  to-day  four  of  the  latest  and  best  libretti  from 
[PFenice], 4  among  which  there  will  surely  be  one  which 
will  be  some  good.  So  there  is  plenty  of  time.  Well,  I  must 
close.  My  newly  confined  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands,  most 

1  K.  418,  "Vorrei  spiegarvi,  oh  Dio"  and  K.  419,  "No,  no,  che  non  sei 

*  K.  420,  "Per  pieta,  non  ricercate". 

3  Varesco's  plan  for  the  opera  "L'oca  del  Cairo". 

4  If  the  reading  "Fenice"  is  correct,  possibly  the  Teatro  La  Fenice  in 
Venice.  This  theatre  and  the  Teatro  San  Benedetto  (now  Teatro  Rossini) 
were  the  two  leading  opera  houses  in  Venice. 


L.  494  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1783 

beloved  father,  and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our 
hearts  and  are  ever  your  most  obedient  children 

W.  et  C.  MOZART 

Herr  von  Gilowsky  sends  his  greetings  to  both  of  you 
and  thanks  to  his  father  and  to  others  for  never  writing  to 
him — although  they  must  know  that  he  is  laid  up  with  a 

(494)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Stadtarchiv,  Pressburg] 
MON    TRES    CHER    PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  2  de  juillet,  1783 

My  head  was  so  full  last  post-day  that  I  completely 
forgot  to  write.  Madame  Lange  was  at  our  house  to  try 
over  her  two  arias  and  we  were  discussing  how  we  could 
be  cleverer  than  our  enemies — for  I  have  plenty  of  them 
— and  Madame  Lange  too  has  enough  to  do  with  this  new 
singer,  Mile  Storace.1  Only  when  I  was  alone  did  I 
remember  that  it  was  post-day  and  then  of  course  it  was 
too  late.  Anfossi's  opera  "II  curioso  indiscrete",  in  which 
Madame  Lange  and  Adamberger  appeared  for  the  first 
time,  was  performed  the  day  before  yesterday,  Monday, 
for  the  first  time.  It  failed  completely  with  the  exception 
of  my  two  arias,2  the  second  of  which,  a  bravura,  had  to 
be  repeated.  Well,  I  should  like  you  to  know  that  my 
friends  were  malicious  enough  to  spread  the  report  be 
forehand  that  "Mozart  wanted  to  improve  on  Anfossi's 
opera".  I  heard  of  this  and  sent  a  message  to  Count 

1  Anna  (Nancy)  Storace  (1766-1817),  a  famous  English  soprano.  She  was 
born  in  London,  her  mother  being  English  and  her  father  Italian.  She  studied 
under  Rauzzini  in  Italy,  where  she  made  her  first  appearance  in  Venice  in 
1780.  She  came  to  Vienna  in  1783,  and  was  the  original  Susanna  in  Mozart's 
"Figaro".  In  March  1787  she  returned  to  England  and  continued  to  sing  in 
public  until  1808.  When  in  Vienna  she  married  the  English  violinist  John 
Abraham  Fisher  (1744-1806).  *  K.  418  and  419. 


1783  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  £.494 

Rosenberg  that  I  would  not  hand  over  my  arias  unless 
the  following  statement  were  printed  in  the  copies  of  the 
libretto,  both  in  German  and  in  Italian. 


Le  due  arie  a  carta  36  e  a  carta  102  sono  state 
messe  in  musica  dal  Signor  Maestro  Mozart,  per 
compiacere  alia  Signora  Lange,  non  essendo 
quelle  state  scritte  dal  Signor  Maestro  Anfossi 
secondo  la  di  lei  abilita,  ma  per  altro  soggetto. 
Questo  si  vuole  far  noto  perche  ne  vada  Ponore  a 
chi  conviene,  senza  che  rimanga  in  alcuna  parte 
pregiudicata  la  riputazione  e  la  fama  del  piu 
molto  cognito  Napolitano.1 

Well,  the  statement  was  inserted  and  I  handed  out  my 
arias,  which  did  inexpressible  honour  both  to  my  sister-in- 
law  and  to  myself.  So  my  enemies  were  quite  confounded! 
And  now  for  a  trick  of  Salieri's,  which  has  injured  poor 
Adamberger  more  than  me.  I  think  I  told  you  that  I  had 
composed  a  rondo  for  Adamberger.2  During  a  short 
rehearsal,  before  the  rondo  had  been  copied,  Salieri  took 
Adamberger  aside  and  told  him  that  Count  Rosenberg 
would  not  be  pleased  if  he  put  in  an  aria  and  that  he 
advised  him  as  his  good  friend  not  to  do  so.  Adamberger, 
provoked  by  Rosenberg's  objection  and  not  knowing  how 
to  retaliate,  was  stupid  enough  to  say,  with  ill-timed  pride, 
"All  right.  But  to  prove  that  Adamberger  has  already 
made  his  reputation  in  Vienna  and  does  not  need  to  make 

1  The  two  arias  on  p.  36  and  p.  102  have  been  set  to  music  by  Signor 
Maestro  Mozart  to  suit  Signora  Lange,  as  the  arias  of  Signor  Maestro  Anfossi 
were  not  written  for  her  voice,  but  for  another  singer.  It  is  necessary  that 
this  should  be  pointed  out  so  that  honour  may  be  given  to  whom  it  is  due 
and  so  that  the  reputation  and  the  name  of  the  most  famous  Neapolitan  may 
not  suffer  in  any  way  whatsoever.  *  K.  420. 



a  name  for  himself  by  singing  music  expressly  written  for 
him,  he  will  only  sing  what  is  in  the  opera  and  will  never 
again,  as  long  as  he  lives,  introduce  any  aria"  What  was 
the  result?  Why,  that  he  was  a  complete  failure,  as  was 
only  to  be  expected!  Now  he  is  sorry,  but  it  is  too  late. 
For  if  he  were  to  ask  me  this  very  day  to  give  him  the 
rondo,  I  should  refuse.  I  can  easily  find  a  place  for  it  in 
one  of  my  own  operas.  But  the  most  annoying  part  of  the 
whole  affair  is  that  his  wife's  prophecy  and  mine  have  come 
true,  that  is,  that  Count  Rosenberg  and  the  management 
know  nothing  whatever  about  it,  so  that  it  was  only  a  ruse 
on  the  part  of  Salieri.  Thank  God,  my  wife  is  quite  well 
again,  save  for  a  slight  cold.  We  and  our  little  Raimund, 
aged  a  fortnight,  kiss  your  hands  and  embrace  our  dear 
sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  are  ever  your  most  obedient 

W:  A:  C:  MOZART 

(495)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Frau  Floersheim-Koch^  Florence]* 
MON   TRES    CHER    PERE,  VlENNE,  ce  $  de  Juliet,  1783 

We  both  thank  you  for  the  prayer  you  made  to  God 
for  the  safe  delivery  of  my  wife.  Little  Raimund  is  so  like 
me  that  everyone  immediately  remarks  it.  It  is  just  a$  if 
my  face  had  been  copied.  My  dear  little  wife  is  absolutely 
delighted,  as  this  is  what  she  had  always  desired*  He  will 
be  three  weeks  old  next  Tuesday  and  he  has  grown  in 
an  astonishing  manner.  As  for  the  opera  2  you  have  given 
me  a  piece  of  advice  which  I  had  already  given  myself. 
But  as  I  prefer  to  work  slowly  and  with  deliberation,  I 
thought  that  I  could  not  begin  too  soon.  An  Italian  poet 

1  This  letter  was  first  published  by  the  editor  in  Music  and  Letter s,  April 
1937,  PP-  128-133.  3  "L'oca  del  Cairo." 



here  has  now  brought  me  a  libretto1  which  I  shall  perhaps 
adopt,  if  he  agrees  to  trim  and  adjust  it  in  accordance 
with  my  wishes.  I  feel  sure  that  we  shall  be  able  to  set  out 
in  September;  and  indeed  you  can  well  imagine  that  our 
most  ardent  longing  is  to  embrace  you  both.  Yet  I  cannot 
conceal  from  you,  but  must  confess  quite  frankly  that 
many  people  here  are  alarming  me  to  such  an  extent  that 
I  cannot  describe  it.  You  already  know  what  it  is  all 
about.'1  However  much  I  protest  I  am  told:  "Well,  you 
will  see,  you  will  (never  get  away  again.}  You  have  no 
idea  of  what  (that  wicked  malevolent  Prince  is  capable  of/} 
And  you  {cannot}  conceive  what  (low  tricks)  are  resorted 
to  in  affairs  of  this  kind.  Take  my  advice  and  {meet  your 
father}  in  some  third  place!'  This,  you  see,  is  what  has 
been  worrying  my  wife  and  me  up  to  the  present  and  what 
is  still  perturbing  us.  I  often  say  to  myself:  "  Nonsense, 
it's  quite  impossible! "  But  the  next  moment  it  occurs  to 
me  that  after  all  it  might  be  possible  and  that  it  would 
not  be  the  (first  injustice)  which  he  has  (committed.) 
Basta!  In  this  matter  no  one  can  comfort  me  but  you, 
my  most  beloved  father!  And  so  far  as  I  am  concerned, 
whatever  happened  would  not  worry  me  very  much,  for  I 
can  now  adapt  myself  to  any  circumstances.  But  when  I 
think  of  my  wife  and  my  little  Raimund,  then  my  in 
difference  ceases.  Think  it  over.  If  you  can  give  me  an 
assurance  that  I  shall  be  (running  no  risk,)  we  shall  both 
be  overjoyed.  If  not,  then  we  must  hit  on  some  plan;  and 
there  is  one  which  I  should  prefer  above  all  others!  As 
soon  as  I  receive  your  reply,  I  shall  tell  you  about  it. 
I  am  convinced  that  if  one  is  to  enjoy  a  great  pleasure, 
one  must  forgo  something.  Why!  In  the  greatest  happi- 

1  Undoubtedly  the  Italian  poet  is  Da  Ponte  and  the  libretto  that  of  "Lo 
sposo  deluso",  Mozart's  unfinished  opera  buffa.  For  a  discussion  of  the 
evidence  for  this  theory  see  Music  and  Letters,  April  1937,  p.  131  f. 

2  See  p.  1266. 


Z.  496  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1783 

ness  there  is  always  something  lacking.  Meanwhile,  fare- 
welL  Take  care  of  your  health.  We  both  kiss  your  hands 
and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  are 
ever  your  most  obedient  children 


P.S. — This  does  not  mean  that  you  are  to  give  up 
prodding  Varesco.  Who  knows  whether  I  shall  like  the 
opera  of  the  Italian  poet? 


(496)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[A  utograph  in  the  possession  of  K.  Geigy-Hagenbach,  Basle} 
MON    TRES    CHER    PERE!  VIENNA,  July  I2tk,  1783 

I  have  received  your  letter  of  the  8th  and  am  delighted 
to  hear  that,  thank  God,  you  are  both  well.  If  you  insist 
on  calling  what  are  real  obstacles  mere  humbug,  I  cannot 
prevent  you  from  doing  so.  Anyone  may  call  a  thing  by  a 
wrong  name  if  he  pleases ;  but  whether  it  is  right  to  do  so, 
is  a  very  different  matter.  Have  I  ever  given  you  the 
impression  that  I  had  no  desire  or  longing  to  see  you? 
Most  certainly  never!  But  assuredly  you  will  have  ob 
served  that  I  have  no  desire  whatever  to  see  Salzburg  or 
the  Archbishop.  So,  if  we  were  to  meet  in  a  third  place, 
who  would  then  be  humbugged?  Why,  the  Archbishop, 
and  not  you.  I  suppose  I  need  not  repeat  that  I  care  very 
little  for  Salzburg  and  not  at  all  for  the  Archbishop,  that 
I  shit  on  both  of  them  and  that  it  would  never  enter  my 
head  voluntarily  to  make  a  journey  thither,  were  it  not 
that  you  and  my  sister  lived  there.  So  the  whole  business 
was  due  solely  to  the  well-meant  caution  of  my  good 
friends,  who  surely  are  not  devoid  of  sound  common 
sense.  And  I  did  not  think  that  I  was  acting  unreasonably 



if  I  made  some  enquiries  from  you  on  the  subject  and  then 
followed  your  advice.  My  friends'  anxiety  amounted  to 
this,  that,  as  I  have  never  been  discharged,  the  Arch 
bishop  might  have  me  arrested.  But  you  have  now  set  my 
mind  completely  at  rest  and  we  shall  come  in  August,  or 
certainly  in  September  at  the  latest.  Herr  von  Babbius 
met  me  in  the  street  and  walked  home  with  me;  he  went 
off  to-day  and  if  he  had  not  had  another  engagement  he 
would  have  lunched  with  us  yesterday. 

Dear  father!  You  must  not  suppose  that  because  it  is 
summer  I  have  nothing  to  do.  Everyone  has  not  gone 
into  the  country  and  I  still  have  a  few  pupils  to  look  after. 
Just  now  I  have  one  for  composition,  who  will  make  a 
nice  face  when  I  tell  him  of  my  journey.  Well,  I  must 
close,  as  I  have  a  good  deal  to  write.  Meanwhile,  arrange 
the  bowling-green  in  the  garden,  for  my  wife  is  a  great 
lover  of  the  game.  She  is  always  a  little  bit  nervous  lest 
you  should  not  like  her,  because  she  is  not  pretty.  But  I 
console  her  as  well  as  I  can  by  telling  her  that  my  dearest 
father  thinks  more  of  inward  than  of  outward  beauty. 
Now  farewell.  My  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand 
times  and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and 
are  ever  your  most  obedient  children 

W.  and  C.  MOZART 

(497)  Constance  Mozart  to  Nannerl  Mozart 

[Autograph  in  the  Bibliothek  der  Geselhchaft  der  Musikfreunde,  Vienna] 

VIENNA,  July  igth>  1783 


My  dear  husband  has  received  your  letter  and  both 
he  and  I  are  delighted  that  you  are  looking  forward  so 


L.  wja    C.  MOZART  TO  MARGARETE  MARCHAND     1783 

much  to  seeing  us.  But  he  was  a  little  annoyed  by  your 
suspicion  that  we  were  not  so  very  anxious  to  see  you; 
and  indeed  I  myself  felt  rather  hurt.  To  prove,  however, 
that  everything  is  all  right  again,  let  me  tell  you  that  we 
always  intended  to  go  to  you  in  August;  and  so  we 
wanted  to  give  you  a  little  surprise,  which  will  no  longer 
be  one  for  you,  but  will  be  so  at  any  rate  for  our  dear, 
beloved  father — that  is,  if  you  can  keep  it  quiet,  which 
we  beg  you  to  do;  for  only  on  this  condition  are  we  telling 
you  the  truth.  Well,  you  have  dragged  our  secret  out  of 
us  by  your  naughty  letter;  and  we  shall  be  quite  content 
if  only  we  give  this  unexpected  pleasure  to  our  dear 
father.  So — please  do  not  mention  our  plan.  Well,  about 
August  ist  I  shall  have  the  joy  and  happiness  of  embracing 
you.  Until  then  I  remain  with  the  deepest  respect,  my 
dearest  sister-in-law,  yours  sincerely, 


(497a)  Constance  Mozart  to  Margarete  Marchand 

[A  utograph  in  the  Bibliothek  der  Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreunde,  Vienna} 

VIENNA,  July  igth,  1783 

I  am  delighted  that  you  still  remember  me  and  have 
taken  the  trouble  to  write  to  me.  Believe  me,  I  am  just  as 
much  longing  to  see  Salzburg  and  to  have  the  joy  and 
happiness  of  meeting  personally  my  dear  papa-in-law  and 
my  dear  sister-in-law  and  showing  them  my  devotion  as 
you  can  possibly  be  longing  for  an  opportunity  of  seeing 
your  own  beloved  parents  again.  And  then  the  pleasure 
of  embracing  my  dear  Mademoiselle  Marguerite,  whom 
I  knew  in  Mannheim  and  Munich  as  a  very  clever  young 
woman  and  who  in  the  meantime  has  had  plenty  of 



opportunity  of  perfecting  her  gifts!  How  delighted  I  shall 
be  to  see  her  again,  kiss  her  and  admire  her  talents.  God 
willing,  I  shall  be  able  to  do  so  on  August  ist.  Meanwhile 
I  urge  you  to  observe  the  strictest  silence  and  I  remain 
your  most  devoted  servant  and  friend 


(497)3)  Mozart  to  Margarete  Marchand  and  his  Sister 

[A  utograph  in  the  Bibliothek  der  Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreunde,  Vienna} 

VIENNA,  July  igth,  1783  J 


Neither  of  you  should  believe  a  word  of  what  my 
wife  has  scrawled  up  above.  How  can  we  be  in  Salzburg 
on  August  ist  if  we  must  be  here  on  the  26th?  But  if  it 
is  not  necessary  for  me  to  be  here  on  the  26th,  we  shall 
certainly  be  with  you  on  August  ist.  I  shall  congratulate 
you  then  in  person  on  your  name-day,2  my  sister!  and  I 
shall  be  able  to  congratulate  you  also  on  the  octave.3 
Meanwhile  farewell,  dear  sister,  and  you  too,  dear  Mile 
Marchand.  I  hope  soon  to  hear  you  sing  and  play  on  the 
clavier.  We  must  celebrate  my  sister's  name-day  with  a 
concert.  Farewell  to  both  of  you.  Dearest  sister,  I  kiss 
you  most  cordially  and  am  ever  your  sincere  brother 


1  A  postscript  to  his  wife's  letters. 

a  July  26th, 

3  i.e.  a  week  later. 


Z.  499  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  I783 

(498)  Mozart  to  his  Sister 

{From  Otto  Jahn,  W.  A.  Mozart,  2nd  edition,  vol.  ii.  p.  $$gf.] 

SALZBURG, /#/y  31^,  1783 
Here's  to  you 
In  a  fine  punch- brew! 
To-day  I  went  out  shopping,  and  why,  you'd  never 


But  now  that  I  must  tell  you,  the  reason  was  no  less 
Than  with  some  trifling  gift  my  sister  to  delight, 
For  her  to  please  Pd  strive  with  all  my  main  and 


Alas!  Pm  not  quite  sure  if  punch  you  like  to  drink? 
Ah!  Please  do  not  say  no,  or  else  the  seal  will  stink. 
But  to  myself  I  thought,  she  loves  the  English  faces. 
For  if  she  favoured  Paris,  I'd  give  her  pretty  laces, 
A  bouquet  of  fine  flowers  or  perhaps  some  perfume  rare. 
But  you,  my  dearest  sister,  are  no  coquette,  I  swear. 
So  from  your  brother  take  this  punch  (it's  very  strong 

and  choice) 

And  may  repeated  draughts  of  it  your  heart  and  soul 

Poet-laureate  of  the  marksmen 
Salzburg,  July  3ist, 


(499)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Nationalbibliothek,  Vienna} 

LlNZ,  October  31^,  1783  r 

We  arrived  here  safely  yesterday  morning  at  nine 
o'clock.  We  spent  the  first  night  in  Vocklabruck  and 

1  Owing  to  the  visit  of  Mozart  and  his  wife  to  Salzburg  during  the  months 
of  August  and  September  there  is  a  gap  in  his  letters  to  his  father. 



From  an  engraving  by  Conde  after  a  portrait  by  De  Wilde 

(British  Museum) 

1783  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z.  499 

reached  Lambach  next  morning,  where  I  arrived  just  in 
time  to  accompany  the  "Agnus  Dei"  on  the  organ.  The 
abbot x  was  absolutely  delighted  to  see  me  again  and  told 
me  the  anecdote  about  you  and  himself  in  Salzburg.  We 
spent  the  whole  day  there  and  I  played  both  on  the  organ 
and  on  a  clavichord.  I  heard  that  an  opera  was  to  be 
given  next  day  at  Ebelsberg  at  the  house  of  the  Prefect 
Steurer  (whose  wife  is  a  sister  of  Frau  von  Barisani)  and 
that  almost  all  Linz  was  to  be  assembled.  I  resolved  there 
fore  to  be  present  and  we  drove  there.  Young  Count  Thun 
(brother  of  the  Thun  in  Vienna)  called  on  me  immediately 
and  said  that  his  father  had  been  expecting  me  for  a  fort 
night  and  would  I  please  drive  to  his  house  at  once  for  I  was 
to  stay  with  him.  I  told  him  that  I  could  easily  put  up  at 
an  inn.  But  when  we  reached  the  gates  of  Linz  on  the 
following  day,  we  found  a  servant  waiting  there  to  drive 
us  to  old  Count  Thun's,  at  whose  house  we  are  now  stay 
ing.  I  really  cannot  tell  you  what  kindnesses  the  family 
are  showering  on  us.  On  Tuesday,  November  4th,  I  am 
giving  a  concert  in  the  theatre  here  and,  as  I  have  not  a 
single  symphony  with  me,  I  am  writing  a  new  one  2  at 
break-neck  speed,  which  must  be  finished  by  that  time. 
Well,  I  must  close,  because  I  really  must  set  to  work.  My 
wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands,  ask  you  to  forgive  us  for 
inconveniencing  you  for  so  long  and  thank  you  once 
more  very  much  for  all  the  kindnesses  we  have  received. 
So  farewell.  We  send  cordial  greetings  to  little  Greta,3  to 
Heinrich  4  (about  whom  I  have  already  said  a  great  deal 
here)  and  Hanni.5  Please  give  a  special  message  to  little 

1  Amandus  Schickmayr,  whom  Mozart  had  met  in  1767. 

2  K.  425,  the  "Linz"  symphony  in  C  major. 

3  Margarete  Marchand.  4  Heinrich  Marchand. 

5  Maria  Johanna  Brochard,  the  eight-year-old  cousin  of  Heinrich  and 
Margarete  Marchand,  had  also  become  a  pupil  of  Leopold  Mozart,  in  whose 
house  she  was  living.  In  1790  she  joined  the  Munich  court  theatre  and 
subsequently  married  the  dancer  Franz  Renner. 

VOL.  Ill  I28l  Q 

L.  500  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1783 

Greta,  and  tell  her  that  when  she  sings  she  must  not 
be  so  arch  and  coy;  for  cajolings  and  kissings  are  not 
always  palatable — in  fact  only  silly  asses  are  taken  in  by 
such  devices.  I  for  one  would  rather  have  a  country  lout, 
who  does  not  hesitate  to  shit  and  piss  in  my  presence,  than 
let  myself  be  humbugged  by  such  false  toadyings,  which 
after  all  are  so  exaggerated  that  anyone  can  easily  see 
through  them.  Well,  adieu.  We  kiss  our  dear  sister  most 
cordially.  I  am  ever  your  most  grateful  son 


(500)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VIENNA,  December  6thy  1783 

As  I  had  no  idea  that  you.  would  write  to  me  at 
Vienna  until  I  had  informed  you  of  my  arrival,  I  only 
went  to  Peisser  to-day  to  ask  for  letters  and  found  your 
letter  of  November  aist,  which  had  been  lying  there  for 
twelve  days.  I  trust  that  you  have  received  my  letter 
from  Vienna.  And  now  I  have  a  request  to  make.  No 
doubt  you  remember  that  when  you  came  to  Munich 
while  I  was  composing  my  grand  opera,1  you  reproached 
me  with  the  debt  of  twelve  louis  d'or  which  I  had  drawn 
from  Herr  Scherz  in  Strassburg,  adding  these  words: 
"What  annoys  me  is  your  lack  of  confidence  in  me.  Well, 
at  all  events  /  now  have  the  honour  of  paying  twelve  louis 
d?  or  for  you!'  I  went  off  to  Vienna  and  you  returned  to 
Salzburg.  From  what  you  said  I  assumed  that  I  need  not 
give  the  matter  another  thought.  Moreover,  I  presumed 
that  if  you  had  not  paid  my  debt,  you  would  have  written 
to  me  or  told  me  of  it  when  we  were  together  lately.  So 
imagine  my  embarrassment  and  my  surprise  when  the 

1  "Idomeneo." 

1783  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  z.  500 

day  before  yesterday  a  clerk  of  the  banker  Herr  Ochser 
brought  me  a  letter  from  Herr  Haffner  in  Salzburg,  which 
contained  an  enclosure  from  Herr  Scherz.  As  the  trans 
action  took  place  five  years  ago,  he  is  demanding  interest 
on  the  sum.  On  hearing  this  I  said  quite  frankly  that  any 
such  payment  was  out  of  the  question  and  added  that 
legally  I  was  not  bound  to  pay  a  farthing,  as  the  bill  was 
payable  six  weeks  from  the  date  and  consequently  had 
expired.  Still  in  consideration  of  Herr  Scherz's  friendship 
I  should  pay  the  original  sum,  but,  no  interest  being 
named,  I  was  not  liable  for  anything  more.  All  that  I 
ask  of  you,  dearest  father,  is  to  be  good  enough  to  go 
security  for  me  with  Haffner,  or  rather  Triendl,  just  for  a 
month.  As  a  man  of  experience  you  can  easily  imagine 
that  just  now  it  would  be  very  ^  inconvenient  for  me 
to  be  left  short  of  money.  Herr  Ochser's  clerk  had  to 
admit  that  I  was  right,  but  contented  himself  with  saying 
that  he  would  tell  Herr  Haffner.  What  annoys  me  most 
about  the  whole  business  is  that  Herr  Scherz  will  not  have 
a  very  good  opinion  of  me — a  proof  that  chance,  coin 
cidence,  circumstances,  a  misunderstanding  and  Heaven 
knows  what  may  rob  an  innocent  man  of  his  good  name! 
Why  did  Herr  Scherz  never  mention  the  transaction  all 
this  long  while?  Surely  my  name  is  not  so  obscure!  My 
opera  l  which  was  performed  at  Strassburg  must  at  least 
have  given  him  some  idea  that  I  was  in  Vienna!  And 
then  his  connection  with  Haffner  in  Salzburg.  If  he  had 
reminded  me  during  the  first  year,  I  should  have  paid 
him  on  the  spot  with  pleasure.  I  mean  to  pay  it  still,  but 
at  the  moment  I  am  not  in  a  position  to  do  so.  Perhaps 
he  thought  that  he  had  to  do  with  some  simpleton,  who 
would  pay  what  he  does  not  owe?  Well,  then,  let  him  keep 
the  title  for  himself.  f 

Now  let  us  talk  of  something  else.  I  have  only  three 

1  "Die  Entfuhrung  aus  dem  Serail."  See  p.  1252,  n.  5. 


L.  500  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1783 

more  arias  to  compose  and  then  the  first  act  of  my  opera  l 
will  be  finished.  I  can  really  say  that  I  am  quite  satisfied 
with  the  aria  buffa,  the  quartet  and  the  finale  and  am 
looking  forward  to  their  performance.  I  should  therefore 
be  sorry  to  have  written  this  music  to  no  purpose,  I  mean, 
if  we  do  not  secure  what  is  absolutely  necessary.  Neither 
you  nor  Abbate  Varesco  nor  I  have  noticed  that  it  will 
have  a  very  bad  effect  and  even  cause  the  entire  failure 
of  the  opera  if  neither  of  the  two  principal  female  singers 
appear  on  the  stage  until  the  very  last  moment,  but  keep 
on  walking  about  on  the  bastions  or  on  the  ramparts  of 
the  fortress.  The  patience  of  the  audience  might  hold  out 
for  one  act,  but  certainly  not  for  a  second  one — that  is 
quite  out  of  the  question.  This  first  occurred  to  me  at 
Linz,  and  it  seems  to  me  that  the  only  solution  is  to  con 
trive  that  some  of  the  scenes  in  the  second  act  shall  take 
place  in  the  fortress — camera  della  fortezza.  The  scene 
could  be  so  arranged  that  when  Don  Pippo  gives  orders 
for  the  goose  to  be  brought  into  the  fortress,  the  stage 
should  represent  a  room  where  Celidora  and  Lavina  are. 
Pantea  comes  in  with  the  goose  and  Biondello  slips  out. 
They  hear  Don  Pippo  coming  and  Biondello  again  be 
comes  a  goose.  At  this  point  a  good  quintet  would  be  very 
suitable,  which  would  be  the  more  comic  as  the  goose 
would  be  singing  along  with  the  others.  I  must  tell  you, 
however,  that  my  only  reason  for  not  objecting  to  this 
goose  story  altogether  was  because  two  people  of  greater 
insight  and  judgment  than  myself  have  not  disapproved 
of  it,  I  mean  yourself  and  Varesco*  But  there  is  still  time 
to  think  of  other  arrangements.  Biondello  has  vowed  to 
make  his  way  into  the  tower;  how  he  manages  to  do  so, 
whether  in  the  form  of  a  goose  or  by  some  other  ruse,  does 
not  really  matter.  I  should  have  thought  that  effects  far 
more  natural  and  amusing  might  be  produced,  if  he  were 

1  "L'oca  del  Cairo." 

1783  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z.  500 

to  remain  in  human  form.  For  example,  the  news  that  in 
despair  at  not  being  able  to  make  his  way  into  the 
fortress  he  has  thrown  himself  into  the  sea,  could  be 
brought  in  at  the  very  beginning  of  Act  II.  He  might 
then  disguise  himself  as  a  Turk  or  anyone  he  chose 
and  bring  Pantea  with  him  as  a  slave  (a  Moorish  girl, 
of  course).  Don  Pippo  is  willing  to  purchase  the  slave 
for  his  bride.  Therefore  the  slave-dealer  and  the  Moorish 
girl  must  enter  the  fortress  in  order  to  be  inspected. 
In   this  way  Pantea  has   an  opportunity   of  bullying 
her   husband   and   addressing   all  sorts  of  impertinent 
remarks    to    him,   which    would   greatly    improve    her 
part,  for  the  more  comic  an  Italian  opera  is  the  better. 
Well,  I  entreat  you  to  expound  my  views  very  clearly  to 
Abbate  Varesco  and  to  tell  him  that  I  implore  him  to  go 
ahead.  I  have  worked  hard  enough  in  this  short  time. 
Why,  I  should  have  finished  the  whole  of  Act  I,  if  I  did 
not  require  some  alterations  in  the  words  of  some  of  the 
arias.  But  say  nothing  of  this  to  him  at  present.   My 
German  opera  "Die  Entfiihrung  aus  dem  Serail"  has 
been  performed  both  in  Prague  and  Leipzig  excellently 
and  with  the  greatest  applause.  I  have  heard  both  these 
facts  from  people  who  saw  the  performances.  I  shall  make 
a  point  of  looking  up  Herr  von  Deckelmann  and  shall 
give  him  the  cadenzas,  the  concerto  and  the  four  ducats. 
Please  send  me  as  soon  as  possible  my  "Idomeneo",  the 
two  violin  duets  x  and  Sebastian  Baches  fugues.  I  require 
"Idomeneo"  because  during  Lent  I  am  going  to  give  as 
well  as  my  concert  in  the  theatre  six  subscription  concerts, 
at  which  I  should  like  to  produce  this  opera.  Further,  will 
you  please  ask  Tomaselli  to  let  us  have  the  prescription 
for  that  eczema  ointment,  which  has  done  us  excellent 

1  K.  423  and  424,  duets  for  violin  and  viola,  which  Mozart  composed 
during  the  summer  at  Salzburg  for  Michael  Haydn,  who  owing  to  an  in 
disposition  could  not  carry  out  a  commission  from  the  Archbishop. 


L.  501  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1783 

service.  One  never  knows  when  one  may  need  it  again 
either  for  oneself  or  to  hand  on  to  someone  else.  A  bird 
in  the  hand  is  always  worth  two  in  the  bush.  Well,  adieu. 
My  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and 
embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  are  ever 
your  most  obedient  children 

W:  et  C:  MOZART 

P.S. — Please  give  Varesco  a  good  talking  to  and  hurry 
him  up.  Do  send  the  music  soon.  We  kiss  Greta,  Heinrich 
and  Hanni;  I  shall  write  to  Greta  one  of  these  days.  Tell 
Heinrich  from  me  that  both  here  and  in  Linz  I  have 
already  said  many  things  in  his  favour.  Tell  him  too  that 
he  ought  to  concentrate  hard  on  staccato-playing,  for  it 
is  just  in  this  particular  that  the  Viennese  cannot  forget 
Lamotte.1  Adieu. 

(501)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Copy  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin} 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  io  Decembre,  1783 

I  am  writing  in  the  greatest  haste  to  tell  you  that  I 
have  already  bought  the  opera  "Der  Rauchfangkehrer"  2 
for  six  ducats  and  have  it  at  home.  If  the  mail  coach 
leaves  for  Salzburg  next  Sunday,  I  shall  send  it  along 
with  the  two  concertos;  if  not,  well  then  it  shall  go  by 
letter  post.  As  for  the  money,  just  please  deduct  the  four 
ducats  which  you  were  good  enough  to  advance  me. 
There  is  no  German  translation  of  the  opera  "Fra  due 
litiganti" 3 ;  and  judging  by  your  letter  you  seem  to  think 

1  Franz  Lamotte,  an  excellent  violinist,  had  been^since  1772  in  the  service 
of  the  Viennese  court.  He  died  in  1781. 

2  The  libretto  of  "Der  Rauchfangkehrer",  which  was  performed  in  1781, 
was  by  Dr.  Auenbrugger,  the  music  by  Salieri. 

3  "Frai  due  litiganti",  by  Giuseppe  Sarti  (1729-1802),  a  famous  operatic 
composer  of  the  eighteenth  century. 


I78s  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z.  501 

that  "Der  Rauchfangkehrer"  is  an  Italian  opera!  Not  at 
all.  It  is  a  German  and,  what  is  more,  a  wretched  work, 
the  author  of  which  is  Doctor  Auernszucker l  in  Vienna. 
You  will  remember  that  I  told  you  about  it  and  of  how 
Herr  Fischer  publicly  damned  it  in  the  theatre.  Herr 
Kiihne  has  probably  got  the  charming  little  libretto. 
Please  give  many  compliments  from  us  both  to  him  and 
to  his  wife.  As  for  Herr  Lange  and  his  wife,  the  truth  is 
that  he  has  obtained  permission  from  His  Majesty  to 
travel  for  a  few  months  and  that  before  their  departure 
they  are  going  to  perform  an  opera  for  their  own  benefit 
and  that  this  opera  will  be  my  "Entfuhrung  aus  dem 
Serail".  There  is  not  a  word  of  truth  in  the  story  about 
Herr  Schroder. 

Meanwhile  you  will  have  received  my  last  letter.  Do 
your  very  best  to  make  my  libretto  a  success.  I  wish  that 
in  Act  I  some  arrangement  could  be  made  to  let  the  two 
women  come  down  from  the  bastion  when  they  have  to 
sing  their  arias;  in  this  case  I  should  gladly  consent  to 
their  singing  the  whole  finale  up  above.  We  are  both  very 
sad  about  our  poor,  bonny,  fat,  darling  little  boy.2  Well, 
I  must  close.  Dearest,  most  beloved  father!  We  both  kiss 
your  hands  and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our 
hearts  and  are  ever  your  most  obedient  children 

W.  et  C.  MOZART 

1000,000,000  kisses  to  Greta,  Heinrich  and  little  Hanni. 

P.S.— We  both  send  Nannerl 

(1)  a  couple  of  boxes  on  the  ear 

(2)  a  couple  of  slaps  on  the  face 

(3)  a  couple  of  raps  on  the  cheek 

(4)  a  couple  of  whacks  on  the  jaw 

1  Cp.  p.  1286,  n.  2.  .  ,    2  See  p.  1269,  n.  I. 


L.  502  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  i783 

(5)  a  couple  of  smacks  on  the  jowl 

(6)  a  couple  of  cuffs  on  the  mug. 

P.S. — Please  do  not  forget  about  Tomaselli.  That 
reminds  me,  will  you  please  send  us,  when  you  have 
time,  a  couple  of  images  of  the  infant  Jesus  of  Loreto. 
By  the  way,  I  must  not  forget  about  little  Lisa,  Theresa's 
cousin,  who  often  came  to  your  house.  If  she  wants  to 
come  to  Vienna,  we  shall  take  her  at  once.1  Well,  adieu, 
really  adieu  this  time. 

(502)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Nationalbibliothek,  Vienna] 
MON   TRES   CHER   PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  24  de  Xber,  1783 

I  have  received  your  last  letter  of  the  iQth  enclosing 
a  portion  of  the  opera.  Well,  let  me  deal  with  this,  which 
is  the  most  urgent  matter.  Abbate  Varesco  has  written  in 
the  margin  beside  Lavina's  cavatina:  "a  cui  servira  la 
musica  della  cavatina  antecedente",2  that  is,  Celidora's 
cavatina.  But  that  is  out  of  the  question,  for  in  Celidora's 
cavatina  the  words  are  very  disconsolate  and  despairing, 
whereas  in  Lavina's  they  are  most  comforting  and  hope 
ful.  Besides,  for  one  singer  to  echo  the  song  of  another  is 
a  practice  which  is  quite  out  of  date  and  is  hardly  ever 
made  use  of.  It  can  only  be  tolerated  in  the  case  of  a 
soubrette  and  her  amant,  that  is,  in  the  ultime  parti.3  My 
opinion  is  that  the  scene  should  start  with  a  fine  duet, 
which  might  very  well  begin  with  the  same  words  and 
with  a  short  aggiunta  for  the  coda.  After  the  duet  the 

1  Mozart  and  his  wife  employed  her  as  their  maid,  a  kindness  which  later 
they  had  cause  to  regret. 

2  For  which  the  music  of  the  preceding  cavatina  will  do. 

3  i.e.  secondary  characters.  Mozart  himself  did  this  in"Lafintagiardiniera", 
composed  in  1775,  that  is  to  say,  in  nos.  Qa  and  90  of  Act  I. 


1783  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z.  502 

conversation  can  be  resumed.  E  quando  s'ode  il  cam- 
panello  delta  custode?  Mile  Lavina,  not  Celidora,  will  be 
so  good  as  to  remove  herself,  so  that  the  latter,  as  a  prima 
donna,  may  have  an  opportunity  of  singing  a  fine  bravura 
aria.  Some  arrangement  of  this  kind  would  suit  much 
better  the  composer,  the  singer,  the  spectators  and  the 
audience,  and  the  whole  scene  would  undoubtedly  become 
far  more  interesting.  Further,  the  audience  would  hardly 
be  able  to  tolerate  the  same  aria  from  the  second  singer, 
after  having  heard  it  sung  by  the  first.  In  the  next  place, 
I  do  not  know  what  you  are  both  driving  at  by  the  follow 
ing  arrangement.  At  the  end  of  the  newly  inserted  scene 
between  the  two  women  in  Act  I,  the  Abbate  writes: 
Segue  la  scena  VIII  che  prima  era  la  VI I  e  cosi  cangiansi 
di  mano  in  mano  i  numeri.2  From  this  description  I  am  to 
suppose  that,  contrary  to  my  wish,  the  scene  after  the 
quartet  in  which  both  women  sing  their  little  tunes  in  turn 
at  the  window,  is  to  remain;  but  that  is  impossible.  For 
not  only  would  the  act  be  very  much  lengthened,  and  to 
no  purpose,  but  it  would  become  very  tedious.  It  always 
seemed  to  me  very  ridiculous  to  read: — 

CELIDORA:  Tu  qui  m'attendi,  arnica.  Alia  custode  farmi 

veder  vogl'io;  ci  andrai  tu  poi. 
LAVINA:  Si,  dolce  arnica,  addio.  (Celidora  parte.) 3 

Lavina  sings  her  aria.  Celidora  comes  in  again  and  says: 
Eccomi,  or  vanne,  etc.4  Now  it  is  Lavina' s  turn  to  go  and 
Celidora  sings  her  aria.  They  relieve  each  other  like 
soldiers  on  guard.  Moreover,  as  in  the  quartet  they  all 

1  And  when  the  duenna's  bell  is  heard. 

2  Scene  VIII,  formerly  Scene  VII,  then  follows,  and  thus  the  numbers 
are  correspondingly  altered. 

3  Celidora:  Wait  for  me  here,  my  friend.  I  wish  to  show  myself  to  the 
duenna.  You  may  go  later. 

Lavina:  Yes,  sweet  friend,  good-bye.  (Exit  Celidora.) 

4  Here  I  am,  now  you  may  go,  etc. 


L.  502  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1783 

agree  to  carry  out  their  proposed  scheme,  it  is  far  more 
natural  that  the  men  should  go  off  and  beat  up  the  people 
required  for  this  purpose  and  that  the  two  women  should 
betake  themselves  quietly  to  their  apartments.  The  most 
they  could  still  be  allowed  is  a  few  lines  of  recitative. 
Indeed,  I  have  not  the  smallest  doubt  that  it  was  never 
intended  that  the  scene  should  be  retained,  and  that 
Varesco  simply  forgot  to  indicate  .  that  it  was  to  be 
omitted.  I  am  very  curious  to  see  how  you  carry  out  your 
capital  idea  of  bringing  Biondello  into  the  tower.  Pro 
vided  it  is  diverting,  I  shall  raise  no  objection,  even  if  it 
is  a  little  unnatural.  I  am  not  at  all  alarmed  at  the  notion 
of  a  few  fireworks,  for  the  arrangements  of  the  Viennese 
fire  brigade  are  so  excellent  that  there  is  no  cause  for  un 
easiness  about  having  fireworks  on  the  stage.  Thus 
"Medea"  is  often  performed  here,  at  the  end  of  which 
one  half  of  the  palace  collapses,  while  the  other  half  goes 
up  in  flames.  To-morrow  I  shall  look  round  for  copies  of 
the  libretto  of  the  "Rauchfangkehrer".1  I  have  not  yet 
been  able  to  find  the  "Contessina"  (or  the  "Countess").2 
If  it  is  not  to  be  had,  would  any  of  the  following  be  suit 
able,  "Das  Irrlicht"  by  Umlauf,  "Die  schone  Schu- 
sterin"  by  the  same,3  or  "Die  Pilgrimme  von  Mekka"  ?4 
The  two  latter  operas  especially  would  be  very  easy  to 
perform.  Kuhne  probably  has  them  already.  Please  deliver 
greetings  from  both  of  us  to  him  and  to  his  wife.  I  trust 
that  you  received  my  last  short  letter.  Let  me  remind  you 
once  more  to  send  me  the  two  duets,  Bach's  fugues  and, 
above  #//,  "Idomeneo" — you  will  know  the  reason.  I  am 
particularly  anxious  to  go  through  this,  opera  on  the 

1  See  p.  1286,  n.  2.  Evidently  Leopold  Mozart  was  looking  for  operas 
suitable  for  performance  at  Salzburg. 

2  By  Florian  Leopold  Gassmann  (1729-1774). 

3  "Das  Irrlicht"  was  produced  in  1782,  "Die  schone  Schusterin"  in  1779, 
both  at  the  Burgtheater  in  Vienna. 

4  Gluck's  opera  "Die  Pilgrimme  von  Mekka"  was  produced  in  1764. 


1784  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  ^503 

clavier  with  Count  Sickingen.  If  you  could  have  Emanuel 
Bach's  fugues  (there  are  six  of  them,  I  think)  copied  and 
sent  to  me  some  time,  you  would  be  doing  me  a  great 
kindness.  I  forgot  to  ask  you  to  do  this  when  I  was  at 
Salzburg.  Meanwhile,  farewell.  The  day  before  yester 
day,  Monday,  we  had  another  grand  concert  of  the 
society,1  when  I  played  a  concerto  and  Adamberger  sang 
a  rondo  of  my  composition.2  The  concert  was  repeated 
yesterday,  but  a  violinist  played  a  concerto  in  my  place. 
The  day  before  yesterday  the  theatre  was  full.  Yesterday 
it  was  empty.  I  should  add  that  it  was  the  violinist's  first 
performance.  Well,  adieu,  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand 
times  and  we  are  both  your  most  obedient  children 

W:  et  C:  MOZART 

A  thousand  smacks  to  my  sister  and  to  all.  Adieu. 
(503)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

{Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Artaria  and  Co.,  Vienna^ 

MON  TRES  CHER  PERE!  VIENNE,  ce  io  de  Feb:  1784 

How  very  stupid  of  Artaria!  He  thought  that  they 
would  not  take  the  parcel  at  the  Post  Office  and  instead 
of  returning  it  to  me  at  once,  he  kept  it  back-  until  it  was 
time  for  the  mail  coach  to  leave,  without  telling  me  a 
word  about  the  arrangement!  This  time  I  have  had  no 
letter  from  you.  I  really  do  not  understand  Peisser.  These 
people  are  about  three  yards  away  from  our  house  (I  have 
measured  the  distance).  Sometimes  I  myself  ask  whether 
any  letters  have  arrived,  but  usually  my  maid  does  so. 
They  bawl  out  "No"  in  the  most  impertinent  manner,  and 
when  the  asses  (I  mean,  the  gentlemen)  have  a  look,  why, 
they  suddenly  find  one  after  all.  Again,  if  a  letter  happens 

1  The  Wiener  Tonkunstlersozietat. 
2  Probably  K.  431,  composed  in  1783. 


Z.  503  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1784 

to  come  at  some  odd  time,  they  prefer  to  leave  it  lying  for 
a  fortnight  rather  than  send  it  to  me  by  the  shopboy, 
which  I  have  often  asked  them  to  do.  So  I  beg  you  to 
write  direct  to  my  address.  I  have  already  received  three 
letters  from  different  countries.  Just  address  it  "Im 
Trattnerischen  Hause,  Zweite  Stiege,  im  Dritten  Stock".1 
Besides,  I  think  that  Herr  Peisser  makes  a  small  profit  on 
my  letters. 

In  my  last  letter  I  wrote  to  you  about  Varesco  and  my 
opera.2  At  present  I  haven't  the  slightest  intention  of 
producing  it.  I  have  works  to  compose 3  which  at  the 
moment  are  bringing  in  money,  but  will  not  do  so  later. 
The  opera  will  always  bring  in  some;  and  besides,  the 
more  time  I  take,  the  better  it  will  be.  As  it  is,  the  im 
pression  I  have  gained  from  Varesco's  text  is  that  he  has 
hurried  too  much,  and  I  hope  that  in  time  he  will  realise 
this  himself.  That  is  why  I  should  like  to  see  the  opera  as 
a  whole  (he  need  only  jot,  it  down  in  rough  and  ready 
fashion).  Then  we  can  make  drastic  alterations.  For  by 
Heaven  there  is  no  need  to  hurry.  If  you  were  to  hear 
what  I  have  composed,  then  you  would  wish,  as  I  do, 
that  my  work  should  not  be  spoilt!  And  that  is  so  easily 
done — and  so  often.  What  I  have  composed  has  been  put 
away  safely.  I  guarantee  that  in  all  the  operas  which  will 
be  performed  until  mine  is  finished,  not  a  single  idea  will 
resemble  one  of  mine.  Well,  I  must  close,  for  I  must  really 
compose.  I  spend  the  whole  morning  giving  lessons,  so  I 
have  only  the  evening  for  my  beloved  task — composition. 
I  have  just  one  more  question  to  ask,  and  that  is,  whether 
you  are  now  having  in  Salzburg  such  unbearably  cold 

1  The  Mozarts  had  moved  into  new  lodgings  in  a  house  belonging  to 
J.  T.  von  Trattner,  am  Graben  no.  591  (now  no.  29). 

2  "L'oca  del  Cairo",  which  Mozart  never  finished. 

3  Probably  his  clavier  concertos,  six  of  which  (K.  449,  450,  451,  453,  456, 
459)  were  composed  in  1784.  From  1784  to  1786  Mozart  was  the  most  popular 
and  successful  clavier-player  in  Vienna.  See  p.  1296  f. 



weather  as  we  are  having  here?  Herr  Freyhold  l  of  Mainz 
wanted  to  call  on  me  and  sent  up  a  servant  with  the  letter, 
he  himself  remaining  below — probably  in  the  coach.  But 
as  I  had  to  go  out  immediately  I  took  the  letter  and  asked 
him  to  come  some  afternoon,  when  I  am  always  at  home. 
I  have  been  wanting  to  go  along  one  of  these  days  (for 
he  has  not  turned  up),  but  have  not  had  the  time.  Well, 
adieu.  My  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times 
and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  are 

ever  your  most  obedient  children 

W.  and  C  MOZART 

(504)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Rudolf  Nydahl,  Stockholm} 
MON  TRES  CHER  P^RE!  VlENNE,  ce  2O  de  fevrier,  1784 

I  have  received  your  last  letter.  Yesterday  I  was 
fortunate  enough  to  hear  Herr  Freyhold  2  play  a  concerto 
of  his  own  wretched  composition.3  I  found  very  little  to 
admire  in  his  performance  and  missed  a  great  deal.  His 
whole  tour  de  force  consists  in  double-tonguing.  Other 
wise  there  is  nothing  whatever  to  listen  to.  I  was  delighted 
that  the  Adagio,  which  by  the  way  -he  played  at  your 
house,  was  very  short.  For  at  first  the  players  who 
accompanied  him  could  not  get  the  hang  of  it,  as, 
although  the  movement  was  written  in  common  time,  he 
played  it  Alia  Breve.  And,  when  I  thereupon  noted  down 
Alia  Breve  with  my  own  hand,  he  admitted  that  my  Papa 
in  Salzburg  had  also  made  a  fuss.  The  rondo  ought  to  be 
jolly,  but  it  was  the  silliest  stuff  in  the  world.  As  soon  as  I 
heard  the  first  Allegro,  I  realised  that  if  Herr  Freyhold 

*  Little  is  known  about  Freyhold,  who  was  a  flautist  in  the  service  of  the 
Margrave  of  Baden-Durlach.  He  gave  concerts  in  1776  and  1779  at  Frankfurt- 
am-Main.  *  See  n.  I.  .  _,  . 

3  The  autograph  has  "scomposition",  one  of  Mozart's  favourite  devices 
for  expressing  contempt. 


Z.  504  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1784 

would  only  learn  composition  properly,  he  would  not  be 
a  bad  composer.  I  am  very  sorry  that  Herr  Hafeneder 
has  died  so  prematurely,  and  particularly  because  you  will 
now  be  saddled  with  that  seccatura*  Yet  I  must  admit  that 
the  Prince  is  right.  In  his  place  I  should  have  made  the 
arrangement  long  before  Hafeneder's  death.  But  I  should 
have  accompanied  my  command  with  an  increase  of 
salary,  and  arranged  that  the  boys  should  go  to  your 
house  or  that  you   should  have  free  quarters  in  the 
Kapellhaus.  Well,  two  gentlemen,  a  vice-controleur  and  a 
cook,  are  going  off  to  Salzburg  in  a  few  days,  and  I  shall 
probably  ask  them  to  take  with  them  a  sonata,1  a  sym 
phony  2  and  a  new  concerto.3  The  symphony  is  in  the 
original  score,  which  you  might  arrange  to  have  copied 
some  time.  You  can  then  send  it  back  to  me  or  even  give 
it  away  or  have  it  performed  anywhere  you  like.    The 
concerto  is  also  in  the  original  score  and  this  too  you  may 
have  copied;  but  have  it  done  as  quickly  as  possible  and 
return  it  to  me.  Remember,  do  not  show  it  to  a  single  soul, 
for  I  composed  it  for  Fraulein  Ployer,4  who  paid  me 
handsomely.   But  the  sonata  you  may  keep  for  good. 
Well,  I  must  ask  you  something  about  which  I  know 
nothing  whatever.    If   I    have   some  work  printed   or 
engraved  at  my  own  expense,  how  can  I  protect  my 
self  from  being  cheated  by  the  engraver?  For  surely  he 
can  print  off  as  many  copies  as  he  likes  and  therefore 

1  Possibly  K.  448,  sonata  for  two  claviers,  composed  in  1781. 

2  K.  425,  the  "Linz"  symphony,  composed  in  1783. 

3  K.  449,  composed  for  Barbara  Ployer.  This  is  the  first  entry  in  Mozart's 
Thematisches  Verzeichnis,  the  list  which  he  kept  of  his  compositions  from 
February  9th,  1784,  until  his  death.  A  facsimile  edition  of  this  list,  with  an 
introduction  by  O.  E.  Deutsch,  has  been  published  by  Herbert  Reichner, 
Vienna,  1938. 

4  Barbara,  daughter  of  Court  Councillor  Gottfried  Ignaz  von  Ployer, 
since  1780  agent  of  the  Salzburg  Court  in  Vienna.  She  was  Mozart's  pupil 
on  the  clavier  and  in  composition,  and  for  her  he  composed  his  clavier 
concertos  K.  449  and  K.  453. 


1784  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z  505 

swindle  me?  The  only  way  to  prevent  this  would  be  to 
keep  a  sharp  eye  on  him.  Yet  that  was  impossible  in  your 
own  case,  when  you  had  your  book  printed,  for  you  were 
at  Salzburg  and  the  printer  was  at  Augsburg.1  Why,  I 
almost  feel  inclined  not  to  sell  any  more  of  my  composi 
tions  to  any  engraver,  but  to  have  them  printed  or  engraved 
by  subscription  at  my  own  expense,  as  most  people  do 
and  in  this  way  make  good  profits.  I  am  not  nervous 
about  getting  subscribers.  For  I  have  already  had  sub 
scription  offers  from  Paris  and  Warsaw.  So  please  let  me 
know  what  you  think  about  this.  Now  I  have  another 
request  to  make.  Would  it  be  possible  to  let  me  have  a  copy 
of  my  certificate  of  baptism?  They  all  swear  here  that  the 
first  time  I  came  to  Vienna  I  must  have  been  at  least  ten 
years  old.2  The  Emperor  himself  contradicted  me  to  my 
face  last  year  in  the  Augarten.  Herr  von  Strack  now 
believes  my  statement.  If  I  showed  them  my  certificate  of 
baptism  I  could  shut  them  all  up  at  one  go.  Now  farewell. 
My  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and 
embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  are  ever 
your  most  obedient  children 

W:  et  C:  MOZART 

(505)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Paul  Gottschalk,  Berlin} 

MON  TRfes  CHER  PERE!  VIENNE,  ce  3  mars,  17843 

I  have  received  your  letter  of  February  24th.  It  is 
much  better  for  you  to  send  your  letters  always  through 
the  post.  I  received  on  Monday  your  letter  which,  if  you 
had  sent  it  through  Peisser,  I  should  not  have  had  until 

1  Mozart  is  referring  to  his  father's  Violinschule,  which  was  published  in 
1756  by  J.  J.  Lotter,  Augsburg. 

2  Mozart's  first  visit  to  Vienna  was  in  1762,  when  he  was  six. 

*  Nissen,  pp.  479-480,  throws  together  this  letter  and  the  following  one  of 
March  2Oth,  thereby  producing  a  strange  confusion  in  dates. 


L.  505  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1784 

Tuesday  or  Wednesday.  I  have  not  yet  received  the 
concertos,  but  I  shall  ask  Artaria  about  them  at  once.1 
You  must  forgive  me  if  I  don't  write  very  much,  but  it 
is  impossible  to  find  time  to  do  so,  as  I  am  giving  three 
subscription  concerts  in  Trattner's  room  on  the  last  three 
Wednesdays  of  Lent,  beginning  on  March  i7th.  I  have 
a  hundred  subscribers  already  and  shall  easily  get  another 
thirty.  The  price  for  the  three  concerts  is  six  gulden.  I 
shall  probably  give  two  concerts  in  the  theatre  this  year. 
Well,  as  you  may  imagine,  I  must  play  some  new  works 
— and  therefore  I  must  compose.  The  whole  morning  is 
taken  up  with  pupils  and  almost  every  evening  I  have 
to  play.  Below  you  will  find  a  list  of  all  the  concerts  at 
which  I  am  playing.  But  I  must  tell  you  quickly  how  it 
has  come  about  that  all  of  a  sudden  I  am  giving  private 
concerts.  Richter,2  the  clavier  virtuoso,  is  giving  six 
Saturday  concerts  in  the  said  room.  The  nobility  sub 
scribed,  but  remarked  that  they  really  did  not  care  much 
about  going  unless  I  played.  So  Richter  asked  me  to  do 
so.  I  promised  to  play  three  times  and  then  arranged 
three  concerts  for  myself,  to  which  they  all  subscribed. 

Thursday,  February  26th,  at  Galitzin's 
Monday,  March  ist,  at  Johann  Esterhazy's 
Thursday,  March  4th,  at  Galitzin's 
Friday  March  5th,  at  Esterhazy's 
Monday  8th,  at  Esterhazy's 
Thursday  nth,  at  Galitzin's 
Friday  i2th,  at  Esterhazy's 
Monday  I5th,  at  Esterhazy's 
Wednesday  iyth,  my  first  private  concert 
Thursday  i8th,  at  Galitzin's 
Friday  igth,  at  Esterhazy's 
Saturday  2oth,  at  Richter's 

1   K.  413-415,  which  were  published  early  in  1785  by  Artaria  and  Co. 
2  Georg  Friedrich  Richter,  a  popular  clavier-player  and  teacher. 


1784  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  506 

Sunday  2ist,  my  first  concert  in  the  theatre 

Monday  22nd,  at  Esterhazy's 

Wednesday  24th,  my  second  private  concert 

Thursday  25th,  at  Galitzin's 

Friday  26th,  at  Esterhazy's 

Saturday  2/th,  at  Richter's 

Monday  29th,  at  Esterhazy's 

Wednesday  3ist,  my  third  private  concert 

Thursday  April  ist,  my  second  concert  in  the  theatre 

Saturday  3rd,  at  Richter's 

Well,  haven't  I  enough  to  do?  I  don't  think  that  in 
this  way  I  can  possibly  get  out  of  practice.  Adieu.  We 
both  kiss  your  hands  and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with 
all  our  hearts  and  are  ever  your  most  obedient  children 


(506)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

{Autograph  in  the  Nationalbibliothek,  Vienna^ 

VIENNA,  March  w>th%  1784 
Princesse  d'Auersperg  Madame  de  Hess  nee  de 

Prince  Charles  L'evecque  d'Herberstein 


Comte  Nadasty  General         Comte  de  Rottenhan 
L'Ambassadeur  d'Espagne  Comte  Jos:  d'Herberstein 
Comte  Joseph  Seilern  Jacomini 

Comte  de  Soldyk  Madame  de  Stokel 

Madame  de  Trattner  Comte  Gundacker  Stern- 

De  Grezmiiller  maj.  Baron  Togelman 

1  The  first  page  of  the  autograph  is  a  torn  sheet.  The  beginning  of  the 
letter  has  been  lost.  The  names  of  Mozart's  subscribers  have  been  left  in 
their  original  spelling. 

VOL.  Ill  1297  R 



de      Hess    nee     Mr.  de  Kas 
de      Kanne-     Raab 



Comte  de  Wiirm 
Madame  de  Margelique 
Baron  Gondar 

Mr.  de  Lamezan 
Comtesse  Kevenhiiller 
Baron  van  Swieten 

Comtesse  Sauer 

De  Sonnenfels 


Comte  Charles  d'Auers- 


C.  Aug.  Seilern 
Comte  d'Herberstein 
De  Fichtl  Agent 
Princesse  Palm 
Prince  Palm 
Comte  de  Nimptsch 
Conseiller  Greiner 
Ployer  Agent 
de  Grezmiiller  Jim. 
Comtesse  Staremberg  nee 

Comtesse  Althan  nee 


Comtesse  Passowitz 
Comte  Nep  d'Herberstein 
Comte  Joseph  Podstatzky 
Comte  Paar 

Mr.  de  Jahn 


Comtesse  Schafgotsch  nee 

Comte  de  Sauer 
D' Hairing 
Comte  Wilhelm  d'Auers- 


Prince  Joseph  Lobkowitz 
E.  Wiirm 
Comte  de  Banffi 
Prince  Adam  d'Auersperg 

P.  J.  Schwab 


de  Rosty 

Baronin  de  Waldstadten 




de  Honickstein 


Le  Comte  Fries 

de  Schleinitz 

de  Puthon 

de  Madruce 
de  Jacobi 
de  Lutz 

Comtesse  Thun  nee  d'  Ulfeld 




Joseph  Palfy 
Comte  Koller 
Bar:  Wetzlar  Pere 
Comtesse  Nimptsch 
de  Braun 
de  Luerewald 
de  Hentchl 
Bar:  de  Ditmar 
Bar:  de  Gebsattel 
Comtesse  Esterhazy 
Comte  Jean  Esterhazy 
Joseph  Dietrichstein 
Bar:  de  Brandau 
Bar:  de  Stockmeyer 
Bar:  de  Hochstatter 

Comtesse  Sauer 
Prince  Louis  Lichtenstein 
de  Meyenberg* 
Comte  Sallabourg 
Bar:  de  Mandelsloh 
Louis  Wiirben 
Ernest  Harrach 
Le  Comte  Keplowitz 
Dominic  Kaunitz 
Comte  d'Otting 
Comte  de  Kuffstein 
Bar:  Winkler 
Reichshof:  von  Wolkern 
Bar:  de  Braun 
Prince  de  Paar 
Comte  d'Oeynhausen 
Le  Comte  de  Dzierza- 

Jos:  de  Weinbremes 

de  Switmer 


Bar:  de  Martini 

de  Born 

Prince  Gallitzin 

Bar:  Vockel 

Comte  Ladislaus  d'Erdody 

Comte  Hugart 

Comte  Kollnitsch 

Leopold  Hoyos 

Comte  Czernin 

Comte  Neiperg 

Comte  Antoine  Batiany 

Prince  de  Wiirtemberg 

Grenieri  Envoye  de 

Comte  Kluschofsky 
Joh:  Adam  Bienenfeld 
Bar:  Wetzlar  Raimund 
de  Drostik 

Madame  Tiirkheim 
Madame  de  Poncet 
Mylord  Morton 
Madame  de  Puffendorf 
Chevalier  Hall 
Madame  de  Neuhold 
Comte  Adam  Sternberg 
Comte  Etienne  Zitchi 
Lord  Stopford 
Princess  Lignowsky 
de  Sonnenfeld 




de  Knecht 

Comte  Sternberg 

Comte  Waldstein 

Comte  George  Waldstein 

Le  Comte  Harrach  Taine 

Bar:  Zois 

von  Ott 

Le  Comte  de  Nostiz 

De  Nostiz  general 

Bar:  Jungwirth 

Hofrat  Botti 

Madame  d'Engelsbourg 

Comte  Marchall 

H  of  rath  Miiller 

Bar:  Brandau 

Comte  Wolscheck 
Comtesse  Waldstein  nee 

Madame  de  Burkart 
Prince  de  Schwarzenberg 
Madame  d'Eichelbourg 
Comte  Zinzendorf 
de  Hartenstein 
Bar:  Burkardt 
Comte  Bergen 
Bar:  de  Dalberg 
Madame  Betty 
Bar:  de  Gleichen 
Mr.  de  Techenbach 
Bqr:  Findak 
Comtesse  Apumoni 
Comte  Charles  Zitchi 
Comte  Francois  d'  Ester 


Bar:  d'Engelstrom 
Prince  de  Meklenbourg 

Comtesse  de  Hazfeld 
Comte  Montecuculi 

I  am  sending  you  the  list  of  all  my  subscribers.  I  by  my 
self  have  thirty  more  than  Richter1  and  Fischer2  together. 
The  first  concert  on  March  iyth  went  off  very  well.  The 
hall  was  full  to  overflowing;  and  the  new  concerto3  I 
played  won  extraordinary  applause.  Everywhere  I  go 
I  hear  praises  of  that  concert. 

My  first  concert  in  the  theatre  was  to  have  been 
to-morrow.  But  Prince  Louis  Liechtenstein  is  producing 
an  opera  in  his  own  house,  and  has  not  only  run  off  with 

1  See  p.  1296,  n.  2. 

3  Probably  John  Abraham  Fisher  (1744-1806),  the  English  violinist  and 
composer.  He  met  in  1784  in  Vienna  Nancy  Storace,  who  became  his  second 
wife.  3  Probably  K.  449.  See  Kochel,  p.  568. 


1784  I-  MOZART  TO  SEBASTIAN  WINTER          ^.507 

the  cream  of  the  nobility,  but  has  bribed  and  seduced  the 
best  players  in  the  orchestra.  So  I  have  postponed  my 
concert  until  April  ist  and  have  had  a  notice  printed  to 
this  effect.  Well,  I  must  close,  as  I  must  go  off  to  Count 
Zichy's  concert.  You  must  have  patience  with  me  until 
Lent  is  over.  We  both  kiss  your  hands  and  embrace  our 
dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  are  ever  your  most 
obedient  children 

Vienna,  March  2Oth,  1784. 

(507)  Leopold  Mozart  to  Sebastian  Winter, 

[Autograph  in  the  Furstlich  Fiirstenbergische  Hofbibliothek, 


DEAR  HERR  WINTER,  SALZBURG,  April  yd,  1784 

I  write  in  haste  just  to  send  you  the  four  concertos  2 
which,  as  I  informed  you,  are  the  latest  and  cost  four 
ducats  each.  I  still  have  six  sonatas 3  for  the  clavier  only, 
which  no  one  knows  about,  as  my  son  composed  them  for 
us  alone.  If  His  Highness,  to  whom  we  send  our  most 
'  respectful  greetings,  would  care  to  have  these  too,  he  has 
only  to  let  me  know.  Farewell.  I  must  close,  as  four 
people  have  just  turned  up  from  Munich  to  fetch  young 
Marchand,4  now  fifteen  years  old,  whom  I  have  been 
teaching  for  three  years  and  who  is  now  returning  as  an 
excellent  violinist  and  performer  on  the  clavier  and  also 
a  proficient  composer.  At  the  same  time  he  has  not 

1  Sebastian  Winter,  formerly  the  Mozarts'  friseur,  had  been  since  1764 
valet  and  friseur  to  the  Prince  von  Fiirstenberg  at  Donaueschingen. 

2  Leopold  Mozart  means  the  series  of  three  clavier  concertos,  K.  413-415. 
See  p.  1304. 

3  Possibly  K.  310-311  and  330-333,  which,  with  the  exception  of  K.  311, 
composed  in  1777,  were  all  composed  in  1778. 

4  Heinrich  Marchand,  Leopold  Mozart's  pupil. 


L.  508  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1784 

neglected  his  Latin,  although  as  his  chief  side-line  he 
has  been  learning  Italian  and  French,  in  which  he  has 
made  good  progress.  Addio! 

I  ever  remain  your  honest  old  friend 


(508)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  Conservatoire  de  Paris] 
MON    TRES    CHER    PERE!  VIENNA,  April  I O/A,  1784 

Please  don't  be  vexed  that  I  haven't  written  to  you 
for  so  long.  Surely  you  realise  how  much  I  have  had  to  do 
in  the  meantime!  I  have  done  myself  great  credit  with  my 
three  subscription  concerts,  and  the  concert  I  gave  in  the 
theatre  was  most  successful.  I  composed  two  grand  con 
certos  I  and  then  a  quintet,2  which  called  forth  the  very 
greatest  applause:  I  myself  consider  it  to  be  the  best  work 
I  have  ever  composed.  It  is  written  for  one  oboe,  one 
clarinet,  one  horn,  one  bassoon  and  the  pianoforte.  How 
I  wish  you  could  have  heard  it!  And  how  beautifully  it 
was  performed!  Well,  to  tell  the  truth  I  was  really  worn 
out  in  the  end  after  playing  so  much — and  it  is  greatly 
to  my  credit  that  my  listeners  never  got  tired. 

I  now  have  a  commission  for  you.  Old  Baron  Seine 
du  Pain,3  who  has  all  kinds  of  music,  good  and  bad,  would 
like  to  have  the  following  compositions:  Gatti's  rondo  and 
duet.  Recitative.  Ah!  Non  sdegnarti,  o  cara.  Rondo.  Nel 
lasciarti  in  questo  istante.  Duet.  Nei  giorni  tuoi  felici.4  So 
I  should  be  very  much  obliged  if  you  could  procure  these 
two  works  for  me  as  soon  as  possible.  I  shall  send  you 
the  money  for  having  them  copied  in  due  course  through 
Herr  Peisser.  I  have  finished  to-day  another  new  concerto 

1  K.  450,  finished  on  March  I5th,  and  K.  451,  finished  on  March  22nd. 

2  K.  452,  finished  on  March  3Oth. 

3  Possibly  Baron  Dupin.  See  pp.  295  and  298.      4  On  a  text  by  Metastasio. 


1784  L.  MOZART  TO  SEBASTIAN  WINTER         L.  509 

for  Fraulein  Ployer.1  At  the  moment  I  am  almost  dressed 
to  go  to  Prince  Kaimitz.  Yesterday  I  played  at  Leopold 
Palfy's.  To-morrow  I  am  playing  at  the  concert  which 
Mile  Ployer  is  giving.  One  thing  more.  As  Hafeneder 
has  died,  Herr  von  Ployer  has  been  commissioned  to 
find  a  violinist.  I  recommended  to  him  a  certain  Menzel,2 
a  handsome  and  clever  young  fellow.  But  I  asked  him  not 
to  say  anything  about  me,  as  otherwise  it  might  not  work. 
He  is  now  awaiting  the  decision.  I  think  he  has  asked  for 
and  is  to  get  four  hundred  gulden — and  a  suit  of  clothes. 
I  have  already  scolded  him  about  the  suit  of  clothes — for 
it  is  a  beggarly  request.  If  anything  comes  of  this,  I  shall 
give  him  a  letter  for  you  and  the  music  too.  You  will  think 
him  a  charming  violinist,  and  he  is  also  a  very  good 
sight-reader.  So  far  no  one  in  Vienna  has  played  my 
quartets3  so  well  at  sight  as  he  has.  Moreover  he  is  the 
kindest  fellow  in  the  world,  and  he  will  be  delighted  to 
play  at  your  house  whenever  you  want  him  to.  I  had  him 
in  the  orchestra  at  my  concert.  Well,  I  must  close.  My 
wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  two  thousand  times  and  em 
brace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  are  ever  your 
obedient  children 


(509)  Leopold  Mozart  to  Sebastian  Winter, 

[Autograph  in  the  Furstlich  Furstenbergische  Hoflibliothek, 


DEAR  HERR  WINTER,  SALZBURG,  April  22nd,  1784 

Your  letter  of  the   i/th  has  made   things  rather 

difficult  for  me,  as  on  the  afternoon  of  April  3rd  I  packed 

1  K.  453,  finished  on  April  I2th. 

2  Zeno  Franz  Menzel  (1756-1823),  who  in  1787  became  violinist  in  the 
Vienna  court  orchestra.  3  Probably  K.  387,  421,  428. 


Z.  5x0  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1784 

the  three  concertos1  in  waterproof  cloth  and  handed  the 
parcel  to  the  mail  coach,  which  left  here  on  the  qth  at  eight 
o'clock  inthe  morning.  You  wrote  to  me  exactly  a  fortnight 
later,  when  the  concertos  must  long  since  have  arrived 
at  Donaueschingen.  I  addressed  the  parcel:  To  Herr 
Sebastian  Winter,  valet  to  His  Highness,  etc.  If  it  has  not 
reached  you,  please  ask  the  postmaster  to  make  urgent 
enquiries  and  investigations  and  I  shall  do  the  same  both 
here  and  in  Munich.  Meanwhile  I  trust  that  I  shall  soon 
hear  from  you  and  be  relieved  of  all  anxiety.  I  write  in 
great  haste.  We  send  our  compliments  to  His  Highness 
and  I  am  ever  your  most  devoted 


(510)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

\From  Nissen,  p.  481] 

VIENNA,  April  24^,  1784 

We  now  have  here  the  famous  Strinasacchi2  from 
Mantua,  a  very  good  violinist.  She  has  a  great  deal  of 
taste  and  feeling  in  her  playing.  I  am  this  moment  com 
posing  a  sonata3  which  we  are  going  to  play  together  on 
Thursday  at  her  concert  in  the  theatre.4  I  must  tell  you 
that  some  quartets  have  just  appeared,  composed  by  a 
certain  Pleyel,5  a  pupil  of  Joseph  Haydn.  If  you  do  not 
know  them,  do  try  and  get  hold  of  them;  you  will  find 

'  K.  413-415- 

2  Regina  Strinasacchi  (1764-1823),  a  distinguished  violinist  and  guitar 
player.  She  was  trained  in  Venice  and  Paris,  toured  Italy  1780-1783,  and  in 
1784  came  to  Vienna.  She  married  later  Johann  Conrad  Schlick  (1759-1825), 
an  excellent  violoncellist  in  the  orchestra  of  the  Duke  of  Gotha. 

3  K.  454.  4  April  29th. 

5  Ignaz  Joseph  Pleyel  (1757-1831),  a  most  prolific  instrumental  composer. 
He  was  trained  in  Vienna  by  Wanhall.  His  patron  was  Count  Erdody,  who 
had  Pleyel  taught  by  Haydn,  and  who  then  appointed  him  his  Kapellmeister. 
In  1783  he  became  deputy  Kapellmeister  and  in  1789  Kapellmeister  to  the 
Strassburg  Cathedral.  In  1791  he  was  invited  to  London  to  take  charge  of  the 
Professional  Concerts.  Ten  years  later  he  settled  as  a  music-dealer  in  Paris, 
where  he  founded  in  1807  the  Pleyel  pianoforte  factory  and  where  he  re 
mained  until  his  death. 


1784  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  511 

them  worth  the  trouble.  They  are  very  well  written  and 
most  pleasing  to  listen  to.  You  will  also  see  at  once  who 
was  his  master.  Well,  it  will  be  a  lucky  day  for  music,  if 
later  on  Pleyel  should  be  able  to  replace  Haydn. 

(511)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[From  Ludwig  Nohl>  Mozarts  Brief e^  ind  edition,  p.  406] 

VIENNA,  April  z%tk,  1784 

I  must  write  in  a  hurry.  Herr  Richter,  the  clavier- 
player,  is  making  a  tour  on  his  way  back  to  Holland,  his 
native  country.  I  have  given  him  a  letter  to  Countess 
Thun  *  at  Linz.  As  he  would  like  to  visit  Salzburg  too,  I 
have  given  him  just  four  lines  for  you,  dearest  father.  So 
I  am  now  writing  to  say  that  he  will  turn  up  soon  after 
you  receive  this  letter.  He  plays  well  so  far  as  execution 
goes,  but,  as  you  will  discover  when  you  hear  him,  he  is 
too  rough  and  laboured  and  entirely  devoid  of  taste  and 
feeling.  Otherwise  he  is  the  best  fellow  in  the  world  and  is 
not  the  slightest  bit  conceited.  When  I  played  to  him  he 
stared  all  the  time  at  my  fingers  and  kept  on  saying: 
"Good  God!  How  hard  I  work  and  sweat — and  yet  win  no 
applause — and  to  you,  my  friend,  it  is  all  child's  play." 
"Yes/'  I  replied,  "I  too  had  to  work  hard,  so  as  not  to 
have  to  work  hard  any  longer/'  Enfin,  he  is  a  fellow  who 
may  be  included  among  our  good  clavier-players  and  I 
trust  that  the  Archbishop  will  be  more  inclined  to  hear 
him,  because  he  is  a  clavierist — en  depit  de  moi — and  I 
shall  be  very  glad  to  incur  that  spite.  It  is  all  settled  about 
Menzel  the  violinist,  and  he  will  probably  clear  out  on 
Sunday.  You  will  have  some  music  from  me  too  which  he 
is  taking.  Now,  farewell. 

1  Elizabeth,  the  fourth  wife  of  Count  Johann  Josef  Anton  Thun  (1711- 
1788),  father  of  Countess  Wilhelmine  Thun's  husband. 


L.  513  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  1784 

(512)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  possession  of  W.  Westley  Manning,  London} 
MON    TRES    CHER    P^RE!  VIENNA,  May  %th,  1784 

Menzel  went  off  at  a  moment's  notice  and  didn't  find 
me  at  home,  so  I  could  not  give  him  a  letter  for  you.  But 
I  hope  that  he  has  already  been  to  see  you.  I  purposely 
did  not  give  him  the  music  I  promised  you,  because  I  did 
not  like  to  entrust  it  to  him,  being  far  too  particular  about 
it.  I  prefer  to  send  it  by  the  mail  coach.  Perhaps  my  good 
friend  Richter  is  now  at  your  house.  If  so,  please  give 
him  our  greetings.  Well,  I  must  go  down  to  the  first  floor 
to  a  concert  at  Frau  von  Trattner's.  She  has  commissioned 
me  to  make  the  necessary  arrangements.  So  I  cannot 
write  any  more,  beyond  saying  that  we  are  both  well  and 
trust  that  you  two  are  in  good  health  also.  Paisiello  is 
in  Vienna  at  the  moment  on  his  way  back  from  Russia. 
He  is  going  to  write  an  opera1  here.  Sard  is  expected  here 
any  day  on  his  way  through  to  Russia.  I  am  looking 
forward  to  the  shoe  buckles.  Farewell.  We  both  kiss  your 
hands  and  embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and 
are  ever  your  obedient  children 


(513)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  formerly  in  the  Musikhistorisches  Museum 

von  W.  Heyer,  Cologne} 

MON    TRES    CHER    PERE!  VlENNE,  ce  1 5  May,  1784 

I  gave  to-day  to  the  mail  coach  the  symphony2 
which  I  composed  in  Linz  for  old  Count  Thun  and  also 
four  concertos.3  I  am  not  particular  about  the  symphony, 

1  "II  Re  Teodoro  in  Venezia",  performed  on  August  23rd,  1784, 
2  K.  425-  3  K.  449-451  and  453. 


I784  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  513 

but  I  do  ask  you  to  have  the  four  concertos  copied  at  home, 
for  the  Salzburg  copyists  are  as  little  to  be  trusted  as  the 
Viennese.  I  know  for  a  positive  fact  that  Hofstetter  made 
two  copies  of  Haydn 's  music.1  For  example,  I  reaJfypossess 
the  last  three  symphonies  he  wrote.  And  as  no  one  but 
myself  possesses  these  new  concertos  in  B^  and  D, 2  and  no 
one  but  myself  and  Fraulein  von  Ployer  (for  whom  I  com 
posed  them)  those  in  E1*  and  G,3  the  only  way  in  which 
they  could  fall  into  other  hands  is  by  that  kind  of  cheating. 
I  myself  have  everything  copied  in  my  room  and  in  my 
presence.  After  careful  consideration  I  decided  not  to 
entrust  the  music  to  Menzel.  Further,  I  formed  the  opinion, 
which  I  still  hold,  that  the  music  would  not  be  of  much 
use  to  you,  as  except  for  the  E^  concerto,  which  can  be 
performed  a  quattro  without  wind-instruments,  the  other 
three  concertos  have  all  wind-instrument  accompaniment; 
and  you  very  rarely  have  wind-instrument  players  at  your 
house.  Well,  I  don't  know  what  it  was  that  you  were 
thinking  about  and  did  not  want  to  mention  in  your 
letter;  and  therefore  to  avoid  all  misunderstanding,  I  am 
sending  you  herewith  all  my  new  compositions.  I  have  no 
news  to  give  you  save  that  the  Emperor  intended  to  leave 
for  Budapest  to-day  but  was  prevented  from  doing  so  by 
a  stye  in  his  eye.  Praise  and  thanks  be  to  God,  we  are 
both  well  and  trust  that  you  are  all  in  good  health.  We 
kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  embrace  our  dear 
sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  are  ever  your  obedient 

W.  et  C.  MOZART 

Please  give  my  kind  regards  to  MenzeL  He  knows  all 
four  concertos  very  well. 

1  Compositions  of  Michael  Haydn. 
2  K.  450  and  451.  3  K.  449  and  453- 


L.  514  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  -   1784 

(514)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  formerly  in  the  Musikhistorisches  Museum 

von  W.  Heyer,  Cologne] 

MON    TRES    CHER    P^RE!  VlENNE,  ce  2,6  May,  1784 

Your  last  letter  tells  me  that  you  have  received  my 
letter  and  the  music.  I  thank  my  sister  for  her  letter  and, 
so  soon  as  time  permits,  I  shall  certainly  write  to  her. 
Meanwhile  please  tell  her  that  either  Herr  Richter  is 
mistaken  about  the  key  of  the  concerto  or  else  I  have 
misread  a  letter  in  her  writing.  The  concerto  Herr  Richter 
praised  to  her  so  warmly  is  the  one  in  Bb,1  the  first  one  I 
composed  and  which  he  praised  so  highly  to  me  at  the 
time.  I  really  cannot  choose  between  the  two  of  them,  but 
I  regard  them  both  as  concertos  which  are  bound  to  make 
the  performer  perspire.  From  the  point  of  view  of  diffi 
culty  the  Bi>  concerto  beats  the  one  in  D.2  Well,  I  am  very 
curious  to  hear  which  of  the  three  in  Bb,  D  and  G3  you 
and  my  sister  prefer.  The  one  in  Ei>4  does  not  belong  at 
all  to  the  same  category.  It  is  one  of  a  quite  peculiar  kind, 
composed  rather  for  a  small  orchestra  than  for  a  large 
one.  So  it  is  really  only  a  question  of  the  three  grand 
concertos.  I  am  longing  to  hear  whether  your  judgment 
will  coincide  with  the  general  opinion  in  Vienna  and  with 
my  own  view.  Of  course  it  is  necessary  to  hear  all  three 
well  performed  and  with  all  the  parts.  I  am  quite  willing  to 
wait  patiently  until  I  get  them  back,  so  long  as  no  one  else 
is  allowed  to  get  hold  of  them.  Only  to-day  I  could  have 
got  twenty-four  ducats  for  one  of  them,  but  I  think  that  it 
will  be  more  profitable  to  me  to  keep  them  by  me  for  a  few 
years  more  and  then  have  them  engraved  and  published. 
Well,  I  have  something  to  tell  you  about  Liserl 
Schwemmer.5  She  wrote  a  letter  to  her  mother  and  as 

*  K.  450.       2  K.  451-       3  K.  453.       4  K.  449.       s  See  p.  1288,  n.  i. 



the  address  was  so  quaint  that  the  Post  Office  would 
hardly  have  accepted  the  letter,  for  it  was  as  follows: 

Dieser  Brief  zueku- 
men  meiner  vilgeliebtisten 
Frau  Mutter  in  Salzburg 
barbari  schbemerin 
abzugeben  in  der 
Judengasen  in  Kauf 
man  eberl  haus 
in  dritten  Stock 

I  told  her  that  I  would  write  another  address  for  hen 
Out  of  curiosity  and  with  a  view  to  reading  some  more  of 
this  amazing  composition  rather  than  with  that  of  prying 
into  her  secrets,  I  broke  the  seal  of  the  letter.  She  pom- 
plains  that  she  gets  to  bed  too  late  and  has  to  get  up  too 
early — though  I  should  have  thought  that  one  would  get 
enough  sleep  between  eleven  and  six,  which  is  after  all 
seven  hours!  We  ourselves  do  not  go  to  bed  until  midnight 
and  we  get  up  at  half  past  five  or  even  five,  as  we  go  to 
the  Augarten  almost  every  morning.  Then  she  complains 
about  the  food  and  that  too  in  the  most  impertinent 
fashion.  She  says  she  has  to  starve  and  that  the  four  of 
us,  that  is,  my  wife,  myself,  the  cook  and  she  do  not  get 
as  much  to  eat  as  she  and  her  mother  used  to  have  be 
tween  the  two  of  them.  You  know  that  I  took  this  girl  at 
the  time  purely  out  of  pity  and  to  help  her  when  she  was 
a  stranger  in  Vienna.  We  promised  her  twelve  gulden  a 
year,  and  she  was  quite  satisfied,  though  in  her  letter  she 
complains  about  it.  And  what  has  she  to  do?  To  clear  the 
table,  hand  round  the  dishes  and  take  them  away  and 
help  my  wife  to  dress  and  undress.  Moreover,  apart  from 
her  sewing  she  is  the  clumsiest  and  stupidest  creature  in 
the  world.  She  cannot  even  light  a  fire,  let  alone  make 
coffee,  things  which  a  girl  who  pretends  to  be  a  parlour- 



maid  should  be  able  to  do.  We  gave  her  a  gulden  and  the 
very  next  day  she  was  asking  for  more  money.  I  insisted  on 
her  giving  me  an  account  of  how  she  had  spent  her  money 
and  I  found  that  most  of  it  had  gone  on  beer.  A  certain 
Herr  Johannes  who  travelled  with  her  to  Vienna  had  better 
not  put  his  nose  inside  my  door  again.  Twice  when  we  were 
out,  he  came  to  our  quarters,  ordered  in  wine)  and  the  girl, 
who  is  not  accustomed  to  drinking  it,  swilled  so  heavily, 
that  she  couldn't  walk  without  support  and  the  second 
time  she  was  sick  all  over  her  bed.  I  should  like  to  know 
who  would  keep  a  creature  who  carries  on  in  this  way? 

I  would  have  contented  myself  with  the  lecture  I  gave 
her  when  it  happened  and  would  have  said  nothing  to 
you,  but  her  impertinent  letter  to  her  mother  has  driven 
me  to  it.  So  will  you  please  send  for  her  mother  and  tell 
her  that  I  shall  put  up  with  her  daughter  for  a  little  while 
longer,  but  that  she  must  look  about  for  another  place. 
Were  it  not  that  I  hate  to  make  people  unhappy  I  should  get 
rid  of  her  on  the  spot.  She  says  something  too,  in  her  letter, 
about  a  certain  Herr  Antoni — a  future  husband,  perhaps! 

Well,  I  must  close.  My  wife  thanks  you  both  for  your 
congratulations  on  her  pregnancy  and  coming  confine 
ment,  which  will  probably  take  place  during  the  first  days 
of  October.1  We  both  kiss  your  hands  and  embrace  our 
dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  are  ever  your  most 
obedient  children 

W.  et  C.  MOZART 

P.S. — We  have  not  yet  been  able  to  do  anything  about 
the  fichu  in  lawn  or  muslin,  because  my  wife  doesn't 
know  whether  my  sister  would  prefer  it  untrimmed.  Un- 
trimmed  fichus  cost  about  a  ducat  each,  but  are  not  worn 
very  much.  Those  with  a  little  pretty  trimming  cost  at 

1  Karl  Thomas  (1784-1858),  the  Mozarts'  second  child,  was  born  on 
September  2ist. 


1784  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  Z.  515 

least  seven  ducats  apiece  in  Vienna  currency.  So  we  are 
waiting  for  the  next  letter  and  as  soon  as  we  know,  my 
sister  shall  have  what  she  requires.  Addio. 

P.S. — Please  send  me  the  buckles  by  the  next  mail 
coach.  I  am  simply  longing  to  see  them. 

(515)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Landgerichts director  A.  Zahn,  Landau} 

MON  TR£S  CHER  PERE!  VIENNA,  June  gtfi-i2th,  1784 

No  doubt  you  have  received  my  last  letter.  I  have 
received  the  buckles  and  also  your  letter  of  June  ist.  The 
buckles  are  very  handsome,  but  far  too  large.  However,  I 
shall  try  to  dispose  of  them. 

Next  Friday  the  court  goes  to  Laxenburg  for  two  or 
perhaps  three  months.  I  went  to  Baden  last  week  with 
His  Excellency  Count  Thun  to  visit  his  father,  who  had 
come  over  from  Linz  to  do  the  cure.  On  our  way  home 
we  drove  through  Laxenburg,  where  we  visited  Lee- 
mann,  who  is  now  the  governor  of  the  castle.  His  daughter 
was  not  at  home,  but  he  and  his  wife  were  absolutely 
delighted  to  see  me  again.  They  both  send  greetings  to 
both  of  you. 

June  iztk.  As  visitors  came  in,  I  was  prevented  from 
finishing  this  letter.  In  the  meantime  I  have  received  your 
letter  of  the  8th.  My  wife  sends  her  love  to  my  sister  and 
will  despatch  a  smart  fichu  by  the  next  mail  coach.  But 
she  is  going  to  make  it  herself,  as  it  will  thus  be  somewhat 
cheaper  and  much  prettier.  Please  tell  my  sister  that  there 
is  no  adagio  in  any  of  these  concertos r — only  andantes. 
She  is  quite  right  in  saying  that  there  is  something 
missing  in  the  solo  passage  in  C  in  the  Andante  of  the 
concerto  in  D.2  I  shall  supply  the  deficiency  as  soon  as 

*  K.  449-451  and  K.  453.  2  K.  451. 

L.  515  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  i784 

possible  and  send  it  with  the  cadenzas.1  To-morrow  Herr 
Ployer,  the  agent,  is  giving  a  concert  in  the  country  at 
Dobling,  where  Fraulein  Babette  is  playing  her  new  con 
certo  in  G,2  and  I  am  performing  the  quintet; 3  we  are  then 
playing  together  the  grand  sonata  for  two  claviers.4 1  am 
fetching  Paisiello  in  my  carriage,  as  I  want  him  to  hear 
both  my  pupil  and  my  compositions.  If  Maestro-  Sarti 
had  not  had  to  leave  Vienna  to-day,  he  too  would  have 
come  with  me.  Sarti  is  a  good  honest  fellow!  I  have 
played  a  great  deal  to  him  and  have  composed  variations 
on  an  air  of  his,5  which  pleased  him  exceedingly.  Menzel 
is,  and  always  will  be  an  ass.  The  whole  affair  is  as 
follows:  Herr  von  Ployer  asked  me  whether  I  knew  of  a 
violinist.  I  spoke  to  Menzel,  who  was  much  gratified.  You 
can  imagine  that  I  as  an  honest  man  advised  him  not  to 
accept  anything  but  a  permanent  post.  But  he  never  came 
to  see  me  until  the  last  moment  and  Herr  von  Ployer  told 
me  that  he  was  going  off  to  Salzburg  on  trial  for  400 
gulden  and,  mark  you,  a  suit  of  clothes.  But  Menzel 
declared  to  me  and  to  everyone  here  that  he  had  actually 
been  appointed.  Further,  it  now  seems  that  he  is  married, 
of  which  no  one  here  knew  anything.  His  wife  has  been 
three  or  four  times  at  von  Ployer's.  I  have  now  given 
Artaria,  to  engrave,  the  three  sonatas  for  clavier  only> 
which  I  once  sent  to  my  sister,  the  first  in  C,  the  second 
in  A,  and  the  third  in  F.6  I  have  given  three  others  to 
Torricella,  the  last  of  which  is  the  one  in  D,  which  I  com 
posed  for  Diirnitz  in  Munich.7  Further,  I  am  giving  three 
of  my  six  symphonies  to  be  engraved,  and  these  I  shall 

1  Mozart  sent  her  these  cadenzas,  K.  624  (21  a  and  2ib). 

2  K.  453-  3  K.  452.  «  K.  448. 

5  K.  460,  eight  variations  on  "Come  tin'  agnello"  from  Sarti's  opera  "Fra  i 
due  litiganti". 

6  K.  33°-3  32-  See  p.  875,  n.  I.  For  particulars  of  this  first  edition,  which  was 
advertised  in  the  "Wiener  Zeitung"  on  August  25th,  1784,  see  Kochel,  p.  388. 

7  K.  284.  For  particulars  of  this  first  edition,  which  included  the  sonatas 
K.  333  and  K.  454,  see  Kochel,  p.  285. 


JOSEPH  HAYDN  (1800) 

From  an  engraving  by  P.  N.  Guerin 

(Paul  Hirsch,  Esq.,  Cambridge) 

1784  MOZART  TO  HIS  SISTER  L.  516 

dedicate  to  Prince  von  Fiirstenberg.1  Well,  I  must  close. 
My  wife  and  I  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and 
embrace  our  dear  sister  with  all  our  hearts  and  are  ever 
your  obedient  children 

W.  et  C.  MOZART 

(516)  Mozart  to  his  Sister 

[Autograph  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliotheky  Berlin\ 

DEAREST  SISTER!  VIENNA,  July  2  u/,  1784 

My  wife  and  I  wish  you  much  happiness  on  your 
name-day.2  She  would  have  written  to  you  herself,  but 
she  finds  it  difficult  to  remain  seated  for  long,  as  our 
future  son  and  heir  gives  her  no  peace.  She  therefore 
joins  me  in  wishing  you  all  possible  joy  and  happiness 
and  we  ask  you  to  keep  us  ever  in  your  sisterly  affection. 
Old  Hampel3  and  his  son  from  Munich  have  been  here 
for  a  week  and  are  leaving  for  Russia  the  day  after  to 
morrow.  They  are  lunching  with  us  to-morrow  and  in  the 
evening  we  are  going  to  have  a  little  concert.  I  hope  that 
in  the  meantime  you  will  have  received  everything  by  the 
mail  coach.  I  would  gladly  have  sent  you  the  cadenzas 
for  the  other  concertos,  but  you  have  no  idea  how  much  I 
have  to  do!  As  soon  as  I  have  a  little  time  to  myself,  I 
shall  certainly  devote  it  to  you.  When  you  have  tried  over 
the  three  grand  concertos,4  I  shall  be  most  anxious  to  hear 
which  of  them  you  like  best.  I  beg  Papa  not  to  forget  to 
send  me  by  the  next  mail  coach  what  I  asked  him  for.  I 
should  be  delighted  if  he  could  send  me  my  old  oratorio 
"La  Betulia  liberata"5  too.  I  have  to  compose  the  same 

1  Josef  Wenzeslaus,  Prince  von  Fiirstenberg,  Donaueschingen.  Mozart  did 
not  carry  out  this  plan.  2  July  26th. 

3  Thaddaus  Hampel,  clarinet-player  in  the  Munich  court  orchestra. 

*  K.  450,  451,  453- 

5  K.  1 1 8,  "La  Betulia  liberata",  an  oratorio  on  a  text  by  Metastasio, 
composed  in  1771. 

VOL.  Ill  1313  S 

Z.  517  MOZART  TO  HIS  SISTER  i?84 

oratorio  for  the  Society l  in  Vienna  and  possibly  I  might 
use  bits  of  it  here  and  there.  Please  give  my  greetings  to 
Gretl2  and  tell  her  that  perhaps  I  shall  reply  myself,  but  I 
cannot  promise  to  do  so,  for  I  fear  that  I  may  not  be  able 
to  keep  my  promise,  as  I  am  far  too  busy.  As  for  the  aria 3 
she  must  exercise  a  little  patience.  But  what  I  do  advise 
her  to  do,  if  she  wants  to  have  the  aria  soon  and  without 
fail,  is  to  choose  a  text  which  suits  her  and  send  it  to  me, 
as  it  is  impossible  for  me  to  find  time  to  wade  through  all 
sorts  of  operas.  Well,  I  must  close,  as  I  have  to  go  off  at 
once  to  give  a  lesson.  My  wife  and  I  kiss  you  a  thousand 
times  and  ask  you  to  kiss  Papa's  hands  for  us.  We  are  ever 
your  sincere 

W.  A.  C.  MOZART 

(517)  Mozart  to  his  Sister 

[Autograph  in  the  possession  of  the  Historical  Society  of  Pennsylvania} 
MA   TRES   CHERE   ScEUR!  VIENNA,  August  l%tk,  1784 

Potz  Sapperment!  It  is  high  time  I  wrote  to  you  if 
I  want  my  letter  to  find  you  still  a  vestal  virgin!  A  few 
days  more  and — it  is  gone!  My  wife  and  I  wish  you  all 
joy  and  happiness  in  your  change  of  state  and  are  only 
heartily  sorry  that  we  cannot  have  the  pleasure  of  being 
present  at  your  wedding.  But  we  hope  to  embrace  you  as 
Frau  von  Sonnenburg4  and  your  husband  also  next  spring 
both  at  Salzburg  and  at  St.  Gilgen.  Our  only  regrets  are 
for  our  dear  father,  who  will  now  be  left  so  utterly  alone! 
True,  you  will  not  be  far  away  from  him  and  he  can  often 

1  The  Wiener  Tonkiinstlersozietat. 

2  Margarete  Marchand.  3  There  is  no  trace  of  this  composition. 
4  Nannerl  Mozart  was  married  on  August  23rd,  1784,  to  Johann  Baptist 

von  Berchtold  zu  Sonnenburg,  magistrate  at  St.  Gilgen,  her  mother's  birth 
place,  and  about  six  hours'  drive  from  Salzburg.  Her  husband  was  a  widower 
with  five  children.  He  died  in  1801,  and  Nannerl  returned  to  Salzburg  with 
her  son  and  stepchildren.  For  short  studies  of  Nannerl  Mozart  see  MMB, 
November  1896,  p.  98  ff.,  and  Abert,  vol.  ii.  p.  916  ff. 

1784  MOZART  TO  HIS  SISTER  Z.  5x7 

drive  out  and  see  you — but  he  is  tied  to  that  accursed 
Kapellhaus  again!  If  I  were  in  his  place,  I  should  do  as 
follows: — Seeing  that  I  have  served  the  Archbishop  for 
so  many  years  I  should  ask  him  to  allow  me  to  retire,  and 
then,  on  receiving  my  pension,  I  should  go  to  my  daughter 
at  St.  Gilgen  and  live  there  in  peace  and  quiet.  If  the 
Archbishop  refused  my  request,  I  should  apply  for  my 
discharge  and  join  my  son  in  Vienna.  And  what  I  chiefly 
want  to  ask  you  is — to  do  your  best  to  persuade  him  to 
do  this.  I  have  suggested  the  same  thing  in  my  letter  to 
him  to-day.  And  now  I  send  you  a  thousand  good  wishes 
from  Vienna  to  Salzburg,  and  hope  particularly  that  you 
two  will  live  together  as  harmoniously  as — we  two!  So  take 
a  little  piece  of  advice  from  my  poetical  brainbox!  Listen: 

Wedlock  will  show  you  many  things 
Which  still  a  mystery  remain; 
Experience  soon  will  teach  to  you 
What  Eve  herself  once  had  to  do 
Before  she  could  give  birth  to  Cain. 
But  all  these  duties  are  so  light 
You  will  perform  them  with  delight. 
Yet  no  state  is  an  unmixed  joy 
And  marriage  has  its  own  alloy, 
Lest  us  its  bliss  perchance  should  cloy. 
So  when  your  husband  shows  reserve 
Or  wrath  which  you  do  not  deserve 
And  perhaps  a  nasty  temper  too, 
Think,  sister,  'tis  a  man's  queer  way. 
Say:  "Lord,  thy  will  be  done  by  day, 
But  mine  at  night  you'll  do".1 
Your  sincere  brother 


1  Mr.  C.  B.  Oldman  has  kindly  pointed  out  the  connection  between  the 
concluding  lines  of  Mozart's  poem  and  a  verse  in  Playford's  Wit  and  Mirth; 
or,  Pills  to  Purge  Melancholy,  3rd  edition,  1707,  vol.  i.  p.  150. 


Z.  518      LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  HIS  DAUGHTER         1784 

(518)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter  l 

[Extract]  [Autograph  in  the  Mozart eum,  Salzburg] 

SALZBURG,  September  iqth,  1784 

My  son  has  been  very  ill  in  Vienna.  At  a  performance 
of  Paisiello's  new  opera2  he  perspired  so  profusely  that 
his  clothes  were  drenched  and  in  the  cold  night  air  he 
had  to  try  to  find  his  servant  who  had  his  overcoat,  as 
in  the  meantime  an  order  had  been  given  that  no  servant 
was  to  be  allowed  into  the  theatre  by  the  ordinary  en 
trance.  So  not  only  my  son,  but  a  number  of  other  people 
caught  rheumatic  fever,  which  became  septic  when  not 
taken  in  hand  at  once.  My  son  writes  as  follows:  "Four 
days  running  at  the  very  same  hour  I  had  a  fearful  attack 
of  colic,  which  ended  each  time  in  violent  vomiting.  I 
have  therefore  to  be  extremely  careful.  My  doctor  is 
Sigmund  Barisani,  who  since  his  arrival  in  Vienna  has 
been  almost  daily  at  my  rooms.  People  here  praise  him 
very  highly.  He  is  very  clever  too  and  you  will  find  that 
in  a  short  time  he  will  make  his  way.  When  you  write  to 
St.  Gilgen,  please  send  millions  of  kisses  to  our  brother- 
in-law  and  to  my  sister,  etc." 

1  After  NannerFs  marriage  to  Berchtold  zu  Sonnenburg  at  St.  Gilgen, 
Leopold  Mozart  wrote  long  letters  to  her  about  once  a  week,  giving  her  a  full 
account  of  everything  that  was  happening  in  Salzburg.  Nearly  all  these  letters, 
which  cover  the  years  1784-1787,  that  is,  from  NannerFs  departure  until  Leo 
pold  Mozart's  death,  have  been  preserved  and  they  have  recently  been  edited 
by  Otto  Erich  Deutsch  und  Bernhard  Paumgartner,  Leopold  Mozarts  Brief e 
an  seine  Tochter,  Salzburg- Leipzig,  1936. 

2  "II  Re  Teodoro  in  Venezia",  which  was  performed  on  August  23rd, 


1784         LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  HIS  DAUGHTER      L.  520 

(519)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

[Extract}  [Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 

SALZBURG,  September  ijtk,  1784 

On  the  following  day1  we  had  a  big  concert  at  Bari- 
sani's,  where  your  brother's  new  and  excellent  symphony2 
was  performed  under  my  direction.  There  too  the  leading 
actor,  who  knows  Joseph  Barisani,  was  introduced  to  me. 
When  he  heard  my  name,  he  was  beside  himself  with 
delight.  He  is  called  Schmidt  and  is  the  Schmidt  who 
took  the  part  of  Pedrillo  at  the  performance  in  Vienna  of 
the  "Entfiihrung  aus  dem  Serail".3  He  therefore  knows 
your  brother  very  well.  There  is  thus  every  hope  that 
these  people  will  give  an  excellent  performance  of  your 
brother's  opera,  as  Schmidt  himself  took  a  part  in  Vienna 
and  later  produced  the  opera  in  Prague4  more  than  a 
dozen  times.  Moreover,  Herr  Brandl,5  that  excellent 
actor  and  singer,  is  in  the  company. 

(520)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

[Extract]  [Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 

SALZBURG,  November  igtk,  1784 

My  son  gave  a  small  musical  party  on  his  name-day,6 
at  which  his  pupils  performed  and,  what  is  more,  Baron 
Bagge  from  Paris  amused  the  company  by  playing  a 
violin  concerto.  "We  simply  howled  with  laughter",  my 

1  September  I5th.  *  K.  425,  the  "Linz"  symphony. 

3  Ludwig  Schmidt,  originally  an  operatic  singer,  was  manager  of  a 
theatrical  company.  He  had  taken  the  place  of  Dauer,  the  original  Pedrillo 
in  the  Vienna  production  of  the  "Entfiihrung  aus  dem  Serail". 

4  The  "Entfiihrung  aus  dem  Serail"  was  performed  in  Prague  in  1783. 

5  He  was  leading  bass  singer  in  the  Salzburg  company. 

6  October  3ist. 



son  writes,  adding  "I  have  received  my  sister's  letter  and 
hope  that  in  the  meantime  she  has  received  mine".  He 
probably  means  the  letter  to  me. 

"Die  Entfiihrung  aus  dem  Serail"  was  performed  fairly 
well  on  the  i/th  with  the  greatest  applause  and  three 
numbers  had  to  be  repeated.  At  five  o'clock  there  was  no 
more  room  in  the  lower  part  of  the  theatre  and  at  a  quarter 
past  five  it  was  quite  full  up  above.  It  is  being  performed 
again  on  Sunday,  the  aist.  After  that  it  will  probably  be 
dropped  for  five  weeks.  The  whole  town  is  delighted  with 
it.  Even  the  Archbishop  was  gracious  enough  to  say 
"Really  it  wasn't  at  all  bad".  I  hear  that  they  took 
191  gulden.  The  aria  with  the  solo  instruments1  was 
performed  by  Stadler2  (violin,  the  part  being  an  easy 
one),  Feiner  (oboe),  Reiner  (flute)  and  Fiala  ('cello)  and 
they  played  very  well  together.  Herr  Kassel,  who  had 
been  asked  to  play  the  flute,  came  to  the  first  rehearsal. 
But  the  following  day  he  told  Stadler  that  he  would  not 
turn  up  any  more,  that  they  should  get  hold  of  someone 
else,  as  he  found  rehearsing  too  boring.  Everyone  is  very 
much  annoyed  with  him,  even  the  nobles.  On  the  other 
hand  Herr  Fiala  not  only  played,  but  even  refused  to 
take  a  fee,  saying  that  he  was  doing  it  to  please  Herr 
Schmidt  and  particularly  Herr  Mozart. 

(521)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

[Extract]  \Co$y  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin] 

SALZBURG,  November  [?2$th],  1784 

The  "Entfiihrung  aus  dem  Serail"  was  performed  here 
again  on  Sunday  with  the  greatest  applause.  Indeed  the 
opera  is  becoming  such  a  favourite  that  the  whole  town 

1  Constanze's  aria  "Martern  aller  Arten". 
2  Matthias  Stadler,  a  violinist  in  the  Salzburg  court  orchestra. 


I7<$5         LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  HIS  DAUGHTER      Z.  522 

praises  it  and  calls  it  a  very  fine  work.  Michael  Haydn 
sat  in  the  orchestra  behind  the  clavier.  Of  course  every 
one  asked  him  for  his  opinion  and  he  said  that  all  that 
this  opera  needed  was  an  orchestra  of  sixty  to  seventy 
players  and  the  necessary  intermediate  instruments,  that 
is,  clarinets  and  a  cor  anglais,  whose  parts  have  to  be 
taken  here  by  violas.  Only  then,  he  declared,  could  one 
really  hear  what  an  excellent  piece  of  work  it  was.  He 
was  delighted  beyond  measure.  Well,  the  opera  is  now  to 
have  a  rest  until  Christmas,  when  it  will  be  performed 
again  twice.  Blonde's  duet  with  her  Pedrillo  and  her  aria 
"Welche  Wonne,  welche  Lust"  were  again  repeated.  The 
drinking  song  in  the  second  act  "Vivat  Bacchus!  Bacchus 
lebe!"  had  even  to  be  sung  three  times.  All  who  have 
seen  the  opera  in  Vienna  are  unanimous  in  declaring  that 
the  acting  here  is  far  better,  more  lively  and  more  natural, 
and  the  whole  production  more  thorough  than  in  Vienna. 
This  is  the  opinion  too  of  the  two  Barons  von  Fechen- 
bach,  who  saw  the  opera  performed  in  Berlin,  Mainz  and 

(522)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

[Extract]  [Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg\ 

SALZBURG,  January  22nd,  1785 

I  have  this  moment  received  ten  lines  from  your 
brother,  who  says  that  his  first  subscription  concert  will 
take  place  on  Friday,  February  nth,1  and  that  he  is  to 
give  the  remaining  concerts  on  successive  Fridays.  He 
adds  that  during  the  first  week  in  Lent  he  will  certainly 

1  In  a  letter  written  from  Munich,  dated  February  2nd,  1785,  Leopold 
Mozart  adds:  "  Heinrich  (Marchand)  and  I  will  probably  leave  for  Vienna  on 
Carnival  Sunday  in  Herr  Marchand's  carriage  in  order  to  be  present  at  your 
brother's  concert  on  Friday,  February  nth,  as  I  have  had  a  letter  from  him 
suggesting  this.  Herr  Le  Brun  and  his  wife  will  follow  us  to  Vienna  on  the  5th." 


Z.  523      LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  HIS  DAUGHTER         1785 

have  a  box  for  this  concert  in  the  theatre  for  Heinrich 
and  that  I  ought  to  come  soon.  He  adds  that  last 
Saturday  he  performed  his  six  quartets1  for  his  dear 
friend  Haydn  and  other  good  friends,  and  that  he  has 
sold  them  to  Artaria  for  a  hundred  ducats.2  At  the  end 
of  his  letter  he  says:  "Now  I  must  get  on  with  the 
composition  of  the  concerto3  which  I  have  just  begun. 

(523)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

[From  Ludwig  No  hi,  Neue  Z^itschrift  fur  Musik,  1870,  no.  40] 

VIENNA,  February  142^-16^,  1785 

We  arrived  at  the  Schulerstrasse  No.  846,  first  floor,4 
at  one  o'clock  on  Friday.  That  your  brother  has  very 
fine  quarters  with  all  the  necessary  furniture  you  may 
gather  from  the  fact  that  his  rent  is  460  gulden*  On  the 
same  evening  we  drove  to  his  first  subscription  concert, 
at  which  a  great  many  members  of  the  aristocracy  were 
present.  Each  person  pays  a  souverain  d'or  or  three 
ducats  for  these  Lent  concerts.  Your  brother  is  giving 
them  at  the  Mehlgrube  and  only  pays  half  a  souverain 
d'or  each  time  for  the  hall.  The  concert  was  magnificent 
and  the  orchestra  played  splendidly.  In  addition  to  the 
symphonies  a  female  singer  of  the  Italian  theatre  sang 
two  arias.  Then  we  had  a  new  and  very  fine  concerto5 
by  Wolfgang,  which  the  copyist  was  still  copying  when 
we  arrived,  and  the  rondo  of  which  your  brother  did  not 
even  have  time  to  play  through,  as  he  had  to  supervise 

1  The  six  string  quartets  K.  387, 421, 458, 428,  464  and  465,  which  Mozart 
dedicated  to  Joseph  Haydn,  were  published  by  Artaria  and  Co.  in  October 
1785.  See  p.  1261,  n.  3. 

2  Joseph  Haydn.  3  K.  466,  clavier  concerto  in  D  minor. 

4  The  Mozarts  had  moved  early  in  October  1784  to  these  rooms,  now 
chulerstrasse  no.  8. 

5  K.  466,  clavier  concerto  in  D  minor. 


1785         LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  HIS  DAUGHTER      L.  523 

the  copying.  You  can  well  imagine  that  I  met  many  ac 
quaintances  there  who  all  came  up  to  speak  to  me.  I  was 
also  introduced  to  several  other  people. 

On  Saturday  evening  Herr  Joseph  Haydn1  and  the 
two  Barons  Tinti2  came  to  see  us  and  the  new  quartets 
were  performed,  or  rather,  the  three  new  ones3  which 
Wolfgang  has  added  to  the  other  three  which  we  have 
already.  The  new  ones  are  somewhat  easier,  but  at  the 
same  time  excellent  compositions.  Haydn  said  to  me: 
"  Before  God  and  as  an  honest  man  I  tell  you  that  your 
son  is  the  greatest  composer  known  to  me  either  in 
person  or  by  name.  He  has  taste  and,  what  is  more,  the 
most  profound  knowledge  of  composition/' 

On  Sunday  evening  the  Italian  singer,  Madame 
Laschi,4  who  is  leaving  for  Italy,  gave  a  concert  in  the 
theatre,  at  which  she  sang  two  arias.  A  'cello  concerto 
was  performed,  a  tenor  and  a  bass  sang  an  aria  each 
and  your  brother  played  a  glorious  concerto,5  which  he 
composed  for  Mile  Paradis6  for  Paris.  I  was  sitting  only 
two  boxes  away  from  the  very  beautiful  Princess  of 
Wurtemberg7  and  had  the  great  pleasure  of  hearing  so 
clearly  all  the  interplay  of  the  instruments  that  for  sheer 
delight  tears  came  into  my  eyes.  When  your  brother  left 

1  On  the  previous  day  Haydn  had  joined  the  Freemasons'  Lodge,  "Zur 
wahren  Eintracht".  Mozart  had  been  a  member  of  the  Lodge  "Zur  Wohl- 
tatigkeit"  since  December  1784,  and  his  father  joined  both  lodges  on  the 
occasion  of  his  visit  to  Vienna.  See  Otto  Erich  Deutsch,  Mozart  und  die 
Wiener  Logen,  Vienna,  1932. 

2  They  were  members  of  the  Masonic  Lodge  "Zur  wahren  Eintracht". 

3  K.  458,  464  and  465. 

4  Luisa  Laschi  made  her  first  appearance  in  Vienna  in  1784,  and  was  the 
original  Countess  in  "Le  Nozze  di  Figaro".  In  1787  she  married  the  tenor 
Domenico  Francesco  Mombelli  (i755~^3^)- 

5  K.  456,  in  B&,  finished  on  September  3Oth,  1784. 

6  Maria  Theresia  von  Paradis  (1759-1824),  a  blind  pianist  of  Vienna.  In 
1784  she  had  undertaken  a  grand  tour  of  the  European  capitals* 

7  Elizabeth  (1767-1790),  the  eighth  child  of  Duke  Karl  Eugen  of  Wurtem 
berg.  She  was  married  in  1788  to  the  Archduke  Francis  of  Austria. 


L.  524      LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  HIS  DAUGHTER         1785 

the  platform  the  Emperor  waved  his  hat  and  called  out 
"Bravo,  Mozart!"  And  when  he  came  on  to  play,  there 
was  a  great  deal  of  clapping. 

We  were  not  at  the  theatre  yesterday,  for  every  day 
there  is  a  concert.  This  evening  there  is  another  one  in 
the  theatre,  at  which  your  brother  is  again  playing  a 
concerto.  I  shall  bring  back  several  of  his  new  com 
positions.  Little  Karl1  is  the  picture  of  him.  He  seems 
very  healthy,  but  now  and  then,  of  course,  children  have 
trouble  with  their  teeth.  On  the  whole  the  child  is  charm 
ing,  for  he  is  extremely  friendly  and  laughs  when  spoken 
to.  I  have  only  seen  him  cry  once  and  the  next  moment 
he  started  to  laugh. 

Yesterday,  the  I5th,  there  was  again  a  recital  in  the 
theatre  given  by  a  girl2  who  sings  charmingly.  Your 
brother  played  his  new  grand  concerto  in  D  minor3  most 
magnificently.  To-day  we  are  going  to  a  concert  given  at 
the  house  of  the  Salzburg  agent,  Herr  von  Ployer. 

Your  brother,  your  sister-in-law,  Marchand  and  I  kiss 
you  millions  of  times  and  I  am  your  faithful  father 


(524)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

{Extract}  \Autograph  in  the  Stadtarchiv,  Augsburg] 

VIENNA,  Monday ',  February  2ist—22nd,  1785 

You  will  have  received  my  first  letter,  I  thought  that  I 

had  completely  shaken  off  the  cold  I  caught  on  my  journey. 

But  yesterday  evening  I  had  pains  in  my  left  thigh  and 

1  Mozart's  second  child,  Karl  Thomas  (1784-1858),  who  was  born  on 
September  2ist,  1784. 

2  Elizabeth  Distler  (1769-1789),  operatic  singer,  who  belonged  to  a  large 
family  of  Viennese  musicians.  She  sang  in  the  two  performances  of  Mozart's 
"Davidde  penitente"  on  March  I3th  and  I7th,  1785,  given  for  the  benefit 
of  the  Tonkiinstlersozietat.  3  K.  466. 


1785         LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  HIS  DAUGHTER      L.  524 

before  going  to  bed  I  discovered  that  I  really  had  rheuma 
tism.  So  I  drank  some  burr  root  tea  in  bed  this  morning 
and  did  not  get  up  until  half  past  one,  just  in  time  for 
lunch,  at  which  I  had  the  company  of  your  sister-in-law's 
youngest  sister  Sophie.1  She  is  still  with  me  now  at  eight 
o'clock  in  the  evening,  as  your  brother,  his  wife  and 
Heinrich  lunched  to-day  with  Herr  von  Trattner,  an 
invitation  which  unfortunately  I  had  to  refuse;  and  this 
evening  your  brother  is  performing  at  a  big  concert  at 
Count  Zichy's,  at  which  Herr  Le  Brun  and  his  wife  are 
appearing  for  the  first  time.  But  your  sister-in-law  and 
Marchand  have  gone  to  the  concert  at  Herr  von  Ployer's, 
our  agent.  As  usual,  it  will  probably  be  one  o'clock  before 
we  get  to  bed.  We  lunched  on  Thursday,  the  I7th,  with 
your  brother's  mother-in-law,  Frau  Weber.  There  were 
just  the  four  of  us,  Frau  Weber  and  her  daughter  Sophie, 
as  the  eldest  daughter2  is  in  Graz.  I  must  tell  you  that 
the  meal,  which  was  neither  too  lavish  nor  too  stingy, 
was  cooked  to  perfection.  The  roast  was  a  fine  plump 
pheasant;  and  everything  was  excellently  well  prepared. 
We  lunched  on  Friday,  the  i8th,  with  Stephanie  junior, 
just  the  four  of  us  and  Herr  Le  Brun,  his  wife,  Karl 
Cannabich  and  a  priest.  Let  me  tell  you  at  once  that  there 
was  no  thought  of  a  fast-day.  We  were  only  offered  meat 
dishes.  A  pheasant  as  an  additional  dish  was  served  in 
cabbage  and  the  rest  was  fit  for  a  prince.  Finally  we  had 
oysters,  most  delicious  glace  fruits  and  (I  must  not  forget 
to  mention  this)  several  bottles  of  champagne.  I  need 
hardly  add  that  everywhere  coffee  is  served.  From 
Stephanie's  we  drove  to  your  brother's  second  concert  at 
the  Mehlgrube  at  seven  o'clock.  This  concert  too  was  a 

1  Sophie  Weber  (1767-1846)  became  in  1781  an  actress  at  the  Burgtheater 
in  Vienna.  She  married  in  1806  the  musician  and  composer  Jakob  Haibel 
(1761-1826),  and  some  time  after  his  death  went  to  live  in  Salzburg  with  her 
elder  sister  Constanze  Nissen,  who  was  also  a  widow. 

2  Josef  a  Weber. 


L.  525      LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  HIS  DAUGHTER         1785 

splendid  success.  Heinrich  played  a  violin  concerto. 
Stephanie  asked  for  you  the  moment  he  saw  us  and  we 
went  on  talking  about  the  old  days.  Up  to  the  present  I 
have  never  been  offered  any  fast  dishes.  Yesterday,  the 
2oth,  we  were  at  a  lunch  given  to  twenty-one  people  by 
Herr  M  tiller,  the  actor.  It  was  a  splendid  affair,  but  not 
exaggeratedly  lavish.  He  must  have  a  very  large  apart 
ment,  as  he  has  eight  children  and  pays  a  yearly  rent  of 
seven  hundred  gulden.  Herr  Stephanie  has  a  small 
apartment,  which  costs  him,  however,  five  hundred  gulden, 
as  it  is  in  the  Michaelerplatz  close  to  the  theatre.  The  two 
concerts  which  Herr  Le  Brun  and  his  wife  are  giving  in 
the  theatre  are  on  Wednesday,  the  23rd,  and  Monday,  the 
28th.  All  the  boxes  for  the  first  concert  were  sold  out  on 
the  1 8th.  These  people  are  going  to  make  an  enormous 
amount  of  money. 

(525)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

[Extract]  [Autograph  in  the  Bibliothek  der  Gesellschaft  der 

Micsikfreunde,  Vienna} 

VIENNA,  March  izth,  1785 

Your  brother  made  559  gulden  at  his  concert,  which  we 
never  expected,  as  he  is  giving  six  subscription  concerts 
at  the  Mehlgrube  to  over  150  people,  each  of  whom  pays 
a  souverain  d'or  for  the  six.  Besides,  as  a  favour  he  has 
been  playing  frequently  at  other  concerts  in  the  theatre.  As 
for  the  clavier  arrangement  of  the  "Entfuhrung  aus  dem 
Serail",  all  that  I  can  tell  you  is  that  a  certain  Torricella1 

1  Christoph  Torricella,  a  music  publisher  in  Vienna  and  a  member  of  the 
Masonic  Lodge  "Zur  Bestandigkeit".  In  May  1784  he  had  opened  in  Cramer's 
"Magazin  der  Musik"  a  subscription  list  for  Mozart's  clavier  arrangement  of 
the  "Entfiihrung  aus  dem  Serail".  The  first  act  was  engraved  and  Mozart 
was  at  work  on  the  second  act,  when  another  clavier  arrangement  of  the  whole 
opera  was  published.  See  p.  1334. 


1785        MOZART  TO  PROFESSOR  ANTON  KLEIN      Z.  526 

is  engraving  it.  Your  brother  is  arranging  it,  but  it  isn't 
quite  finished  yet.  He  may  have  only  completed  Act  I. 
I  shall  find  out.  Torricella  has  also  engraved  three  sona 
tas,  only  one  of  which  has  a  violin  accompaniment.1 
Well,  I  shall  buy  everything  that  has  been  published. 

We  never  get  to  bed  before  one  o'clock  and  I  never  get 
up  before  nine.  We  lunch  at  two  or  half  past.  The  weather 
is  horrible.  Every  day  there  are  concerts;  and  the  whole 
time  is  given  up  to  teaching,  music,  composing  and  so 
forth.  I  feel  rather  out  of  it  all.  If  only  the  concerts  were 
over!  It  is  impossible  for  me  to  describe  the  rush  and 
bustle.  Since  my  arrival  your  brother's  fortepiano  has 
been  taken  at  least  a  dozen  times  to  the  theatre  or  to  some 
other  house.  He  has  had  a  large  fortepiano  pedal  made, 
which  is  under  the  instrument  and  is  about  two  feet  longer 
and  extremely  heavy.  It  is  taken  to  the  Mehlgrube  every 
Friday  and  has  also  been  taken  to  Count  Zichy's  and  to 
Prince  Kaunitz's.2 

(526)  Mozart  to  Professor  Anton  Klein,,  Mannheim 3 

[Autografk  in  the  possession  of  Stefan  Zweig} 

VIENNA,  March  2ist,  1785 


It  was  very  wrong  of  me,  I  must  confess,  not  to  have 
informed  you  at  once  of  the  safe  arrival  of  your  letter  and 

1  K.  333,  284  and  454.  See  p.  1312,  n.  7. 

*  Another  letter  from  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter  sent  from  Vienna 
and  dated  March  iQth,  1785,  contains  this  interesting  statement:  "If  my  son 
has  no  debts  to  pay,  I  think  that  he  can  now  lodge  two  thousand  gulden  in 
the  bank.  Certainly  the  money  is  there,  and  so  far  as  eating  and  drinking  is 
concerned,  the  housekeeping  is  extremely  economical." 

3  Professor  Anton  Klein  (1748-1810),  an  ex-Jesuit,  was  a  lecturer  on 
philosophy  and  aesthetics  and  a  popular  dramatist.  He  wrote  the  text  of 
Holzbauer's  successful  opera  "Gunther  von  Schwarzburg"  and  in  1780  a 
drama  "Kaiser  Rudolf  von  Habsburg",  which  he  sent  to  Mozart  with  the 
suggestion  that  the  latter  should  set  it  to  music. 



the  parcel  which  you  sent  along  with  it.  You  presume  that 
in  the  meantime  I  have  received  two  more  letters  from 
you;  but  this  is  not  the  case.  The  first  would  have 
instantly  aroused  me  from  my  slumber  and  I  should  have 
replied,  as  I  am  now  doing.  No,  I  received  last  post-day 
your  two  letters  together.  Well,  I  have  already  acknow 
ledged  my  guilt  in  not  replying  immediately.  But  as  for 
the  opera,  I  should  have  been  able  to  say  as  little  then  as 
I  can  now.  Dear  Privy  Councillor!  My  hands  are  so  full 
that  I  scarcely  ever  find  a  minute  I  can  call  my  own.  A 
man  of  such  great  insight  and  experience  as  yourself  will 
know  even  better  than  I  that  a  libretto  of  this  kind  has  to 
be  read  through  with  all  possible  attention  and  delibera 
tion,  and  not  once  only,  but  several  times.  So  far  I  have  not 
had  time  to  read  it  through  even  once  without  interruption. 
All  that  I  can  say  at  the  moment  is  that  I  should  not  like 
to  part  with  it  yet.  So  I  beg  you  to  leave  the  play  with  me 
for  a  little  longer.  If  I  should  feel  inclined  to  set  it  to 
music,  I  should  like  to  know  beforehand  whether  its 
production  has  actually  been  arranged  for  at  a  particular 
place;  for  a  work  of  this  kind,  from  the  point  of  view  both 
of  the  poetry  and  of  the  music,  deserves  a  better  fate  than 
to  be  composed  to  no  purpose.  I  trust  that  you  will  clear 
up  this  point. 

At  the  moment  I  cannot  send  you  any  news  about 
the  coming  German  operatic  stage,  as  at  present, 
apart  from  the  building  operations  at  the  Karntherthor 
theatre,  which  has  been  set  apart  for  this  purpose,  things 
are  progressing  very  slowly.  They  say  that  it  is  to  be 
opened  early  in  October.  I  for  my  part  have  no  great 
hopes  of  its  success.  To  judge  by  the  preparations  which 
have  been  made  up  to  the  present,  it  looks  as  if  they  were 
trying  altogether  to  ruin  German  opera,  which  is  probably 
only  suffering  a  temporary  eclipse,  rather  than  to  help 
to  put  it  on  its  legs  again  and  keep  it  going.  My  sister-in- 



law  Madame  Lange  is  the  only  singer  who  is  to  join  the 
German  opera.  Madame  Cavalieri,  Adamberger,  Mile 
Teiber,  all  Germans  of  whom  Germany  may  well  be 
proud,  have  to  stay  at  the  Italian  opera — and  compete 
against  their  own  countrymen!  At  present  it  is  easy  to 
count  up  the  German  singers,  male  and  female;  and  even 
if  there  really  are  as  good  singers  as  the  ones  I  have 
mentioned,  or  even  better  ones,  which  I  very  much  doubt, 
yet  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  the  directors  of  our  theatre 
are  too  parsimonious  and  too  little  patriotically-minded 
to  offer  large  sums  of  money  to  strangers,  when  they  have 
on  the  spot  better  singers,  or  at  least  equally  good  ones, 
whom  they  can  rope  in  for  nothing.  For  the  Italian 
company  does  not  need  them — so  far  as  numbers  go.  The 
company  can  fill  all  the  parts  themselves.  The  idea  at 
present  is  to  carry  on  the  German  opera  with  actors  and 
actresses,  who  only  sing  when  they  must.  Most  unfortu 
nately  the  directors  of  the  theatre  and  those  of  the  orchestra 
have  all  been  retained,  and  it  is  they  who  owing  to  their 
ignorance  and  slackness  are  chiefly  responsible  for  the 
failure  of  their  own  enterprise.  Were  there  but  one  good 
patriot  in  charge — things  would  take  a  different  turn.  But 
then,  perhaps,  the  German  national  theatre  which  is 
sprouting  so  vigorously  would  actually  begin  to  flower; 
and  of  course  that  would  be  an  everlasting  blot  on 
Germany,  if  we  Germans  were  seriously  to  begin  to  think 
as  Germans,  to  act  as  Germans,  to  speak  German  and, 
Heaven  help  us,  to  sing  in  German!! 

Dear  Privy  Councillor,  do  not  take  it  amiss  if  in  my 
zeal  I  have  perhaps  gone  too  far!  Completely  convinced 
as  I  am  that  I  am  talking  to  a  true  German^  I  have  given 
rein  to  my  tongue,  a  thing  which  unfortunately  is  so 
seldom  possible  in  these  days  that  after  such  an  out 
pouring  of  my  heart  I  might  boldly  drink  myself  tipsy 
without  running  the  risk  of  endangering  my  health. 


L.  528      LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  HIS  DAUGHTER         1785 

I   remain,  with  the  deepest  respect,  most  esteemed 
Privy  Councillor,  your  most  obedient  servant 

Vienna,  March  2ist,  1785. 

(527)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

[Extract}  [Copy  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin\ 

VIENNA,  March  2$tk-26tk,  1785 

Well,  I  have  twice  heard  Madame  Lange  sing  five  or 
six  arias  at  the  clavier  in  her  own  house  and  this  she  did 
most  readily.  That  she  sings  with  the  greatest  expression 
cannot  be  denied.  I  had  often  questioned  people  about 
her  and  I  now  understand  why  some  said  that  she  had  a 
very  weak  voice  and  others  that  she  had  a  very  power 
ful  one.  Both  statements  are  true.  Her  held  notes  and 
those  she  emphasises  are  astonishingly  loud,  her  tender 
phrases,  passages  and  grace  notes  and  high  notes  are  very 
delicate,  so  that  in  my  opinion  there  is  too  much  dis 
crepancy  between  the  two  renderings.  In  a  room  her  loud 
notes  offend  the  ear  and  in  a  theatre  her  delicate  passages 
demand  great  silence  and  attention  on  the  part  of  the 
audience.  I  shall  tell  you  more  about  this  when  we  meet. 
Madame  Lange's  husband  is  a  fine  painter.  He  did  a 
sketch  of  me  yesterday  evening  on  a  sheet  of  red  paper.1 

(528)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

[Extract}  [Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

VIENNA,  April  i6thy  1785 

Baroness  von  Waldstadten  is  sending  us  her  horses  on 
Tuesday  and  we  are  to  drive  out  to  see  her  at  Kloster- 

1  This  sketch  of  Leopold  Mozart  has  unfortunately  been  lost. 


From  an  engraving  by  Daniel  Berger  after  a  drawing  by  Josef  Lange 
(Mozart  Museum,  Salzburg) 

1785  MOZART  TO  JOSEPH  HAYDN  Z.  529 

neuburg,  her  present  headquarters,  lunch  with  her  and 
return  in  the  evening.  I  am  very  anxious  to  meet  this 
woman  of  my  heart,  since  I,  invisus,  have  been  the  man  of 
her  heart.1 

(529)  Mozart  to  Joseph  Haydn^  Eisenstadt 

[Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Frau  Iselin-Merian,  Basle\ 
VIENNA,  September  1st,  1785 

To  my  dear  friend  Haydn. 

A  father  who  had  decided  to  send  out  his  sons  into  the 
great  world,  thought  it  his  duty  to  entrust  them  to  the  pro 
tection  and  guidance  of  a  man  who  was  very  celebrated 
at  the  time  and  who,  moreover,  happened  to  be  his  best 

In  like  manner  I  send  my  six  sons  to  you,  most 
celebrated  and  very  dear  friend.  They  are,  indeed,  the 
fruit  of  a  long  and  laborious  study;  but  the  hope  which 
many  friends  have  given  me  that  this  toil  will  be  in  some 
degree  rewarded,  encourages  me  and  flatters  me  with  the 
thought  that  these  children  may  one  day  prove  a  source 
of  consolation  to  me. 

During  your  last  stay  in  this  capital  you  yourself,  my 
very  dear  friend,  expressed  to  me  your  approval  of  these 
compositions.  Your  good  opinion  encourages  me  to  offer 
them  to  you  and  leads  me  to  hope  that  you  will  not 
consider  them  wholly  unworthy  of  your  favour.  Please 
then  receive  them  kindly  and  be  to  them  a  father,  guide 
and  friend!  From  this  moment  I  surrender  to  you  all  my 
rights  over  them.  I  entreat  you,  however,  to  be  indulgent 
to  those  faults  which  may  have  escaped  a  father's  partial 
eye,  and,  in  spite  of  them,  to  continue  your  generous 

1  See  p.  1223  f. 

VOL.  in  1329  T 

Z.  550       LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  HIS  DAUGHTER         1785 

friendship  towards  one  who  so  highly  appreciates  it. 
Meanwhile  I  remain  with  all  my  heart,  dearest  friend, 
your  most  sincere  friend 

W.  A.  MOZART  l 

Vienna,  September  ist,  1785. 

(530)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

\Extr acf\  \Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg\ 

SALZBURG,  September  i6tA-ijt&t  1785 
It  will  be  four  weeks  to-morrow  since  I  had  a  letter 
from  your  brother.  He  is  probably  in  the  country.  I  do 
hope  that  I  shall  have  a  letter  to-morrow,  as  I  have 
written  to  him  twice.  Or  perhaps  he  is  going  to  come 

I  have  this  moment  received  a  letter  from  your  brother. 
He  says  that  he  had  already  written,  telling  me  the  story 
about  Lang,2  which  was  made  known  to  the  public  in  the 
Wiener  C our  ant.  He  adds  that  the  Emperor  said  to  your 
sister-in-law:  "What  a  difference  it  makes  to  have  a  good 
husband!"  Your  brother  has  dedicated  his  quartets  to 
Herr  Joseph  Haydn  with  an  Italian  dedication.3  I  am  to 
have  them  by  the  next  mail  coach.  Your  brother  kisses 
you  and  your  husband  most  cordially.  He  says  that  I 
ought  to  send  Fiala  to  Vienna  and  that  he  will  take  him 
at  once  to  Count  von  Kufstein,4  so  that  he  may  obtain  an 
appointment  without  delay. 

1  This  dedication  is  in  Italian.  The  six  compositions  are  the  string  quartets 
K.  387,  421,  458,  428,  464,  465,  composed  during  the  years  1782-1785  and 
published  with  this  dedication  by  Artaria  and  Co. 

2  Possibly  Josef  Lange,  the  husband  of  Aloysia  Weber,  who  was  known  to 
be  exceedingly  jealous.  3  See  p.  1329. 

4  Johann  Ferdinand,  Count  von  Kufstein  (1752-1818),  was  Court  Coun 
cillor  in  Vienna  and  an  amateur  violinist  and  composer.  He  was  one  of 
Mozart's  patrons,  and  in  1784  subscribed  to  his  concerts. 


1785         LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  HIS  DAUGHTER      1.  532 
(531)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

[Extract]  {Atttograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

SALZBURG,  November  yd—$tk)  1785 

I  haven't  had  a  single  line  from  your  brother.  His  last 
letter  was  dated  September  i4th  and  the  quartets  were 
to  have  come  by  the  next  mail  coach.1  If  he  were  ill,  Herr 
Artaria  would  have  informed  me  in  his  letter  of  September 
28th.  The  journalist2  met  me  a  few  days  ago  and  said:  "It 
is  really  astonishing  to  see  what  a  number  of  compositions 
your  son  is  publishing.3  In  all  the  announcements  of 
musical  works  I  see  nothing  but  Mozart.  The  Berlin 
announcements,  when  quoting  the  quartets,  only  add  the 
following  words:  'It  is  quite  unnecessary  to  recommend 
these  quartets  to  the  public.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  they  are 
the  work  of  Herr  Mozart/  "  I  had  nothing  to  say  as  I 
knew  nothing,  for  it  was  more  than  six  weeks  since  I  had 
had  a  letter  from  your  brother.  My  informant  said  some 
thing  too  about  a  new  opera,4  Basta!  I  daresay  we  shall 
hear  about  it. 

(532)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

[Extract]  [Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

SALZBURG,  November  nth,  1785 

At  last  I  have  received  a  letter  of  twelve  lines  from  your 
brother,  dated  November  2nd.  He  begs  to  be  forgiven, 
as  he  is  up  to  the  eyes  in  work  at  his  opera  "Le  Nozze  di 

1  See  p.  1330. 

2  Professor  Lorenz  Hiibner  of  Munich,  who  since  the  previous  year  had 
been  editor  of  the  Salzburger  Zeifung,  later  Oberdeutsche  Staatszeitung. 

3  Artaria  and  Co.  had  published  in  1785  the  symphonies  K.  385  and  319, 
the  six  quartets  dedicated  to  Haydn,  the  three  clavier  concertos  K.  413-415, 
the  fantasia  and  sonata  for  clavier  K.  475  and  457,  while  Torricella  and 
Hoffmeister  had  printed  a  few  minor  works.  4  "Le  Nozze  di  Figaro." 



Figaro".  He  thanks  me  and  both  of  you  for  our  good 
wishes  and  asks  me  particularly  to  make  his  excuses  to 
you  and  to  tell  you  with  his  love  that  he  hasn't  time  to 
answer  your  letter  at  once.  He  adds  that  in  order  to  keep 
the  morning  free  for  composing,  he  is  now  taking  all  his 
pupils  in  the  afternoon,  etc.  I  know  the  piece;  it  is  a  very 
tiresome  play  and  the  translation  from  the  French  will 
certainly  have  to  be  altered  very  freely,  if  it  is  to  be 
effective  as  an  opera.1  God  grant  that  the  text  may  be  a 
success.  I  have  no  doubt  about  the  music.  But  there  will 
be  a  lot  of  running  about  and  discussions,  before  he  gets 
the  libretto  so  adjusted  as  to  suit  his  purpose  exactly. 
And  no  doubt  according  to  his  charming  habit  he  has 
kept  on  postponing  matters  and  has  let  the  time  slip  by. 
So  now  he  must  set  to  work  seriously,  as  Count  Rosenberg 
is  prodding  him. 

(533)  Mozart  to  Fran^  Anton  Hoffmeister2 

[Autograph  in  the  Bibliothek  der  Gese  Use  haft  der  Musikfreunde,  Vienna} 

MY  DEAR  HOFFMEISTER!  VIENNA,  November  2ot&,  1785 
I  turn  to  you  in  my  distress  and  beg  you  to  help  me 
out  with  some  money,  which  I  need  very  badly  at  the 
moment.  Further,  I  entreat  you  to  endeavour  to  procure 
for  me  as  soon  as  possible  the  thing  you  know  about. 
Forgive  me  for  constantly  worrying  you,  but  as  you 
know  me  and  are  aware  how  anxious  I  am  that  your 
business  should  succeed,  I  am  convinced  that  you  will  not 

1  Beaumarchais'  comedy  "Le  manage  de  Figaro,  oil  La  folle  journee"  was 
first  produced  in  Paris  on  April  27th,  1784,  and  was  repeated  sixty-eight 
times.^Two  German  translations  by  Johann  Rautenstrauch  and  Johann 
Friedrich  Unger  were  printed  immediately,  although  the  play  itself  was 
forbidden  in  Vienna.  Da  Ponte  used  Beaumarchais'  comedy  as  the  basis  for 
his  libretto. 

2  Franz  Anton  Hoffmeister  (1754-1812),  composer  and  music  publisher. 
No  doubt  this  request  refers  to  his  publication  of  Mozart's  piano  quartet 
K.  478.  Hoffmeister  noted  on  the  envelope,  "two  ducats". 


1785         LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  HIS  DAUGHTER      £.534 

misconstrue  my  importunity  and  that  you  will  help  me  as 
readily  as  I  shall  help  you. 

November  2oth,  1785. 

(534)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

\_Extr acf\  {Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 

SALZBURG,  December  2nd— $rd,  1785 

At  last  the  messenger  brought  me  yesterday  from  the 
mail  coach  a  carefully  packed  parcel  containing  the  six 
quartets r  and  three  scores,  that  is,  a  quartet  for  piano, 
violin,  viola  and  'cello  obbligato2  and  the  two  grand  new 
piano  concertos.3  The  piano  quartet  was  only  finished 
on  October  i6th  and  your  brother  has  sent  me  printed 
copies  of  the  violin  and  viola  parts,  which  have  already 
been  engraved.  I  was  feeling  horribly  bored.  Fortunately 
young  Preymann4  turned  up  at  five  o'clock  and,  although 
my  eyes  were  rather  tired  as  I  had  been  writing  during  the 
morning  and  the  afternoon  an  exceptionally  long  letter  to 
Marchand  which  I  had  just  taken  to  the  post,  yet  it  was  re 
freshing  to  work  carefully  through  three  of  the  new  quartets 
with  Preymann  as  I  did  until  eight  o'clock.  We  can  now 
perform  them  some  time,  as  I  shall  coach  two  people  in  the 

1  The  quartets  dedicated  to  Haydn.  See  p.  1330,  n.  i. 

2  K.  478,  piano  quartet  in  G  minor,  composed  in  1785  and  published  by 
Franz  Anton  Hoffmeister. 

3  K.  466  in  D  minor  and  K.  467  in  C  major,  both  composed  in  1785,  In  a 
letter  of  January  I4th,  1786,  Leopold  Mozart  makes  the  following  interesting 
remarks  about  the  concerto  in  C  major:  "Indeed  the  new  concerto  is  astonish 
ingly  difficult.  But  I  very  much  doubt  whether  there  are  any  mistakes,  as  the 
copyist  has  checked  it.  Several  passages  simply  do  not  harmonise  unless  one 
hears  all  the  instruments  playing  together.  But  of  course  it  is  quite  possible 
that  the  copyist  may  have  read  a  $  for  a  b  in  the  score  or  something  of  the 
kind,  for  indeed  it  is  not  quite  right.  I  shall  get  to  the  bottom  of  it  all  when 
I  see  the  original  score." 

4  Anton  Preymann  (1762-1 841),  a  violinist  in  the  Salzburg  court  orchestra, 
who  subsequently  joined  Prince  Liechtenstein's  orchestra  in  Vienna  and 
frequently  performed  at  the  Burgtheater, 



second  violin  and  'cello  parts  and  play  the  viola  myself. 
The  copyist  at  the  moment  has  enough  to  copy  and  it  will 
be  slow  work.  I  am  letting  him  do  the  clavier  parts  first  of 
all,  for  the  concertos  will  require  a  great  deal  of  practice. 

(535)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

{Extract]  [Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

SALZBURG,  December  i6th,  1785 

Well,  what  I  told  my  son  long  ago  has  now  happened, 
and  a  clavier  arrangement  of  the  "Entfuhrung"  has  been 
published  by  the  Augsburg  bookseller  Stage  at  the  price 
of  seven  gulden  and  I  forget  how  many  kreutzer.  Canon 
Stark  has  arranged  it  for  the  clavier.  It  has  been  engraved 
at  Mainz  and  has  been  trumpeted  forth  in  the  Augsburg 
papers  with  many  laudatory  remarks  about  the  famous 
Herr  von  Mozart.1  If  Torricella  has  already  engraved  a 
large  portion  of  your  brother's  own  arrangement,  he  will 
lose  considerably.2  And  your  brother  will  have  wasted  his 
time  arranging  two  acts,  which,  I  think,  he  had  already 

(536)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

[Extract]  \Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

SALZBURG,  January  i^th,  1786 

I  received  a  command  from  the  Archbishop  to  write  to 
your  brother  about  Andre,  who  is  living  with  him.  So  is 
Fiala.  If  Andre  will  undertake  to  serve  the  Archbishop 
for  fifteen  gulden  a  month,  he  will  be  appointed.  Another 
nice  commission  for  me!  I  wrote  at  once.  Meanwhile  to 
two  letters  of  mine  I  have  had  only  one  reply  from  your 
brother,  dated  December  28th,  in  which  he  said  that  he 

1  This  unauthorised  clavier  arrangement  of  Mozart's  opera  by  the  Mainz 
choirmaster  Stark  was  published  there  by  Schott.  Evidently  the  Augsburg- 
bookseller  Stage  was  selling  copies. 

2  Torricella  had  already  engraved  the  first  act  of  Mozart's  arrangement. 


1786         LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  HIS  DAUGHTER      L.  538 

gave  without  much  preparation  three  subscription  concerts 
to  1 20  subscribers,  that  he  composed  for  this  purpose  a  new 
piano  concerto  in  E^,1  in  which  (a  rather  unusual  occur 
rence!)  he  had  to  repeat  the  Andante,  and  that  he  had  taken 
Fiala  in  at  once.  He  did  not  mention  Andre,  but  Norman2 
wrote  about  this  to  BrunettL  Your  brother  added  that  he 
had  already  made  three  separate  attempts  to  find  some 
means  by  which  Fiala  might  earn  a  living  and  that  he 
would  send  me  by  the  mail  coach  a  new  clavier  sonata.3 

(537)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

[Extract}  [Autograph  in.  the  British  Museum} 

MUNICH,  February  [?i6/A],  1786 

I  really  think  that  Heinrich  must  have  practised 
extremely  hard,  for  you  will  be  surprised  when  you  hear 
him  play  your  brother's  Fantasia  and  Sonata,4  which  I 
sent  you  and  which  he  too  possesses,  and  also  dementi's 
sonatas.  He  played  them  on  Herr  von  Hofstetter's5 
fortepiano  so  excellently  that  I  was  thrilled* 

(538)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

[Extract}  \Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

SALZBURG,  March  23^-24^,  1786 

We  had  our  concert  yesterday.  Marchand 6  performed 
the  concerto  in  D  minor,7  which  I  sent  to  you  the  other 

1  K.  482. 

2  Norman  is  mentioned  in  a  letter  from  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  daughter 
of  August  3Oth,  1784  (see  Deutsch-Paumgartner,  Leopold  Mozarts  Brief e 
an  seine  Tochter,  1936,  p.  7),  as  the  new  fiddler  who  had  performed  before 
the  Archbishop.  Evidently  Norman  had  moved  on  to  Vienna. 

3  K.  457,  sonata  in  C  minor,  and  the  fantasia  in  the  same  key,  K.  475, 
which  Mozart  composed  for  his  pupil  Frau  von  Trattner,  and  which  were 
published  in  December  1785  by  Artaria  and  Co. 

4  K.  475  and  457.  5  An  amateur  musician  and  copyist  of  Salzburg. 
6  Heinrich  Marchand,  Leopold  Mozart's  pupil,  who  was  not  only  a  good 

violinist  but  also  an  excellent  clavierist.  7  K.  466. 


L.  539      LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  HIS  DAUGHTER         1786 

day.  As  you  have  the  clavier  part,  he  played  it  from  the 
score  and  Haydn1  turned  over  the  pages  for  him  and  at 
the  same  time  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  with  what  art  it 
is  composed,  how  delightfully  the  parts  are  interwoven 
and  what  a  difficult  concerto  it  is.  I  chose  this  one,  as  you 
have  the  clavier  parts  of  all  the  others  and  I  still  possessed 
the  score  of  this  one.  We  rehearsed  it  in  the  morning  and 
had  to  practise  the  rondo  three  times  before  the  orchestra 
could  manage  it,  as  Marchand  took  it  rather  quickly.  This 
time  too  there  was  a  great  crowd  and  all  the  Ecclesiastical 
Councillors  and  University  Professors  were  present. 
Madame  Schlauka2  made  a  good  deal  of  money,  for 
during  the  interval  the  members  of  the  orchestra  have  a 
rest  and  come  down  into  the  hall,  where  the  majority 
hasten  to  take  some  refreshments,  which  are  very  daintily 
and  liberally  served.  In  short,  the  Emperor  might  have 
been  there.  The  Archbishop  remained  until  nine  o'clock. 

(539)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

[Extract}  [From  Otto  Jahn,  W.  A.  Mozart,  voL  iv.  f.  189] 

SALZBURG,  April  \}z$tk},  1786 

"Le  Nozze  di  Figaro"  is  being  performed  on  the  28th 
for  the  first  time.3  It  will  be  surprising  if  it  is  a  success, 
for  I  know  that  very  powerful  cabals  have  ranged  them 
selves  against  your  brother.  Salieri  and  all  his  supporters 
will  again  try  to  move  heaven  and  earth  to  down  his 
opera.  Duschek  told  me  recently  that  it  is  on  account  of 
the  very  great  reputation  which  your  brother's  exceptional 
talent  and  ability  have  won  for  him  that  so  many  people 
are  plotting  against  him. 

1  Michael  Haydn.  2  The  wife  of  one  of  the  Archbishop's  valets. 

3  The  first  performance  of  "Le  Nozze  di  Figaro"  took  place  on  May  ist 



(540)  Mozart  to  Sebastian  Winter ,  Donaueschingen 

[Autograph  in  the  Furstlich  Furstenbergische  Hofbibliotkek, 


VIENNA,  August  %th,  1786 

I  was  particularly  delighted  to  receive  your  letter  and 
nothing  but  business  which  could  not  be  postponed  has 
prevented  me  from  replying  sooner.  I  am  very  glad  that 
you  have  applied  to  me  in  person.  I  should  long  ago  have 
sent  some  specimens  of  my  poor  work  to  your  highly 
respected  Prince1  (to  whom  I  beg  you  to  convey  my 
homage  and  my  thanks  for  the  present  he  has  sent  me), 
if  I  had  known  whether  or  not  my  father  had  already  sent 
him  something  and,  if  so,  what  he  had  sent.  I  am  therefore 
jotting  down  at  the  end  of  my  letter  a  list  of  my  latest 
compositions  from  which  His  Highness  has  only  to 
choose,  so  that  I  may  hasten  to  serve  him.  If  His  High 
ness  should  so  desire,  I  shall  send  him  in  future  all  the 
new  works  which  I  compose.  Further,  I  venture  to  make 
a  little  musical  offer  to  His  Highness  which  I  beg  you, 
my  friend,  to  put  before  him.  As  His  Highness  possesses 
an  orchestra,  he  might  like  to  have  works  composed  by 
me  for  performance  solely  at  his  court,  a  thing  which  in 
my  humble  opinion  would  be  very  gratifying.  If  His 
Highness  would  be  so  gracious  as  to  order  from  me  every 
year  a  certain  number  of  symphonies,  quartets,  concertos 
for  different  instruments,  or  any  other  compositions  which 
he  fancies,  and  to  promise  me  a  fixed  yearly  salary,  then 
His  Highness  would  be  served  more  quickly  and  more 
satisfactorily,  and  I,  being  sure  of  that  commission,  should 
work  with  greater  peace  of  mind.  I  do  trust  that  His 
Highness  will  not  take  my  proposal  amiss,  if  it  does  not 

1  Josef  Wenzeslaus,  Prince  von  Fiirstenberg,  who  in  1764  had  taken  into 
his  household  Sebastian  Winter,  the  Mozarts*  valet  and  friseur. 



suit  him,  for  it  is  prompted  indeed  by  an  impulse  of 
genuine  anxiety  to  serve  His  Highness  diligently,  which 
in  such  a  situation  as  mine  is  only  possible  if  one  can  be 
sure  of  at  least  some  support  and  can  afford  to  give  up 
less  important  tasks. 

Awaiting  an  early  reply  with  the  order  from  your  most 
worthy  Prince,  I  ever  remain  your  true  friend  and  servant 

Vienna,  August  8th,  1786. 








1  K-  425  (1783),  K.  385  (1782),  K.  319  (1779),  K.  338  (1780). 
2  K.  453  (1784),  K.  456(1784),  K.  451  (1784),  K.  459  (1784),  K.  488  (1786). 



L.  540 




Ma  j^ii«i  /  ^lir  ifff  irri* 


1  K.  481  (1785).  2  K.  496  (1786). 

3  K.  478  (1785).  The  incipits  of  all  these  works  are  given  exactly  as  they 
appear  in  the  autograph  of  the  letter.  In  some  cases  they  differ  from  the 
generally  accepted  versions. 



(541)  Mozart  to  Sebastian  Winter^  Donaueschingen 

[Autograph  in  the  Furstliche  Fiirstenbergische  Hofbibliothek, 


DEAREST  FRIEND!  VIENNA,  September  $otky  1786 

The  music  you  asked  for  is  being  sent  off  to-morrow 
by  the  mail  coach,1  You  will  find  at  the  end  of  this  letter 
the  amount  due  to  me  for  the  copies.  It  is  quite  natural 
that  some  of  my  compositions  should  be  sent  abroad,  but 
those  which  I  do  send  are  deliberately  chosen.  I  only  sent 
you  the  themes,  because  it  is  quite  possible  that  these 
works  have  not  reached  you.  But  the  compositions  which 
I  keep  for  myself  or  for  a  small  circle  of  music-lovers  and 
connoisseurs  (who  promise  not  to  let  them  out  of  their 
hands)  cannot  possibly  be  known  elsewhere,  as  they  are 
not  even  known  in  Vienna.  And  this  is  the  case  with  the 
three  concertos  which  I  have  the  honour  of  sending  to 
His  Highness.  But  here  I  have  been  obliged  to  add  to  the 
cost  of  copying  a  small  additional  fee  of  six  ducats  for  each 
concerto;  and  I  must  ask  His  Highness  not  to  let  them  out 
of  his  hands.  There  are  two  clarinets  in  the  A  major 
concerto.2  Should  His  Highness  not  have  any  clarinets  at 
his  court,  a  competent  copyist  might  transpose  the  parts 
into  the  suitable  keys,  in  which  case  the  first  part  should 
be  played  by  a  violin  and  the  second  by  a  viola.  As  for 
the  offer  which  I  took  the  liberty  of  making  to  your 
worthy  Prince,  I  should  have  to  be  exactly  informed,  first 
of  all,  as  to  what  kinds  of  composition  His  Highness  might 
require  or  prefer  and,  secondly,  as  to  how  many  of  each 
kind  he  would  like  to  have  every  year,  in  order  to  be  able 
to  make  my  calculations.  I  wish  to  offer  my  homage  to 
His  Highness,  and  I  request  you  to  make  known  to  him 
my  desire.  And  now,  dearest  friend!  Companion  of  my 

1  The  Prince  had  ordered  three  symphonies,  K.  425,  319,  338,  and  three 
clavier  concertos,  K.  451,  459  and  488.  2  K.  488. 



youth!  As  I  have  often  been  in  Rickan1  during  these 
many  years  and  yet  have  never  had  the  pleasure  of 
meeting  you,  my  dearest  wish  indeed  would  be  that  you 
should  visit  me  in  Vienna  or  that  I  should  visit  you  at 
Donaueschingen.  The  latter  I  should  almost  prefer,  for  in 
addition  to  the  pleasure  of  embracing  you  I  should  have 
the  privilege  of  paying  my  respects  to  your  most  gracious 
Prince,  and  I  should  be  more  forcibly  reminded  of  the 
many  favours  which  in  my  younger  years  I  enjoyed  at 
his  court,  favours  which  I  shall  never  forget  as  long  as 
I  live.  Awaiting  an  early  reply  and  in  the  flattering  hope 
of  meeting  you  once  more  in  this  world,  I  am  ever  your 
most  devoted  friend  and  servant 


Vienna,  September  3Oth,  1786. 

Account  Gulden      Kreutzer 

Three  concertos  without  the  piano  parts 

109  sheets  @  8  kreutzer  14  32 

Three  piano  parts 

33!  sheets  @  10  kreutzer  5  35 

Fee  for  the  three  concertos 

1 8  ducats  @  4  gulden,  30  kreutzer      81 
Three  symphonies 

n6f  sheets  @  8  kreutzer  15  32 

Customs  fee  and  postage  3 

TOTAL          119  392 

1  This  is  the  word  in  the  autograph.  It  mayJiave  some  connection  with 
an  anecdote  which  Mozart's  sister  sent  in  November  1799  to  Breitkopf  and 
Hartel  (see  Nottebohm,  p.  137,  n.  ij,  describing  how  during  their  early 
travels  her  brother  imagined  a  Kingdom  called  Riicken,  of  which  he  was  to 
be  King  and  for  which  their  servant,  Sebastian  Winter,  had  to  sketch  a  map. 

2  The  autograph  has  a  note  by  Sebastian  Winter,  stating  that  the  letter 
was  received  on  October  nth,  the  music  on  October  I4th,  and  that  the  sum 
of  143^  gulden  was  sent  to  Mozart  on  November  8th, 


Z.  542      LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  HIS  DAUGHTER         1786 

(542)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

{Extract]  \Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

SALZBURG,  November  ijtk-i^tk,  1786 
I  had  to  reply  to-day  to  a  letter  from  your  brother,  and 
this  took  me  a  considerable  time.  So  I  cannot  write  very 
much  to  you.  Moreover  it  is  late  and  I  want  to  go  to  the 
play  to-day,  as  I  have  a  free  pass  and  have  finished  that 
letter  to  Vienna.  You  can  easily  imagine  that  I  had  to 
express  myself  very  emphatically,  as  your  brother  actu 
ally  suggested  that  I  should  take  charge  of  his  two 
children,1  because  he  was  proposing  to  undertake  a 
journey  through  Germany  to  England  in  the  middle  of 
next  carnival.  I  wrote  therefore  very  fully  and  added 
that  I  would  send  him  the  continuation  of  my  letter  by 
the  next  post.  Herr  M  filler,  that  good  and  honest  maker 
of  silhouettes,2  had  said  a  lot  of  nice  things  about  little 
Leopold3  to  your  brother,  who  heard  in  this  way  that 
the  child  is  living  with  me.  I  had  never  told  your  brother. 
So  that  is  how  the  brilliant  idea  occurred  to  him  or  per 
haps  to  his  wife.  Not  at  all  a  bad  arrangement!  They 
could  go  off  and  travel  —  they  might  even  die  —  or  remain 
in  England  —  and  I  should  have  to  run  off  after  them  with 
the  children.  As  for  the  payment  which  he  offers  me  for  the 
children  and  for  maids  to  look  after  them,  well  —  Basta! 
If  he  cares  to  do  so,  he  will  find  my  excuse  very  clear 
and  instructive. 

1  Karl  Thomas,  born  on   September  2ist,   1784,  and  Johann  Thomas 
Leopold,  born  on  October  i8th,  1786.  The  latter  died  on  November  isth 
1786.  ' 

2  Possibly  Franz  XaverMuller  (1756-1837),  a  well-known  copper-engraver 
in  Vienna. 

3  Leopold  Mozart  had  taken  entire  charge  of  Nannerl's  son  Leopold,  who 
was  born  at  Salzburg  in  June  1785. 


1787        MOZART  TO  GOTTFRIED  VON  JACQUIN      L.  544 
(543)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

[Extract}  [Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 

SALZBURG,  January  I2th>  1787 

Your  brother  and  his  wife  must  be  in  Prague  by  this 
time,  for  he  wrote  to  say  that  he  was  leaving  Vienna 
last  Monday.1  His  opera  "Le  Nozze  di  Figaro"  was 
performed  there  with  such  success  that  the  orchestra  and 
a  company  of  distinguished  connoisseurs  and  lovers  of 
music  sent  him  letters  inviting  him  to  Prague  and  also  a 
poem  which  was  composed  in  his  honour.2  I  heard  this 
from  your  brother,  and  Count  Starhemberg  heard  about 
it  from  Prague.  I  shall  send  you  the  poem  by  the  next 
courier.  Madame  Duschek  is  off  to  Berlin.  I  am  still 
receiving  from  Vienna,  Prague  and  Munich  reports 
which  confirm  the  rumour  that  your  brother  is  going  to 

(544)  Mozart  to  Baron  Gottfried  von  Jacquin* 

[Copy  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliotkek,  Berlin^ 

DEAREST  FRIEND!  PRAGUE,  January  i^th,  1787 

At  last  I  have  found  a  moment  to  write  to  you.  I 
resolved  immediately  after  my  arrival  to  write  four  letters 
to  Vienna,  but  in  vain!  I  was  only  able  to  manage  one 
(to  my  mother-in-law)  and  then  only  half  of  it.  My  wife 

1  Mozart  and  his  wife  arrived  in  Prague  on  January  nth,  1787. 

3  "Le  Nozze  di  Figaro"  had  been  frequently  performed  in  Prague  since 
December  1786  by  Pasquale  Bondings  theatrical  company  with  Johann 
Josef  Strobach  as  conductor.  The  poem  composed  in  honour  of  Mozart  by 
A.  D.  Breicha  is  quoted  in  R.  Prochizka,  Mozart  in  Pragt  1892,  p.  28. 

3  Gottfried  von  Jacquin  (1763-1792)  was  the  second  son  of  the  famous 
botanist,  Professor  Nicolaus  Josef,  Baron  von  Jacquin  (1727-1817).  He  and 
his  sister  Franziska  (1769-1853)  were  pupils  of  Mozart. 


L.  544      MOZART  TO  GOTTFRIED  VON  JACQUIN        1787 

and  Hofer1  had  to  finish  it.  Immediately  after  our 
arrival  at  noon  on  Thursday,  the  nth,  we  had  a  dreadful 
rush  to  get  ready  for  lunch  at  one  o'clock.  After  the  meal 
old  Count  Thun2  entertained  us  with  some  music,  per 
formed  by  his  own  people,  which  lasted  about  an  hour 
and  a  half.  This  kind  of  real  entertainment  I  could  enjoy 
every  day.  At  six  o'clock  I  drove  with  Count  Canal 3  to 
the  so-called  Bretfeld4  ball,  where  the  cream  of  the 
beauties  of  Prague  are  wont  to  gather.  Why — you  ought 
to  have  been  there,  my  friend!  I  fancy  I  see  you  running, 
or  rather,  limping  after  all  those  pretty  women,  married 
and  unmarried!  I  neither  danced  nor  flirted  with  any  of 
them,  the  former,  because  I  was  too  tired,  and  the  latter 
owing  to  my  natural  bashfulness.  I  looked  on,  however,  with 
the  greatest  pleasure  while  all  these  people  flew  about  in 
sheer  delight  to  the  music  of  my  "Figaro",  arranged  for 
quadrilles  and  waltzes.  For  here  they  talk  about  nothing 
but  "Figaro".  Nothing  is  played,  sung  or  whistled  but 
"Figaro".  No  opera  is  drawing  like  "Figaro".  Nothing, 
nothing  but  "Figaro".  Certainly  a  great  honour  for  me! 
Well,  to  return  to  my  order  of  the  day.  As  I  got  home 
very  late  from  the  ball  and  moreover  was  tired  and  sleepy 
after  my  journey,  nothing  in  the  world  could  be  more 
natural  than  that  I  should  sleep  it  out  next  morning; 
which  was  just  what  I  did.  So  the  whole  of  the  next 
morning  was  spent  sine  linea.  After  lunch  the  Count's 
music  must  always  be  listened  to,  and  as  on  that  very  day 
an  excellent  pianoforte  had  been  put  in  my  room,  you 
may  readily  suppose  that  I  did  not  leave  it  unused  and 

1  Franz  de  Paula  Hofer  (1755-1796),  court  violinist  in  Vienna.  He  married, 
in  July  1788,  Frau  Weber's  eldest  daughter  Josefa. 

z  As  Madame  Duschek  was  in  Berlin,  the  Mozarts  stayed  with  Count  Thun. 

3  Josef  Emanuel,  Count  Canal  von  Malabaila  (1745-1826),  botanist  and 
lover  of  music,  lived  in  Prague  and  had  a  private  orchestra. 

4  Baron  Bretfeld,  a  wealthy  member  of  the  Bohemian  aristocracy,  gave 
famous  balls. 



From  an  engraving  by  Loschenkohl 

(Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreunde,  Vienna  J 


untouched  for  the  whole  evening;  so  as  a  matter  of  course 
we  performed  amongst  ourselves  a  little  Quatuor  in 
caritatis  camera1  ("und  das  schone  Bandl  hamrnera")2 
and  in  this  way  the  whole  evening  was  again  spent  sine 
linea\  and  so  it  actually  was.  Well,  you  must  scold  not  me 
but  Morpheus,  for  that  deity  is  very  attentive  to  us  in 
Prague.  What  the  cause  may  have  been  I  know  not;  at 
any  rate  we  slept  it  out.  Still,  we  managed  to  be  at  Father 
Unger's  at  eleven  o'clock  and  made  a  thorough  inspec 
tion  of  the  Imperial  Library  and  the  General  Theo 
logical  Seminary.  When  we  had  almost  stared  our  eyes 
out,  we  thought  that  we  heard  a  little  stomach-aria  in 
our  insides  and  that  it  would  be  just  as  well  to  drive  to 
Count  Canal's  for  lunch.  The  evening  surprised  us  sooner 
than  you  might  perhaps  believe.  Well,  it  was  soon  time 
to  go  to  the  opera.  We  heard  "Le  gare  generose".3  In 
regard  to  the  performance  of  this  opera  I  can  give  no 
definite  opinion  because  I  talked  a  lot;  but  that  quite 
contrary  to  my  usual  custom  I  chattered  so  much  may 
have  been  due  to  ...  Well,  never  mind!  that  evening 
too  was  frittered  away  al  solito.  To-day  I  have  at  last 
been  so  fortunate  as  to  find  a  moment  to  enquire  after 
the  health  of  your  dear  parents  and  the  whole  Jacquin 
family.  I  hope  and  trust  with  all  my  heart  that  you  are 
all  as  well  as  we  are.  I  must  frankly  admit  that,  although 
I  meet  with  all  possible  courtesies  and  honours  here  and 

1  We  performed  a  little  quartet  for  ourselves. 

3  K.  441 ,  called  the  Bandl-Terzett,  a  humorous  three-part  song  for  soprano, 
tenor  and  bass,  which  Mozart  composed  in  1783,  and  dedicated  to  Gottfried 
von  Jacquin.  Mozart  and  his  wife  and  Jacquin  were  out  walking  one  day 
when  Constanze  happened  to  lose  a  ribbon  which  her  husband  had  given  her 
and  exclaimed,  using  the  Viennese  dialect:  "Liebes  Mandl,  wo  is's  Bandl?" 
Jacquin,  a  tall  fellow,  picked  up  the  ribbon  and  refused  to  let  her  have  it  until 
she  or  her  little  husband  should  catch  it.  Upon  which  Mozart  wrote  the  poem 
which  he  afterwards  set  to  music.  "Und  das  schone  Bandl  hammera"  means 
"und  das  schone  Bandchen  haben  wir  auch".  See  Jahn,  vol.  ii.  p.  58. 

3  Giovanni  Paisiello's  "Le  gare  generose"  was  first  produced  at  Naples 
in  1786. 

VOL.  Ill  I34S  U 

L.  544      MOZART  TO  GOTTFRIED  VON  JACQUIN         1787 

although  Prague  is  indeed  a  very  beautiful  and  pleasant 
place,  I  long  most  ardently  to  be  back  in  Vienna;  and 
believe  me,  the  chief  cause  of  this  homesickness  is  cer 
tainly  your  family.  When  I  remember  that  after  my  return 
I  shall  enjoy  only  for  a  short  while  the  pleasure  of  your 
valued  society  and  shall  then  have  to  forgo  this  happi 
ness  for  such  a  long  time,  perhaps  for  ever,  then  indeed 
I  realise  the  extent  of  the  friendship  and  regard  which  I 
cherish  for  your  whole  family.1  Now  farewell,  dearest 
friend,  dearest  Hikkiti  Horky!  That  is  your  name,  as  you 
must  know.  We  all  invented  names  for  ourselves  on  the 
journey.  Here  they  are.  I  am  Punkitititi.  My  wife  is 
Schabla  Pumfa.  Hofer  is  Rozka  Pumpa.  Stadler2  is 
Notschibikitschibi.  My  servant  Joseph  is  Sagadarata. 
My  dog  Goukerl  is  Schomanntzky.  Madame  Quallen- 
berg  is  Runzifunzi.  Mile  Crux3  is  Ramlo  Schurimuri. 
Freistadtler4  is  Gaulimauli.  Be  so  kind  as  to  tell  him 
his  name.  Well,  adieu.  My  concert  is  to  take  place  in 
the  theatre  on  Friday,  the  igth,  and  I  shall  probably 
have  to  give  a  second  one,  which  unfortunately  will 
prolong  my  stay  here.  Please  give  my  kind  regards  to 
your  worthy  parents  and  embrace  your  brother  (who 
by  the  way  could  be  christened  Blatterrizzi)  a  thousand 
times  for  me;  and  I  kiss  your  sister's  hands  (her  name  is 
Signora  Dini  Mini  Niri)  a  hundred  thousand  times  and 
urge  her  to  practise  hard  on  her  new  pianoforte.5  But  this 

1  Mozart  was  planning  to  go  to  England.  See  p.  1342. 

2  Anton  Stadler.  See  p.  409,  n.  2. 

3  Marianne,  daughter  of  Peter  Crux,  master  of  the  ballet  at  the  Vienna 
opera.  She  was  a  singer  and  also  a  successful  performer  on  the  violin  and 

4  Franz  Jakob  Freistadtler  (1768-1841),  a  pupil  of  Mozart,  who  composed 
for  him  K.  232,  a  canon  for  four  voices  on  the  words  "Lieber  Freistadtler, 
lieber  Gaulimauli".  Dr.  A.  Einstein  has  kindly  supplied  the  interesting 
information  that   Freistadtler  composed  songs,   a  collection  of  which  he 
dedicated  to  Josephine  Aurnhammer. 

5  Gottfried  von  Jacquin's  sister  Franziska  was  one  of  Mozart's  pupils. 


admonition  is  really  unnecessary,  for  I  must  confess  that 
I  have  never  yet  had  a  pupil  who  was  so  diligent  and  who 
showed  so  much  zeal — and  indeed  I  am  looking  forward 
to  giving  her  lessons  again  according  to  my  small  ability. 
A  propos.  If  she  wants  to  come  to-morrow,  I  shall  cer 
tainly  be  at  home  at  eleven  o'clock.  But  surely  it  is  high 
time  to  close,  is  it  not?  You  will  have  been  thinking  so 
for  a  long  time.  Farewell,  beloved  friend!  Keep  me  in 
your  precious  friendship.  Write  to  me  soon — very  very 
soon — and  if  perchance  you  are  too  lazy  to  do  so,  send 
for  Satmann  and  dictate  a  letter  to  him,  though  indeed 
no  letter  comes  as  much  from  the  heart  as  it  does  when 
one  writes  oneself.  Well,  I  shall  see  whether  you  are  as 
truly  my  friend  as  I  am  entirely  yours  and  ever  shall  be. 


P.S. — Address  the  letter  which  you  will  possibly  write 
to  me  "At  Count  Thun's  palace". 

My  wife  sends  her  love  to  the  whole  Jacquin  family, 
and  so  does  Hofer. 

P.S. — On  Wednesday  I  am  to  see  and  hear  " Figaro'7 
in  Prague,  if  I  have  not  become  deaf  and  blind  before 
then.  Possibly  I  may  not  become  so  until  after  the 

(545)  Leopold  Mozart  to  his  Daughter 

[Extract]  [Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 

SALZBURG,  March  ist-2nd,  1787 

At  half  past  six  o'clock  on  Monday  evening  I  received 
from  Madame  Storace,  the  Vienna  opera  singer,  a  note 
saying  that  she  had  arrived  at  the  Trinkstube.  I  found 
her  mother  with  her,  who  is  an  Englishwoman  (the 

1  For  an  excellent  account  of  Mozart's  four  visits  to  Prague  in  1787,  1789 
and  1791,  see  R.  Prochazka,  Mozart  in  Prag,  1892. 


Z.  545      LEOPOLD  MOZART  TO  HIS  DAUGHTER         17*7 

daughter  was  born  in  England),  the  Vienna  opera  tenor 
O'Kelly,1  who  is  an  Englishman  by  birth,  another 
Englishman  whom  I  did  not  know  but  who  is  probably 
cicisbeo  to  the  mother  and  daughter,  her  brother,  Maestro 
Storace,2  and  a  little  Englishman  called  Attwood,3  who 
was  sent  to  Vienna  two  years  ago  for  the  sole  purpose  of 
taking  lessons  from  your  brother.  As  Madame  Storace 
had  a  letter  of  introduction  from  Countess  Guntacker 
Colloredo,  the  Archbishop  was  obliged  to  hear  her  sing 
and  to  give  her  a  handsome  present.  After  a  year's  stay 
in  London  she  is  returning  to  the  Vienna  opera.4  I 
galloped  round  the  town  with  them  on  Tuesday  from 
ten  to  two  in  order  to  show  them  a  few  sights.  We  lunched 
at  two  o'clock,  In  the  evening  she  sang  three  arias  and 
they  left  for  Munich  at  midnight.  They  had  two  carriages, 
each  with  four  post-horses.  A  servant  rode  in  advance  as 
courier  to  arrange  for  the  changing  of  eight  horses. 
Goodness,  what  luggage  they  had!  This  journey  must 
have  cost  them  a  fortune.  They  all  spoke  English,  far 
more  than  Italian.  A  funny  thing  is  that  my  son  sent  a 
letter  for  me  to  the  house  where  his  pupil  Attwood  was 
staying.  Attwood  had  gone  out  and  Madame  Storace's 
mother  took  the  letter  and  was  stupid  enough  to  pack  it 

1  Michael  Kelly  (1762-1826),  who  in  Mozart's  catalogue  of  his  own  works 
appears  as  "Occhelly",  was  born  in  Dublin.  He  went  to  Naples  in  1779  to  be 
trained  as  an  operatic  tenor,  and  four  years  later  came  to  Vienna  where  he 
enjoyed  the  intimate  friendship  of  Mozart.  Kelly  took  the  parts  of  Basilic  and 
Don  Curzio  in  the  first  performance  of  "Le  Nozze  di  Figaro".  He  also  com 
posed  songs  which  were  popular.  His  Reminiscences  in  two  volumes,  written 
by  Theodore  Hook  with  the  help  of  material  supplied  by  Kelly,  appeared  in 
1826.  They  contain  accounts  of  Mozart  which  are  both  interesting  and 

2  Stephen  Storace  (1763-1796)  had  composed  two  operas  in  Vienna. 

3  Thomas  Attwood  (1765-1838)  first  studied  music  at  Naples  from  1783 
until  1785,  and  then  went  to  Vienna  to  learn  composition  under  Mozart.  His 
exercise  books  are  now  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  C.  B.  Oldman.  In  1796  he 
was  appointed  organist  of  St.  Paul's  Cathedral.  In  later  life  Attwood  wrote 
many  successful  operas  and  became  a  close  friend  of  Mendelssohn. 

4  Nancy  Storace  never  returned  to  Vienna. 



in  some  trunk  or  maybe  to  lose  it.  Basta!  the  letter  was 
not  to  be  found.  I  shall  write  to  your  brother  about  it 
to-morrow.  As  for  your  brother  I  hear  that  he  is  back  in 
Vienna.  I  had  no  reply  to  the  letter  I  sent  to  him  at 
Prague.  The  English  company  told  me  that  he  made  a 
thousand  gulden  there,  that  little  Leopold,  his  last  boy, 
has  died,1  and  that,  as  I  had  gathered,  he  wants  to  travel 
to  England,  but  that  his  pupil2  is  first  going  to  procure  a 
definite  engagement  for  him  in  London,  I  mean,  a  con 
tract  to  compose  an  opera,  or  a  subscription  concert,  etc. 
Probably  Madame  Storace  and  the  whole  company  had 
filled  him  with  stories  to  the  same  effect  and  these  people 
and  his  pupil  must  have  first  given  him  the  idea  of 
accompanying  them  to  England.  But  no  doubt  after  I 
sent  him  a  fatherly  letter,  saying  that  he  would  gain 
nothing  by  a  journey  in  summer,  as  he  would  arrive  in 
England  at  the  wrong  time,  that  he  ought  to  have  at 
least  two  thousand  gulden  in  his  pocket  before  under 
taking  such  an  expedition,  and  finally  that,  unless  he  had 
procured  in  advance  some  definite  engagement  in  Lon 
don,  he  would  have  to  be  prepared,  no  matter  how  clever 
he  was,  to  be  hard  up  at  first  at  any  rate,  he  has  probably 
lost  courage,  particularly  as  Madame  Storace's  brother 
will  of  course  write  the  opera  for  the  next  season.3 

(546)  Mozart  to  his  Father 

[Autograph  formerly  in  the  Musikhistorisches  Museum 

von  W.  Heyer,  Cologne] 

MON    TRES    CHER    PERE!  VIENNA,  April  $th,  1787 

I  am  very  much  annoyed  that  owing  to  the  stupidity 
of  Madame  Storace  my  letter  never  reached  you.  Amongst 

1  Mozart's  third  child,  Johann  Thomas  Leopold,  died  on  November  15th, 
1786.  2  Thomas  Attwood. 

3  Stephen  Sto  race's  "La  cameriera  astuta"  was  performed  on  March 
4thr  1788,  at  the  King's  Theatre  in  the  Haymarket. 



other  things  it  contained,  I  expressed  the  hope  that  you 
had  received  my  last  letter;  but  as  you  do  not  mention 
this  particular  one,  I  mean,  my  second  letter  from  Prague, 
I  do  not  know  what  to  think.  It  is  quite  likely  that  som'e 
servant  of  Count  Thun's l  had  the  brilliant  idea  of  pocket 
ing  the  postage  money.  Indeed  I  would  rather  pay  double 
postage  than  suspect  that  my  letters  have  fallen  into  the 
wrong  hands.  Ramm  and  the  two  Fischers,  the  bass 
singer2  and  the  oboist  from  London,3  came  here  this 
Lent.  If  the  latter  when  we  knew  him  in  Holland4 
played  no  better  than  he  does  now,  he  certainly  does  not 
deserve  the  reputation  he  enjoys.  But  this  is  between  our- 
selves.  In  those  days  I  was  not  competent  to  form  an 
opinion.  All  that  I  remember  is  that  I  liked  his  playing 
immensely,  as  indeed  everyone  did.  This  is  quite  under 
standable,  of  course,  on  the  assumption  that  taste  can 
undergo  remarkable  changes.  Possibly  he  plays  in  some 
old-fashioned  style?  Not  at  all!  The  long  and  short  of  it 
is  that  he  plays  like  a  bad  beginner.  Young  Andre,  who 
took  some  lessons  from  Fiala,  plays  a  thousand  times 
better.  And  then  his  concertos!  His  own  compositions! 
Why,  each  ritornello  lasts  a  quarter  of  an  hour;  and  then 
our  hero  comes  in,  lifts  up  one  leaden  foot  after  the  other 
and  stamps  on  the  floor  with  each  in  turn.  His  tone  is 
entirely  nasal,  and  his  held  notes  like  the  tremulant  on 
the  organ.  Would  you  ever  have  thought  that  his  playing 

1  The  Mozarts  during  their  stay  in  Prague  were  the  guests  of  Count  Thun. 
See  p.  1344. 

2  Karl  Ludwig  Fischer  (1745-1825),  who  took  the  part  of  Osmin  in  the 
original  production  of  the  "Entfiihrung  aus  dem  Serail". 

3  Johann  Christian  Fischer  (1733-1800),  a  famous  oboist  in  his  day.  He 
held  an  appointment  at  the  Dresden  court  from  1764  until  1771,  and  then 
more  or  less  settled  in  London,  where  he  was  a  frequent  performer  at  the 
Bach- Abel  concerts.  He  married  the  daughter  of  Gainsborough,  who  painted 
his  portrait.  It  was  on  his  minuet  that  Mozart  composed  in  1774  his  popular 
Fischer  variations  (K.  179). 

4  The  Mozart  family  met  J.  C.  Fischer  at  The  Hague  in  1765.  See  Leopold 
Mozart's  Reiseaufzeichnungen,  p.  42. 


1787  MOZART  TO  HIS  FATHER  L.  546 

is  like  this?   Yet  it  is  nothing  but  the  truth,  though  a 
truth  which  I  should  only  tell  to  you. 

This  very  moment  I  have  received  a  piece  of  news  which 
greatly  distresses  me,  the  more  so  as  I  gathered  from  your 
last  letter  that,  thank  God,  you  were  very  well  indeed.  But 
now  I  hear  that  you  are  really  ill.  I  need  hardly  tell  you 
how  greatly  I  am  longing  to  receive  some  reassuring  news 
from  yourself.  And  I  still  expect  it;  although  I  have  now 
made  a  habit  of  being  prepared  in  all  affairs  of  life  for  the 
worst.  As  death,  when  we  come  to  consider  it  closely,  is  the 
true  goal  of  our  existence,  I  have  formed  during  the  last  few 
years  such  close  relations  with  this  best  and  truest  friend 
of  mankind,  that  his  image  is  not  only  no  longer  terrifying 
to  me,  but  is  indeed  very  soothing  and  consoling!  And  I 
thank  my  God  for  graciously  granting  me  the  oppor 
tunity  (you  know  what  I  mean)  of  learning  that  death  is 
the  key  which  unlocks  the  door  to  our  true  happiness.  I 
never  lie  down  at  night  without  reflecting  that — young  as 
I  am — I  may  not  live  to  see  another  day.  Yet  no  one  of  all 
my  acquaintances  could  say  that  in  company  I  am  morose 
or  disgruntled.  For  this  blessing  I  daily  thank  my  Creator 
and  wish  with  all  my  heart  that  each  one  of  my  fellow- 
creatures  could  enjoy  it.  In  the  letter  which  Madame 
Storace  took  away  with  her,  I  expressed  my  views  to  you 
on  this  point,  in  connection  with  the  sad  death  of  my 
dearest  and  most  beloved  friend,  Count  von  Hatzfeld.1  He 
was  just  thirty-one,  my  own  age.  I  do  not  feel  sorry  for 
him,  but  I  pity  most  sincerely  both  myself  and  all  who 
knew  him  as  well  as  I  did.  I  hope  and  trust  that  while  I 
am  writing  this,  you  are  feeling  better.  But  if,  contrary  to 
all  expectation,  you  are  not  recovering,  I  implore  you  by 
.  .  .  not  to  hide  it  from  me,  but  to  tell  me  the  whole  truth 
or  get  someone  to  write  it  to  me,  so  that  as  quickly  as  is 

1  Count  August  von  Hatzfeld  (1756-1787),  an  excellent  amateur  violinist 
and  an  intimate  friend  of  Mozart's. 


L.  547       MOZART  TO  GOTTFRIED  VON  JACQUIN        1787 

humanly  possible  I  may  come  to  your  arms.  I  entreat  you 
by  all  that  is  sacred — to  both  of  us.  Nevertheless  I  trust 
that  I  shall  soon  have  a  reassuring  letter  from  you;  and 
cherishing  this  pleasant  hope,  I  and  my  wife  and  our 
little  Karl l  kiss  your  hands  a  thousand  times  and  I  am 

your  most  obedient  son 


(547)  Mozart  to  Baron  Gottfried  von  Jacquin 

\Copy  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin\ 

DEAREST  FRIEND!  VIENNA,  May  2gth,  1787 

Please  tell  Herr  Exner  to  come  at  nine  o'clock  to 
morrow  morning  to  bleed  my  wife. 

I  send  you  herewith  your  Amynt  and  the  sacred  song. 
Please  be  so  good  as  to  give  the  sonata2  to  your  sister 
with  my  compliments  and  tell  her  to  tackle  it  at  once,  for 
it  is  rather  difficult.  Adieu.  Your  true  friend 


I  inform  you  that  on  returning  home  to-day  I  received 
the  sad  news  of  my  most  beloved  father's  death.3  You  can 
imagine  the  state  I  am  in. 

1  Mozart's  son,  Karl  Thomas,  born  on  September  2ist,  1784. 

3  K.  521,  sonata  in  C  major  for  four  hands,  composed  in  1787,  which 
Mozart  dedicated  later  to  two  sisters,  Babette  and  Nanette  Natorp,  the 
former  of  whom  subsequently  married  Jacquin's  brother. 

3  Leopold  Mozart  died  on  May  28th,  1787.  The  last  letter  of  his  which 
is  preserved  is  addressed  to  his  daughter,  is  dated  May  ioth-1  ith,  and  con 
tains  the  following  remark  about  his  son:  "Your  brother  is  now  living  in  the 
Landstrasse  no.  224.  He  does  not  say  why  he  has  moved.  Not  a  word.  But 
unfortunately  I  can  guess  the  reason."  Mozart  and  his  family,  for  the  sake  of 
economy,  had  moved  at  the  end  of  April  into  a  cheaper  house,  the  yearly  rent 
of  which  was  about  fifty  gulden.  They  left  this  house  at  the  end  of  the  year. 



(548)  Mozart  to  his  Sister 

[From  Nissen,pp.  525-526] 

VIENNA,  June  i6/A,  1787 

I  was  not  at  all  surprised,  as  I  could  easily  guess  the 
reason,  that  you  yourself  did  not  inform  me  of  the  sad 
death  of  our  most  dear  father,  which  to  me  was  quite 
unexpected.  May  God  take  him  to  Himself!  Rest  assured, 
my  dear,  that  if  you  desire  a  kind  brother  to  love  and 
protect  you,  you  will  find  one  in  me  on  every  occasion. 
My  dearest,  most  beloved  sister!  If  you  were  still  un 
provided  for,  all  this  would  be  quite  unnecessary,  for,  as 
I  have  already  said  and  thought  a  thousand  times,  I 
should  leave  everything  to  you  with  the  greatest  delight. 
But  as  the  property  would  really  be  of  no  use  to  you, 
while,  on  the  contrary,  it  would  be  a  considerable  help  to 
me,  I  think  it  my  duty  to  consider  my  wife  and  child. 

(549)  Mozart  to  his  Sister 

[Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Frau  Floersheim-Kock,  Florence} 

VIENNA,  August  ist,  1787 

At  the  moment  I  am  simply  replying  to  your  letters, 
so  I  am  writing  very  little  and  in  great  haste,  as  I  really 
have  far  too  much  to  do.  As  both  your  husband,  my  dear 
brother-in-law,  whom  I  ask  you  to  kiss  a  thousand  times 
for  me,  and  I  are  particularly  anxious  to  wind  up  the 
whole  business  as  soon  as  possible,  I  am  accepting  his 
offer,  on  the  understanding,  however,  that  the  thousand 
gulden  shall  be  paid  to  me  not  in  Imperial  but  in  Viennese 
currency  and,  moreover,  as  a  bill  of  exchange.  Next  post- 



day  I  shall  send  your  husband  the  draft  of  an  agreement 
or  rather  of  a  contract  between  us.  Then  the  two  original 
documents  will  follow,  one  signed  by  me,  the  other  to 
be  signed  by  him.  I  shall  send  you  as  soon  as  possible 
some  new  compositions  of  mine  for  the  clavier.  Please  do 
not  forget  about  my  scores.  A  thousand  farewells  to  you. 
I  must  close.  My  wife  and  our  Karl  send  a  thousand 
greetings  to  you  and  your  husband,  and  I  am  ever  your 
brother  who  loves  you  sincerely, 

The  Landstrasse,1  August  ist,  1787. 

(550)  Mozart  to  Baron  Gottfried  von  Jacquin, 

\_Autograph  in  the  Grdfliches  Czernisches  Archiv,  Neuhaus] 

DEAREST  FRIEND!  PRAGUE,  October  15^-25^,  1787 

You  probably  think  that  my  opera 2  is  over  by  now. 
If  so,  you  are  a  little  mistaken.  In  the  first  place,  the  stage 
personnel  here  are  not  as  smart  as  those  in  Vienna,  when 
it  comes  to  mastering  an  opera  of  this  kind  in  a  very  short 
time.  Secondly,  I  found  on  my  arrival  that  so  few  pre 
parations  and  arrangements  had  been  made  that  it  would 
have  been  absolutely  impossible  to  produce  it  on  the  I4th, 
that  is,  yesterday.  So  yesterday  my  "Figaro"  was  per 
formed  in  a  fully  lighted  theatre  and  I  myself  conducted. 

1  Mozart  lived  here  (Hauptstrasse  224,  now  Hiihnergasse  17)  from  spring 
1787  until  about  the  end  of  the  year. 

2  During  his  first  visit  to  Prague  in  January  1787  Mozart  was  asked  to 
compose  an  opera  buffa  for  the  autumn  season,  and  signed  a  contract  to  this 
effect  with  the  theatrical  manager  Bondini.  He  was  to  receive  the  usual  fee 
of  100  ducats.  There  is  no  evidence  to  show  when  Mozart  and  Constanze 
arrived  in  Prague.  They  probably  left  Vienna  early  in  September.  "Don 
Giovanni",  for  which  Da  Ponte  wrote  the  libretto,  was  performed  on  October 


1787         MOZART  TO  GOTTFRIED  VON  JACQUIN       L.  550 

In  this  connection  I  have  a  good  joke  to  tell  you.  A 
few  of  the  leading  ladies  here,  and  in  particular  one  very 
high  and  mighty  one,  were  kind  enough  to  find  it  very 
ridiculous,  unsuitable,  and  Heaven  knows  what  else  that 
the  Princess1  should  be  entertained  with  a  performance 
of  Figaro,  the  "Crazy  Day",2  as  the  management  were 
pleased  to  call  it.  It  never  occurred  to  them  that  no  opera 
in  the  world,  unless  it  is  written  specially  for  it,  can  be 
exactly  suitable  for  such  an  occasion  and  that  therefore 
it  was  of  absolutely  no  consequence  whether  this  or  that 
opera  were  given,  provided  that  it  was  a  good  opera  and 
one  which  the  Princess  did  not  know;  and  "Figaro"  at 
least  fulfilled  this  last  condition.  In  short  by  her  per 
suasive  tongue  the  ringleader  brought  things  to  such  a 
pitch  that  the  government  forbade  the  impresario  to  pro 
duce  this  opera  on  that  night.  So  she  was  triumphant! 
"Ho  vinto",3  she  called  out  one  evening  from  her  box. 
No  doubt  she  never  suspected  that  the  ho  might  be 
changed  to  a  sono.  But  the  following  day  Le  Noble 
appeared,  bearing  a  command  from  His  Majesty  to  the 
effect  that  if  the  new  opera  could  not  be  given,  "Figaro" 
was  to  be  performed!  My  friend,  if  only  you  had  seen  the 
handsome,  magnificent  nose  of  this  lady!  Oh,  it  would 
have  amused  you  as  much  as  it  did  me!  "Don  Giovanni" 
has  now  been  fixed  for  the  24th. 

October  2ist.  It  was  fixed  for  the  24th,  but  a  further 
postponement  has  been  caused  by  the  illness  of  one  of 
the  singers.  As  the  company  is  so  small,  the  impresario 
is  in  a  perpetual  state  of  anxiety  and  has  to  spare  his 
people  as  much  as  possible,  lest  some  unexpected  indis 
position  should  plunge  him  into  the  most  awkward  of  all 

1  Prince  Anton  of  Saxony  and  his  bride,  the  Archduchess  Maria  Theresa, 
a  sister  of  the  Emperor  Joseph  II,  spent  a  few  days  in  Prague  during  their 

3  The  sub-title  of  Beaumarchais'  comedy  "Le  manage  de  Figaro"  is  "La 
folle  journee".  3  I  have  conquered. 



situations,  that  of  not  being  able  to  produce  any  show 

So  everything  dawdles  along  here  because  the  singers, 
who  are  lazy,  refuse  to  rehearse  on  opera  days  and  the 
manager,  who  is  anxious  and  timid,  will  not  force  them. 
But  what  is  this? — Is  it  possible?  What  vision  meets  my 

ears,  what  sound  bombards  my  eyes?  A  letter  from 

I  am  almost  rubbing  my  eyes  sore — Why,  it  is — The 
devil  take  me  t  God  protect  us  t  It  actually  is  from 
you — indeed!  If  winter  were  not  upon  us;  I  would  smash 
the  stove  in  good  earnest.  But  as  I  frequently  use  it  now 
and  intend  to  use  it  more  often  in  future,  you  will  allow 
me  to  express  my  surprise  in  a  somewhat  more  moderate 
fashion  and  merely  tell  you  in  a  few  words  that  I  am 
extraordinarily  pleased  to  have  news  from  you  and  your 
most  precious  family. 

October  2$tk.  To-day  is  the  eleventh  day  that  I  have 
been  scrawling  this  letter.  You  will  see  from  this  that  my 
intentions  are  good.  Whenever  I  can  snatch  a  moment,  I 
daub  in  another  little  piece.  But  indeed  I  cannot  spend 
much  time  over  it,  because  I  am  far  too  much  at  the  dis 
posal  of  other  people  and  far  too  little  at  my  own.  I  need 
hardly  tell  you,  as  we  are  such  old  friends,  that  this  is  not 
the  kind  of  life  I  prefer. 

My  opera  is  to  be  performed  for  the  first  time  next 
Monday,  October  29th.  You  shall  have  an  account  of  it 
from  me  a  day  or  two  later.  As  for  the  aria,1  it  is  absolutely 
impossible  to  send  it  to  you  for  reasons  which  I  shall  give 
you  when  we  meet.  I  am  delighted  to  hear  what  you  say 
about  Katherl,2  that  is,  that  she  commands  the  respect  of 
cats  and  knows  how  to  retain  the  friendship  of  dogs.  If 
your  Papa,  to  whom  I  send  most  cordial  greetings,  likes 

1  There  is  no  trace  of  this  composition,  if  it  was  an  aria  written  specially 
for  Jacquin.  Dr.  A.  Einstein  suggests  Masetto's  aria  in  "Don  Giovanni", 
Act  I,  "Ho  capito,  Signor,  si".  2  Mozart's  dog. 


17*7         MOZART  TO  GOTTFRIED  VON  JACQUIN      L.  551 

to  keep  her,  well,  let  us  pretend  that  she  never  belonged 
to  me.  Now,  farewell.  Please  kiss  your  gracious  Mamma's 
hands  for  me,  give  my  best  greetings  to  your  sister  and 
your  brother  and  rest  assured  that  I  shall  ever  be  your 
true  friend  and  servant 


(551)  Mozart  to  Baron  Gottfried  von  Jacquin, 

[Autograph  in  the  Nationalbibliothek,  Vienna^ 

PRAGUE,  November  qth-gth,  1787 

I  hope  you  received  my  letter.  My  opera  "Don 
Giovanni"  had  its  first  performance  on  October  2gth  and 
was  received  with  the  greatest  applause.  It  was  performed 
yesterday  for  the  fourth  time,  for  my  benefit.  I  am  think 
ing  of  leaving  here  on  the  I2th  or  I3th.  When  I  return, 
you  shall  have  the  aria1  at  once,  remember,  between 
ourselves.  How  I  wish  that  my  good  friends,  particularly 
you  and  Bridi,2  were  here  just  for  one  evening  in  order 
to  share  my  pleasure!  But  perhaps  my  opera  will  be  per 
formed  in  Vienna  after  all!  I  hope  so.3  People  here  are 
doing  their  best  to  persuade  me  to  remain  on  for  a  couple 
of  months  and  write  another  one.  But  I  cannot  accept  this 
proposal,  however  flattering  it  may  be.  Well,  dearest 
friend,  how  are  you?  I  trust  that  you  #//are  as  fit  and  well 
as  we  are.  You  cannot  fail  to  be  happy,  dearest  friend,  for 

1  See  p.  1356,  n.  i. 

2  Giuseppe  Antonio  Bridi,  a  young  merchant  from  Roveredo,  who  had  a 
fine  tenor  voice  and  enjoyed  the  friendship  of  Mozart.  He  published  in  1827 
a  volume  of  Brevi  notizie  intorno  ad  alcuni  compositor*  di  musica^  in  which 
he  records  his  association  with  Mozart.  In  Leopold  Mozart's  Reiseaufzeich- 
nungen,  p.  49,  a  Doctor  Bridi  appears  in  Mozart's  handwriting  in  the  list  of 
their  acquaintances  at  Roveredo.  Possibly  he  was  the  father  of  G.  A.  Bridi. 

3  "Don  Giovanni"  was  performed  in  Vienna  on  May  7th,  1788, 



you  possess  everything  that  you  can  wish  for  at  your  age 
and  in  your  position,  particularly  as  you  now  seem  to  be 
entirely  giving  up  your  former  rather  restless  way  of 
living.  Surely  you  are  becoming  every  day  more  con 
vinced  of  the  truth  of  the  little  lectures  I  used  to  inflict 
upon  you?  Surely  the  pleasure  of  a  transient,  capricious 
infatuation  is  as  far  removed  as  heaven  from  earth  from 
the  blessed  happiness  of  a  deep  and  true  affection?  Surely 
in  your  heart  of  hearts  you  often  feel  grateful  to  me  for 
my  admonitions?  You  will  end  up  by  making  me  quite 
conceited.  But,  jesting  apart,  you  do  owe  me  some  thanks 

after  all,  if  you  have  become  worthy  of  Fraulein  N ,* 

for  I  certainly  played  no  insignificant  part  in  your  reform 
or  conversion.  My  great-grandfather  used  to  say  to  his 
wife,  my  great-grandmother,  who  in  turn  told  her  daughter, 
my  grandmother,  who  repeated  it  to  her  daughter,  my 
mother,  who  used  to  remind  her  daughter,  my  own  sister, 
that  to  talk  well  and  eloquently  was  a  very  great  art,  but 
that  an  equally  great  one  was  to  know  the  right  moment 
to  stop.  So  I  shall  follow  the  advice  of  my  sister,  thanks 
to  our  mother,  grandmother  and  great-grandmother,  and 
put  a  stop  not  only  to  my  moral  digression  but  to  my  whole 

November  gtk.  It  has  been  a  most  pleasant  surprise  to 
receive  your  second  letter.  If  the  song  in  question  is 
necessary  to  prove  my  friendship  for  you,  you  have  no 
further  cause  to  doubt  it,  for  here  it  is.2  But  I  trust  that 
even  without  this  song  you  are  convinced  of  my  true 
friendship,  and  in  this  hope  I  remain  ever  your  most 
sincere  friend 


P.S. — That  neither  your  dear  parents  nor  your  brother 

1  Marianne  von  Natorp,  to  whom  Gottfried  von  Jacquin  dedicated  some 
songs.  3  K.  530,  <£Wo  bist  du,  Bild",  written  for  Gottfried  von  Jacquin. 


1787  MOZART  TO  HIS  SISTER  Z.  552 

and  sister  should  have  sent  me  any  remembrances,  I 
really  cannot  understand.  I  put  it  down,  my  friend,  to 
your  forgetfulness  and  'flatter  myself  that  I  am  not 
mistaken.  Now  I  must  explain  the  double  seal.  The  red 
wax  was  no  good,  so  I  put  black  wax  on  the  top  of  it. 
And  I  had  left  my  usual  seal  behind  me  in  Vienna. 

Adieu.  I  hope  to  embrace  you  soon. 

We  send  our  compliments  to  your  whole  family 
and  to  the  Natorps.1 

(552)  Mozart  to  his  Sister 

[Autograph  in  the  British  Museum}  z 

DEAREST  SISTER,  VIENNA,  December  igth,  1787 

I  most  humbly  beg  your  pardon  for  having  left  you 
so  long  without  an  answer.  Of  my  writing  "Don  Gio 
vanni"  for  Prague  and  of  the  opera's  triumphant  success 
you  may  have  heard  already,  but  that  His  Majesty  the 
Emperor  has  now  taken  me  into  his  service 3  will  probably 
be  news  to  you.  I  am  sure  you  will  be  pleased  to  hear  it. 
Will  you  please  send  me  the  box  with  my  scores  as  soon 
as  possible?  As  for  recent  clavier  music  of  my  own,  will 
you  please  note  down  the  themes  of  the  pieces  I  have  sent 
you  from  Vienna  and  send  them  to  me,  so  that  I  may  not 
send  you  anything  twice  over?  This  will  be  to  your 
advantage  as  well  as  mine. 

Well,  good-bye,  dear  sister.  Write  to  me  frequently.  If 
I  don't  always  answer  promptly,  put  it  down  not  to  any 
negligence  on  my  part,  but  simply  to  stress  of  work. 

*  See  p.  1352,  n.  2.  For  a  full  account  of  the  Natorp  family  and  their  con 
nection  with  the  Jacquins  and  Mozart  see  Deutsch-Oldman,  ZMWt  xiv.,  and 
Hedwig  Kraus,  ZMW,  xv. 

2  This  letter  was  first  published  by  Mr.  C.  B.  Oldman  in  The  Musical 
Times,  July  1929. 

3  Mozart's  appointment  as  Kammerkomponist  to  the  Emperor  Joseph  II 
dated  from  December  7thT  1787.  His  yearly  income  was  800  gulden.  Cluck, 
his  predecessor,  had  received  2000  gulden. 



Adieu.  I  embrace  you  with  all  my  heart  and  am  ever  your 
sincerely  affectionate  brother 


A  thousand  kisses  from  my  wife,  who  is  expecting  to 
be  confined  any  moment.1  All  sorts  of  messages  to  your 
dear  husband  from  us  both. 

(553)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg  2 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  /.  55]  3 

DEAREST  BROTHER!4  VIENNA,  early  in  June,  1788 

Your  true  friendship  and  brotherly  love  embolden 
me  to  ask  a  great  favour  of  you.  I  still  owe  you  eight 
ducats.  Apart  from  the  fact  that  at  the  moment  I  am  not 
in  a  position  to  pay  you  back  this  sum,  my  confidence  in 
you  is  so  boundless  that  I  dare  to  implore  you  to  help  me 
out  with  a  hundred  gulden  until  next  week,  when  my 
concerts  in  the  Casino  are  to  begin.  By  that  time  I  shall 
certainly  have  received  my  subscription  money  and  shall 
then  be  able  quite  easily  to  pay  you  back  136  gulden  with 
my  warmest  thanks. 

1  The  Mozarts'  fourth  child,  a  daughter,  christened  Theresia,  was  born 
on  December  27th.  She  died  six  months  later,  on  June  29th,  1788. 

2  Michael  Puchberg  was  a  wealthy  merchant  of  Vienna  and  a  talented 
musician.  He  was  closely  connected  with  several  Masonic  Lodges,  though 
not  with  the  particular  Lodge  "Zur  Wohltatigkeit",  of  which  Mozart  had 
become  a  member  in  December  1784.  For  a  very  full  account  of  Mozart's 
connections  with  the  leading  Freemasons  in  Vienna  and  the  works  he  com 
posed  for  their  festive  occasions,  see  Otto  Erich  Deutsch,  Mozart  und  die 
Wiener  Logen,  Vienna,  1932. 

3  The  only  source  for  nearly  all  Mozart's  letters  to  Puchberg  is  Notte- 
bohm's  Mozartiana,  Leipzig,  1880,  which,  however,  rarely  quotes  any  dates. 
The  present  arrangement  of  these  letters  follows  that  of  Ludwig  Schieder- 
mair,  which   is  based   on  Spitta's   article,    "Zur  Herausgabe   der  Briefe 
Mozarts",  in  the  AMZ,  1880,  p.  402  f. 

4  i.e.  Brother  Freemason. 



IliMftflf^'  '•' •'^$R 


From  an  engraving  by  C.  F.  Riedel 
(C.  B.  Oldman,  Esq.,  London) 


I  take  the  liberty  of  sending  you  two  tickets  which,  as 
a  brother,  I  beg  you  to  accept  without  payment,  seeing 
that,  as  it  is,  I  shall  never  be  able  adequately  to  return  the 
friendship  which  you  have  shown  me. 

Once  more  I  ask  your  forgiveness  for  my  importunity 
and  with  greetings  to  your  esteemed  wife  I  remain  in  true 
friendship  and  fraternal  love,  your  most  devoted  brother 

W.  A.  MOZART  * 

(554)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

[Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Frau  Flosrsheim-Kock,  Florence] 

VIENNA,  June  i^tk,  1788 


The  conviction  that  you  are  indeed  my  friend  and 
that  you  know  me  to  be  a  man  of  honour  encourages  me 
to  open  my  heart  to  you  completely  and  to  make  you  the 
following  request.  In  accordance  with  my  natural  frank 
ness  I  shall  go  straight  to  the  point  without  affectation. 

If  you  have  sufficient  regard  and  friendship  for  me  to 
assist  me  for  a  year  or  two  with  one  or  two  thousand 
gulden,  at  a  suitable  rate  of  interest,  you  will  help  me 
enormously!  You  yourself  will  surely  admit  the  sense  and 
truth  of  my  statement  when  I  say  that  it  is  difficult,  nay 
impossible,  to  live  when  one  has  to  wait  for  various  odd 
sums.  If  one  has  not  at  least  a  minimum  of  capital  behind 
one,  it  is  impossible  to  keep  one's  affairs  in  order.  Nothing 
can  be  done  with  nothing.  If  you  will  do  me  this  kindness 
then,  primo,  as  I  shall  have  some,  money  to  go  on  with, 
I  can  meet  necessary  expenses  whenever  they  occur \  and 
therefore  more  easily,  whereas  now  I  have  to  postpone 

1  Puchberg-  noted  on  this  letter,  "sent  100  gulden". 
2  i.e.  of  Freemasons. 

VOL.  Ill  1361  X 


payments  and  then  often  at  the  most  awkward  time  have 
to  spend  all  I  receive  at  one  go;  secondo,  I  can  work  with 
a  mind  more  free  from  care  and  with  a  lighter  heart,  and 
thus  earn  more.  As  to  security  I  do  not  suppose  that  you 
will  have  any  doubts.  You  know  more  or  less  how  I  stand 
and  you  know  my  principles.  You  need  not  be  anxious 
about  the  subscription:  I  am  now  extending  the  time  by  a 
few  months.1  I  have  hopes  of  finding  more  patrons  abroad 
than  here. 

I  have  now  opened  my  whole  heart  to  you  in  a  matter 
which  is  of  the  utmost  importance  to  me;  that  is,  I  have 
acted  as  a  true  brother.  But  it  is  only  with  a  true  brother 
that  one  can  be  perfectly  frank.  And  now  I  look  forward 
eagerly  to  your  reply,  which  I  do  hope  will  be  favour -able. 
I  do  not  know,  but  I  take  you  to  be  a  man  who,  provided 
he  can  do  so,  will  like  myself  certainly  assist  a  friend,  if  he 
be  a  true  friend,  or  his  brother,  if  he  be  indeed  a  brother. 
If  you  should  find  it  inconvenient  to  part  with  so  large  a 
sum  at  once,  then  I  beg  you  to  lend  me  until  to-morrow 
at  least  a  couple  of  hundred  gulden,  as  my  landlord  in  the 
Landstrasse  has  been  so  importunate  that  in  order  to 
avoid  an  unpleasant  incident  I  have  had  to  pay  him  on 
the  spot,  and  this  has  made  things  very  awkward  for  me! 
We  are  sleeping  to-night,  for  the  first  time,  in  our  new 
quarters,  where  we  shall  remain  both  summer  and  winter.2 
On  the  whole  the  change  is  all  the  same  to  me,  in  fact  I 
prefer  it.  As  it  is,  I  have  very  little  to  do  in  town  and,  as 
I  am  not  exposed  to  so  many  visitors,  I  shall  have  more 
time  for  work.  If  I  have  to  go  to  town  on  business,  which 
will  certainly  not  be  very  often,  any  fiacre  will  take  me 
there  for  ten  kreutzer.  Moreover  our  rooms  are  cheaper 

1  Mozart  is  probably  referring  to  the  subscription  list  for  his  concerts. 

2  The  Mozarts  had  left  the  Landstrasse  by  December  1787,  as  their  fourth 
child  was  born  on  December  27th  in  a  house  (which  has  now  disappeared) 
"Unter  den  Tuchlauben  281".  They  moved  again  into  a  house  in  a  street 
somewhat  outside  the  town. 



and  during  the  spring,  summer  and  autumn  more 
pleasant,  as  I  have  a  garden  too.  The  address  is  Wahrin- 
gergasse,  bei  den  Drei  Sternen.  No.  I35-1  Pray  regard 
this  letter  as  a  real  proof  of  my  complete  confidence  in 
you  and  remain  ever  my  friend  and  brother  as  I  shall 
be  until  the  grave,  your  true,  most  devoted  friend  and 

W.  A.  MOZART  2 

P.S. — When  are  we  to  have  a  little  musical  party  at 
your  house  again? 

I  have  composed  a  new  trio! 3 

(555)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

[Copy  in  the  Preussische  Stoat sbibliothek,  Berlin] 

MOST   HONOURABLE    B.O.,4  VIENNA,  June  2 jtk,  1788 


I  have  been  expecting  to  go  to  town  myself  one  of 
these  days  and  to  be  able  to  thank  you  in  person  for  the 
kindness  you  have  shown  me.  But  now  I  should  not  even 
have  the  courage  to  appear  before  you,  as  I  am  obliged  to 
tell  you  frankly  that  it  is  impossible  for  me  to  pay  back  so 
soon  the  money  you  have  lent  me  and  that  I  must  beg 
you  to  be  patient  with  me!  I  am  very  much  distressed  that 
your  circumstances  at  the  moment  prevent  you  from 
assisting  me  as  much  as  I  could  wish,  for  my  position  is 
so  serious  that  I  am  unavoidably  obliged  to  raise  money 
somehow.  But,  good  God,  in  whom  can  I  confide?  In  no 
one  but  you,  my  best  friend!  If  you  would  only  be  so  kind 
as  to  get  the  money  for  me  through  some  other  channel! 

1  This  house  still  exists  as  Wahringerstrasse  28. 

2  Puchberg  noted  on  this  letter,  "sent  200  gulden  on  June  iyth,  1788". 

3  K.  542,  piano  trio  in  E  major.  4  i.e.  Brother  of  the  Order. 



I  shall  willingly  pay  the  interest  and  whoever  lends  it  to 
me  will,  I  believe,  have  sufficient  security  in  my  character 
and  my  income.1  I  am  only  too  grieved  to  be  in  such  an 
extremity;  but  that  is  the  very  reason  why  I  should  like 
a  fairly  substantial  sum  for  a  somewhat  longer  period,  I 
mean,  in  order  to  be  able  to  prevent  a  recurrence  of  this 
state  of  affairs.  If  you,  my  most  worthy  brother,  do  not 
help  me  in  this  predicament,  I  shall  lose  my  honour  and 
my  credit,  which  of  all  things  I  wish  to  preserve.  I  rely 
entirely  on  your  genuine  friendship  and  brotherly  love 
and  confidently  expect  that  you  will  stand  by  me  in  word 
and  deed.  If  my  wish  is  fulfilled,  I  can  breathe  freely  again, 
because  I  shall  then  be  able  to  put  my  affairs  in  order 
and  keep  them  so.  Do  come  and  see  me.  I  am  always  at 
home.  During  the  ten  days  since  I  came  to  live  here  I 
have  done  more  work  than  in  two  months  in  my  former 
quarters,  and  if  such  black  thoughts  did  not  come  to  me 
so  often,  thoughts  which  I  banish  by  a  tremendous  effort, 
things  would  be  even  better,  for  my  rooms  are  pleasant — 
comfortable — and — cheap.  I  shall  not  detain  you  any 
longer  with  my  drivel  but  shall  stop  talking — and  hope. 
Ever  your  grateful  servant,  true  friend  and  B.O. 

June  27th,  1788. 

(556)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

[Autograph  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin] 

VIENNA,  beginning  of  July,  1788 

Owing  to  great  difficulties  and  complications  my 
affairs  have  become  so  involved  that  it  is  of  the  utmost 
importance  to  raise  some  money  on  these  two  pawn- 

1  See  p.  1359,  n.  3. 

i?88  MOZART  TO  HIS  SISTER  L.  557 

broker's  tickets.  In  the  name  of  our  friendship  I  implore 
you  to  do  me  this  favour;  but  you  must  do  it  immediately. 
Forgive  my  importunity,  but  you  know  my  situation. 
Ah!  If  only  you  had  done  what  I  asked  you!  Do  it  even 
now — then  everything  will  be  as  I  desire. 

Ever  your 


(557)  Mozart  to  his  Sister 

[From  Ludwig  Nohl,  Mozarts  Brief e,  -2nd  edition,  p.  431] 

DEAREST  SISTER!  VIENNA,  A ugwt  2nd,  1788 

'Indeed  you  have  every  reason  to  be  vexed  with  me! 
But  will  you  really  be  so,  when  you  receive  by  this  mail 
coach  my  very  latest  compositions  for  the  clavier?1 
Surely  not!  This,  I  hope,  will  make  everything  all  right 

As  you  must  be  convinced  that  every  day  I  wish  you 
every  possible  happiness,  you  will  forgive  me  for  limping 
along  rather  far  behind  with  my  congratulations  on  your 
name-day,2  Dearest  sister,  with  my  whole  heart  and  soul 
I  wish  you  all  that  you  believe  is  most  advantageous  to 
yourself.  So  now  Punctum. 

Dear  sister!  You  must  realise  that  I  have  a  great  deal 
to  do.  Besides,  you  know  very  well  that  I  am  rather  lazy 
about  letter-writing.  So  do  not  take  it  amiss,  if  I  seldom 
write  to  you.  But  this  must  not  prevent  you  from  writing 
very  often  to  me.  Indeed,  though  I  detest  writing  letters, 
I  love  getting  them.  Moreover  you  have  far  more  to  write 
about  than  I  have,  as  Salzburg  affairs  interest  me  more 
than  what  is  happening  in  Vienna  can  interest  you. 

Well,  I  have  a  request  to  make.  I  should  very  much 

1  Probably  K.  540,  adagio  in  B  minor,  K.  545,  sonata  in  C  major,  and 
K.  547,  clavier  and  violin  sonata  in  F  major.  2  July  26th. 


L.  557  MOZART  TO  HIS  SISTER  I?88 

like  Haydn1  to  lend  me  for  a  short  time  his  two  Tutti- 
masses  and  the  Graduate  which  he  has  composed,  all  of 
them  in  the  original  scores.  Tell  him  that  I  shall  return 
them  with  many  thanks.  It  is  now  exactly  a  year  since  I 
wrote  to  him  and  invited  him  to  come  and  stay  with  me; 
but  he  has  not  replied.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  as  far  as 
answering  letters  is  concerned,  he  seems,  don't  you  think, 
to  have  a  good  deal  in  common  with  myself.  So  I  urge 
you  to  arrange  this  for  me  in  the  following  way.  Invite 
him  to  your  house  at  St.  Gilgen  and  play  to  him  some  of 
my  latest  compositions.  I  am  sure  he  will  like  the  Trio  and 
the  Quartet.2  Adieu,  dearest  sister!  As  soon  as  I  can 
collect  some  new  music  again,  I  shall  send  it  to  you.  I  am 
ever  your  sincere  brother 


P.S. — My  wife  sends  her  love  to  you  and  we  both  send 
ours  to  our  dear  brother-in-law. 

P.S, — In  reply  to  your  question  about  my  appointment, 
I  must  tell  you  that  the  Emperor  has  taken  me  into  his 
household.  I  now  have  therefore  a  permanent  appoint 
ment,  but  for  the  time  being  at  a  salary  of  only  800 
gulden.  However,  no  one  else  in  the  household  is  drawing 
so  large  a  sum.  The  notice  which  was  printed  at  the  time 
when  my  Prague  opera  "Don  Giovanni"  (which  by  the 
way  is  being  given  again  to-day)  was  performed  and  on 
which  there  are  certainly  not  too  many  particulars  about 
me,  as  the  management  of  the  Imperial  Theatre  were 
responsible  for  it,  stated:— 'The  music  is  by  Herr 
Mozart,  duly-appointed  Kapellmeister  to  His  Imperial 

1  Michael  Haydn. 

2  Probably  K.  542,  piano  trio  in  E  major,  and  K.  493,  piano  quartet  in  Eb. 
See  Kochel,  p.  693. 



(558)  Mozart  to  Franz  Hofdemel l 

[Autograph  sold  by  Leo  Liepmannssohn,  Berlin, 
November  ibth,  1928,  Catalogue  52] 

DEAREST  FRIEND!  VIENNA,  end  of  March,  1789 

I  am  taking  the  liberty  of  asking  you  without  any 
hesitation  for  a  favour.  I  should  be  very  much  obliged  to 
you  if  you  could  and  would  lend  me  a  hundred  gulden 
until  the  2Oth  of  next  month.  On  that  day  I  receive  the 
quarterly  instalment  of  my  salary  and  shall  then  repay 
the  loan  with  thanks.  I  have  relied  too  much  on  a  sum  of 
a  hundred  ducats  due  to  me  from  abroad.  Up  to  the 
present  I  have  not  yet  received  it,  although  I  am  ex 
pecting  it  daily.  Meanwhile  I  have  left  myself  too  short 
of  cash,  so  that  at  the  moment  I  greatly  need  some  ready 
money 2  and  have  therefore  appealed  to  your  goodness,  as 
I  am  absolutely  convinced  of  your  friendship. 

Well,  we  shall  soon  be  able  to  call  one  another  by  a 
more  delightful  name!  For  your  novitiate  is  very  nearly 

at  an  end! 3 


1  Franz  Hofdemel,  private  secretary  to  a  certain  Count  Seilern,  held  later 
as  "Tustizkanzlist"  an  appointment  in  the  Vienna  Law  Courts.  He  married 
Magdalene  Pokorny,  the  daughter  of  Kapellmeister  Gotthard  Pokorny  and 
a  pupil  of  Mozart's.  Shortly  after  the  latter's  death  Hofdemel  in  a  fit  of 
jealousy  attempted  to  murder  his  wife,  an  incident  which  gave  rise  to  all  kinds 
of  gossip  about  Mozart's  private  life.  . 

2  Prince  Karl  Lichnowsky  had  offered  to  take  Mozart  to  Berlin  and  intro 
duce  him  to  King  Frederick  William  II.  Evidently  Mozart  needed  money 
for  this  journey. 

3  Hofdemel  had  joined  the  Order  of  Freemasons. 

+  Hofdemel  acceded  to  Mozart's  request  and  Mozart  sent  him  a  receipt 
dated  April  2nd,  1789,  and  a  promise  to  repay  the  sum  within  four  months. 
The  autograph  of  this  document  is  in  the  possession  of  Frau  Floersheim- 
Koch,  Florence. 


Z.  560  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  i78g 

(559)  Mozart  to  his  Wife 

[From  Nottebohm^  Mozartiana,  p.  83] 

DEAREST  LITTLE  WIFE!  BUDWITZ,  April  Stk,  1789 

While  the  Prince  *  is  busy  bargaining  about  horses, 
I  am  delighted  to  seize  this  opportunity  to  write  a  few 
lines  to  you,  dearest  little  wife  of  my  heart.  How  are  you?  I 
wonder  whether  you  think  of  me  as  often  as  I  think  of  you? 
Every  other  moment  I  look  at  your  portrait — and  weep 
partly  for  joy,  partly  for  sorrow.  Look  after  your  health 
which  is  so  precious  to  me  and  fare  well,  my  darling!  Do 
not  worry  about  me,  for  I  am  not  suffering  any  dis 
comforts  or  any  annoyance  on  this  journey — apart  from 
your  absence  —  which,  as  it  can't  be  helped,  can't  be 
remedied.  I  write  this  note  with  eyes  full  of  tears.  Adieu. 
I  shall  write  a  longer  and  more  legible  letter  to  you  from 
Prague,  for  then  I  shan't  have  to  hurry  so  much.  Adieu. 
I  kiss  you  millions  of  times  most  tenderly  and  am  ever 
yours,  true  till  death 

stu — stu — 


Kiss  Karl  for  me  and  give  all  sorts  of  messages  to  Herr 
and  Frau  von  Puchberg.  More  very  soon. 

(560)  Mozart  to  his  Wife 

{Copy  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliotkek,  Berlin\ 

PRAGUE,  Good  Friday,  April  iotky  1789 

We  arrived  here  safely  to-day  at  half  past  one  in  the 
afternoon.  Meanwhile  I  trust  that  you  have  received  my 

1  Prince  Karl  Lichnowsky,  a  nephew  of  Countess  Wilhelmine  Thun,  was 
a  pupil  and  friend  of  Mozart's. 


ijBg  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  L.  560 

little  note  from  Budwitz.  Now  for  my  account  of  Prague. 
We  alighted  at  the  "Unicorn"  and  after  I  had  been 
shaved,  had  my  hair  done  and  got  dressed,  I  drove  out  to 
Canal's1  on  the  chance  of  having  a  meal  with  him.  But 
as  my  drive  took  me  past  the  Duscheks*,  I  called  there 
first  and  was  told  that  Madame  had  left  yesterday  for 
Dresden!  So  I  shall  meet  her  there.  Duschek  was 
lunching  at  Leliborn's,  where  I  too  used  often  to  lunch. 
So  I  drove  straight  there.  I  sent  in  a  message  to  Duschek, 
just  as  if  someone  or  other  wished  to  speak  to  him,  and 
asked  him  to  come  out.  You  can  just  imagine  our  delight. 
So  I  lunched  at  Leliborn's.  After  it  was  over  I  drove  off 
to  Canal  and  Pachta,2  but  they  were  both  out.  So  I  went 
on  to  Guardasoni,3  who  has  practically  arranged  to  give 
me  200  ducats  next  autumn  for  the  opera  and  50  ducats 
for  travelling  expenses.4  Then  I  came  home  to  write  all 
this  to  my  dear  little  wife.  That  reminds  me.  Only  a  week 
ago  Ramm  left  Prague  to  return  home.  He  came  from 
Berlin  and  said  that  the  King5  had  frequently  and  in 
sistently  enquired  whether  it  was  certain  that  I  was 
coming  to  Berlin,  as  I  had  not  yet  appeared.  He  had 
said  a  second  time:  "I  fear  that  he  will  not  come  at  all". 
Ramm  became  very  uneasy  and  tried  to  convince  him 
that  I  really  was  coming.  Judging  by  this,  my  affairs 
ought  to  be  fairly  successful.  I  am  now  taking  the 
Prince  6  to  see  Duschek,  who  is  expecting  us,  and  at  nine 
o'clock  we  are  starting  off  for  Dresden,  where  we  hope  to 
arrive  to-morrow  evening.  Dearest  little  wife!  I  arn  simply 

1  Count  Canal.  See  p.  1344,  n.  3. 

2  Count  Johann  von  Pachta.  See  p.  444,  n.  i. 

3  Domenico  Guardasoni  had  been  manager  of  the  National  Theatre  at 
Prague  since  1788.  In  1789  he  went  to  Warsaw  to  organise  theatrical  pro 
ductions  there,  and  only  returned  to  Prague  in  1791. 

4  This  commission  was  never  carried  out. 

5  King  Frederick  William  II,  who  was  an  excellent  performer  on  the 
violoncello  and  a  great  lover  and  active  patron  of  musk. 

6  Prince  Karl  Lichnowsky. 


L.  561  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  i789 

aching  for  news  of  you.  Perhaps  I  shall  find  a  letter  at 
Dresden!  Great  God,  fulfil  my  wishes!  When  you  receive 
this  letter  you  must  write  to  me  at  Leipzig — Poste 
Restante,  of  course.  Adieu,  my  love,  I  must  close,  or  I 
shall  miss  the  post.  Kiss  our  Karl  a  thousand  times  and  I, 
who  kiss  you  most  ardently, 

remain  ever  your  faithful 


P.S. — All  sorts  of  messages  to  Herr  and  Frau  von 
Puchberg.  I  must  wait  until  I  get  to  Berlin  to  write  and 
thank  him. 

Adieu,  aimez-moi  et  gardez  votre  sante  si  chere  et 
precieuse  a  votre  epoux. 

(561)  Mozart  to  his  Wife 

\Copy  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek>  Berlin\ 

DRESDEN,  April  13^,  1789 
At  seven  o'clock  in  the  morning 

We  expected  to  reach  Dresden  after  dinner  on 
Saturday,  but  we  did  not  arrive  until  yesterday,  Sunday, 
at  two  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  as  the  roads  were  so  bad. 
All  the  same  I  went  yesterday  to  the  Neumanns,1  where 
Madame  Duschek  is  staying,  in  order  to  deliver  her 
husband's  letter.  Her  room  is  on  the  third  floor  beside  the 
corridor  and  from  it  you  can  see  anyone  who  is  coming 
to  the  house.  When  I  arrived  at  the  door,  Herr  Neumann 
was  already  there  and  asked  me  to  whom  he  had  the 
honour  to  speak.  "That  I  shall  tell  you  in  a  moment/' 
I  replied,  "but  please  be  so  kind  as  to  call  Madame 

1  Johann  Leopold  Neumann,  secretary  to  the  Saxon  War  Council,  wrote 
and  translated  opera  texts.  His  wife  was  an  excellent  pianist. 



Duschek,  so  that  my  joke  may  not  be  spoilt."  But  at  the 
same  moment  Madame  Duschek  stood  before  me,  for  she 
had  recognised  me  from  the  window  and  had  said  at  once: 
"Why,  here  comes  someone  who  is  very  like  Mozart". 
Well,  we  were  all  delighted.  There  was  a  large  party, 
consisting  entirely  of  ugly  women,  who  by  their  charm, 
however,  made  up  for  their  lack  of  beauty.  The  Prince 
and  I  are  going  to  breakfast  there  to-day;  we  shall  then 
see  Naumann1  and  then  the  chapel.  To-morrow  or  the 
day  after  we  shall  leave  for  Leipzig.  After  receiving  this 
letter  you  must  write  to  Berlin,  Poste  Restante.  I  trust 
that  you  got  my  letter  from  Prague.  All  the  Neumanns 
and  the  Duscheks  send  their  greetings  to  you  and  also  to 
my  brother-in-law  Lange  and  his  wife. 

Dearest  little  wife,  if  only  I  had  a  letter  from  you!  If  I 
were  to  tell  you  all  the  things  I  do  with  your  dear  portrait, 
I  think  that  you  would  often  laugh.  For  instance,  when  I 
take  it  out  of  its  case,  I  say,  "Good-day,  Stanzerl! — 
Good-day,  little  rascal,  pussy-pussy,  little  turned-up  nose, 
little  bagatelle,  Schluck  und  Druck",  and  when  I  put  it 
away  again,  I  let  it  slip  in  very  slowly,  saying  all  the  time, 
"Nu — Nu — Nu — Nu!"  with  the  peculiar  emphasis  which 
this  word  so  full  of  meaning  demands,  and  then  just  at  the 
last,  quickly,  "Good  night,  little  mouse,  sleep  well".  Well, 
I  suppose  I  have  been  writing  something  very  foolish  (to 
the  world  at  all  events);  but  to  us  who  love  each  other  so 
dearly,  it  is  not  foolish  at  all.  To-day  is  the  sixth  day  since 
I  left  you  and  by  Heaven!  it  seems  a  year.  I  expect  you 
will  have  some  difficulty  here  and  there  in  reading  my 
letter,  because  I  am  writing  in  a  hurry  and  therefore 

1  Johann  Gottlieb  Naumann  (1741-1801),  a  prolific  composer  of  operas 
and  church  music.  He  studied  in  Italy  under  Tartlni  and  Padre  Martini, 
and  in  1776  was  appointed  Kapellmeister  and  in  1786  Oberkapellmeister  to 
the  Dresden  court.  During  a  visit  to  Stockholm,  1776-1778,  he  produced  two 
of  his  best  works,  "  Amphion"  and  "Cora",  the  Swedish  texts  of  which  were 
subsequently  translated  into  German  by  J.  L.  Neumann. 


Z.  562  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  i78g 

rather  badly.  Adieu,  my  only  love!  The  carriage  is 
waiting.  This  time  I  do  not  say:  "Hurrah — the  carriage 
has  come  at  last",  but  "male'.1  Farewell,  and  love  me  for 
ever  as  I  love  you.  I  kiss  you  a  million  times  most 
lovingly  and  am  ever  your  husband  who  loves  you 


P.S. — How  is  our  Karl  behaving?  Well,  I  hope.  Kiss  him 
for  me.  All  sorts  of  kind  messages  to  Herr  and  Frau  von 
Puchberg.  Remember,  you  must  not  regulate  the  length 
of  your  letters  by  that  of  mine.  Mine  are  rather  short,  but 
only  because  I  am  in  a  hurry.  If  I  were  not,  I  should  cover 
a  whole  sheet.  But  you  have  more  leisure.  Adieu. 

(562)  Mozart  to  his  Wife 

[Copy  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliottiek,  Berlin\ 

DRESDEN,  April  i6tk,  1789 
Half  past  eleven  at  night 

What?  Still  in  Dresden?  Yes,  my  love.  Well,  I  shall 
tell  you  everything  as  minutely  as  possible.  On  Monday, 
April  1 3th,  after  breakfasting  with  the  Neumanns  we  all 
went  to  the  Court  chapel.  The  mass  was  by  Naumann, 
who  conducted  it  himself,  and  very  poor  stuff  it  was.  We 
were  in  an  oratory  opposite  the  orchestra.  All  of  a  sudden 
Neumann  nudged  me  and  introduced  me  to  Herr  von 
Konig,  who  is  the  Directeur  des  Plaisirs  (of  the  melan 
choly  plaisirs  of  the  Elector).  He  was  extremely  nice  and 
when  he  asked  me  whether  I  should  like  His  Highness 
to  hear  me,  I  replied  that  it  would  indeed  be  a  great 
privilege,  but  that,  as  I  was  not  travelling  alone,  I  could 

1  i.e.  Confound  it! 


not  prolong  my  stay.  So  we  left  It  at  that.  My  princely 
travelling  companion  invited  the  Neumanns  and  Madame 
Duschek  to  lunch.  While  we  were  at  table  a  message  came 
that  I  was  to  play  at  court  on  the  following  day,  Tuesday, 
April  1 4th,  at  half  past  five  in  the  evening.  That  is  some 
thing  quite  out  of  the  ordinary  for  Dresden,  for  it  is 
usually  very  difficult  to  get  a  hearing,  and  you  know  that 
I  never  thought  of  performing  at  court  here.  We  had 
arranged  a  quartet  among  ourselves  at  the  Hotel  de 
Pologne.  So  we  performed  it  in  the  Chapel  with  Anton 
Teiber  (who,  as  you  know,  is  organist  here)  and  with  Herr 
Kraft,1  Prince  Esterhazy's  violoncellist,  who  is  here  with 
his  son.2  At  this  little  concert  I  introduced  the  trio3  which 
I  wrote  for  Herr  von  Puchberg  and  it  was  played  quite 
decently.  Madame  Duschek  sang  a  number  of  arias  from 
" Figaro"  and  "Don  Giovanni".  The  next  day  I  played  at 
court  my  new  concerto  in  D,4  and  on  the  following  morn 
ing,  Wednesday,  April  I5th,  I  received  a  very  handsome 
snuff-box.  Then  we  lunched  with  the  Russian  Ambassador, 
to  whom  I  played  a  great  deal.  After  lunch  we  agreed  to 
have  some  organ  playing  and  drove  to  the  church  at  four 
o'clock — Naumann  was  there  too.  At  this  point  you  must 
know  that  a  certain  Hassler,5  who  is  organist  at  Erfurt, 
is  in  Dresden.  Well,  he  too  was  there.  He  was  a  pupil  of  a 

1  Anton  Kraft  (1752-1820),  a  distinguished  violoncellist.  He  studied  in 
Vienna,  where  Haydn  secured  him  for  the  orchestra  of  Prince  Esterhazy.  On 
the  latter's  death  in  1790  Kraft  became  chamber  musician  to  Prince  Grassal- 
kowics,  and  in   1795  to  Prince  Lobkowitz,  in  whose  service  he  died.  He 
composed  several  works  for  his  instrument. 

2  Nicolaus  Kraft  (1778-1853),  son  of  Anton  Kraft.  He  early  became  pro 
ficient  on  the  violoncello,  accompanied  his  father  on  concert  tours  and  in 
1790  settled  with  him  in  Vienna,  where  he  was  one  of  Prince  Karl  Lichnow- 
sky's  famous  quartet.  He  was  a  more  gifted  composer  than  his  father. 

3  K.  563,  a  divertimento  for  violin,  viola  and  'cello,  composed  in  1788. 

4  K.  537,  clavier  concerto  in  D  major,  composed  in  1788. 

5  Johann  Wilhelm  Hassler  (1747-1822),  who  enjoyed  a  great  reputation  as 
an  organist  and  had  already  won  success  by  his  performances  at  Dresden  in 


Z.  562  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  i789 

pupil1  of  Bach's.  His  forte  is  the  organ  and  the  clavier 
(clavichord).  Now  people  here  think  that  because  I  come 
from  Vienna,  I  am  quite  unacquainted  with  this  style  and 
mode  of  playing.  Well,  I  sat  down  at  the  organ  and 
played.  Prince  Lichnowsky,  who  knows  Hassler  very 
well,  after  some  difficulty  persuaded  him  to  play  also. 
This  Hassler's  chief  excellence  on  the  organ  consists  in 
his  foot- work,  which,  since  the  pedals  are  graded  here,  is 
not  so  very  wonderful.  Moreover,  he  has  done  no  more 
than  commit  to  memory  the  harmony  and  modulations  of 
old  Sebastian  Bach  and  is  not  capable  of  executing  a 
fugue  properly;  and  his  playing  is  not  thorough.  Thus  he 
is  far  from  being  an  Albrechtsbergen2  After  that  we 
decided  to  go  back  to  the  Russian  Ambassador's,  so  that 
Hassler  might  hear  me  on  the  fortepiano.  He  played  too. 
I  consider  Mile  Aurnhammer  as  good  a  player  on  the 
fortepiano  as  he  is,  so  you  can  imagine  that  he  has  begun 
to  sink  very  considerably  in  my  estimation.  After  that  we 
went  to  the  opera,  which  is  truly  wretched.  Do  you  know 
who  is  one  of  the  singers?  Why — Rosa  Manservisi.3  You 
can  picture  her  delight  at  seeing  me.  But  the  leading 
woman  singer,  Madame  Allegranti,4  is  far  better  than 
Madame  Ferraresi,5  which,  I  admit,  is  not  saying  very 

1  Johann  Christian  Kittel  (1732-1809),  one  of  the  last  pupils  of  Johann 
Sebastian  Bach.  He  was  organist  first  at  Langensalza  and  later  at  the  Predi- 
gerkirche  in  Erfurt,  his  native  town. 

2  Johann  Georg  Albrechtsberger  (1736-1809),  organist  and  composer.  He 
was  appointed  in  1772  court  organist  at  Vienna  and  director  of  music  at  St. 
Stephen's.  He  was  also  a  famous  teacher  and  the  author  of  a  great  theoretical 
work,  Grundliche  Anweisung  zur  Composition,  Leipzig,  1790. 

3  Rosa  Manservisi  took  the  part  of   Sandrina   in  Mozart's  "La  finta 
giardiniera",  which  was  performed  at  Munich  in  1775. 

4  Maddalena  Allegranti,  a  famous  soprano  singer  of  the  eighteenth  century. 
She  studied  under  Holzbauer  at  Mannheim  and  made  her  first  appearance 
in  Venice  in  1771,  and  from  that  time  sang  frequently  in  Italy.  She  performed 
in  England  in  1781. 

5  Adriana  Ferraresi  del  Bene  first  appeared  in  Vienna  in  1788  in  Martin's 
"L'arbore  di  Diana".  For  the  revival  of  "Le  Nozze  di  Figaro"  in  August  1789 


1789  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  L.  562 

much.  When  the  opera  was  over  we  went  home.  Then 
came  the  happiest  of  all  moments  for  me.  I  found  a  letter 
from  you,  that  letter  which  I  had  longed  for  so  ardently, 
my  darling,  my  beloved!  Madame  Duschek  and  the  Neu 
manns  were  with  me  as  usual.  But  I  immediately  went  off 
in  triumph  to  my  room,  kissed  the  letter  countless  times 
before  breaking  the  seal,  and  then  devoured  it  rather  than 
read  it.  I  stayed  in  my  room  a  long  time;  for  I  could  not 
read  it  or  kiss  it  often  enough.  When  I  rejoined  the  com 
pany,  the  Neumanns  asked  me  whether  I  had  had  a  letter 
from  you,  and  when  I  said  that  I  had,  they  all  congratu 
lated  me  most  heartily — as  every  day  I  had  been  lament 
ing  that  I  had  not  yet  heard  from  you.  They  are  delightful 
people.  Now  for  your  dear  letter.  You  shall  receive  by  the 
next  post  an  account  of  what  will  have  taken  place  here 
up  to  the  time  of  our  departure. 

Dear  little  wife,  I  have  a  number  of  requests  to  make. 
I  beg  you 

(1)  not  to  be  melancholy, 

(2)  to  take  care  of  your  health  and  to  beware  of  the  spring 

(3)  not  to  go  out  walking  alone — and  preferably  not  to  go 
out  walking  at  all, 

(4)  to  feel  absolutely  assured  of  my  love.   Up  to  the 
present   I   have  not  written  a  single  letter  to  you 
without  placing  your  dear  portrait  before  me, 

(6)  and  lastly  I  beg  you  to  send  me  more  details  in  your 
letters,  I  should  very  much  like  to  know  whether  our 
brother-in-law  Hofer  came  to  see  us  the  day  after  my 
departure?  Whether  he  comes  very  often,  as  he 
promised  me  he  would?  Whether  the  Langes  come 
sometimes?  Whether  progress  is  being  made  with  the 

Mozart  composed  for  her  the  aria  "Al  desio  di  chi  t'adora",  sung  by  Susanna. 
He  also  wrote  for  her  the  part  of  Fiordiligi  in  "Cosi  fan  tutte",  which  was 
performed  on  January  26th,  1790. 


Z.  565  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  I789 

portrait?1  What  sort  of  life  you  are  leading?  All  these 
things  are  naturally  of  great  interest  to  me. 
(5)  I  beg  you  in  your  conduct  not  only  to  be  careful  of 
your  honour  and  mine>  but  also  to  consider  appear 
ances.  Do  not  be  angry  with  me  for  asking  this.  You 
ought  to  love  me  even  more  for  thus  valuing  our 

Now  farewell,  dearest,  most  beloved!  Please  remember 
that  every  night  before  going  to  bed  I  talk  to  your  por 
trait  for  a  good  half  hour  and  do  the  same  when  I  awake. 
We  are  leaving  on  the  i8th,  the  day  after  to-morrow.  So 
continue  to  write  to  Berlin,  Poste  Restante. 

O  Stru!  Stri!  I  kiss  and  squeeze  you  1095060437082 
times  (now  you  can  practise  your  pronunciation)  and  am 
ever  your  most  faithful  husband  and  friend 


The  account  of  the  rest  of  our  Dresden  visit  will  follow 
in  my  next  letter.  Good  night! 

(563)  Mozart  to  his  Wife 

[Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Heinrich  Eisemann,  London} 

LEIPZIG,  May  i6th,  1789 

What?  Still  in  Leipzig?2  My  last  letter,  dated  May 
8th  or  gth,  told  you,  it  is  true,  that  I  was  leaving  at  two 
o'clock  that  night;  but  the  insistent  requests  of  my  friends 
persuaded  me  not  to  make  the  whole  of  Leipzig  suffer  for 

1  Possibly  a  lost  portrait  of  Constanze. 

2  This  letter  was  written  during  Mozart's  second  visit  to  Leipzig,  whither 
he  made  a  trip  from  Potsdam. 


1789  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  L.  563 

the  shortcomings  of  one  or  two  persons,  but  to  give  a 
concert  on  Tuesday,  the  I2th.  From  the  point  of  view  of 
applause  and  glory  this  concert  was  absolutely  magnifi 
cent,  but  the  profits  were  wretchedly  meagre.  Madame 
Duschek,  who  happens  to  be  in  Leipzig,  sang  at  it.  The 
Neumanns  of  Dresden  are  all  here  too.  The  pleasure  of 
being  as  long  as  possible  in  the  company  of  these  dear 
good  people,  who  all  send  their  best  greetings  to  you,  has 
up  to  the  present  delayed  my  journey.  I  wanted  to  get 
away  yesterday,  but  could  find  no  horses.  I  am  having 
the  same  difficulty  to-day.  For  at  the  present  moment 
everyone  is  trying  to  get  off  and  the  number  of  travellers 
is  simply  enormous.  But  we  shall  be  on  the  road  to 
morrow  at  five  o'clock.  My  love!  I  am  very  sorry  and  yet 
perhaps  a  little  glad  that  you  are  in  the  same  state  as  I 
have  been.  No,  no!  I  would  rather  that  you  had  never 
been  in  the  same  sad  situation  and  I  hope  and  trust  that 
at  the  time  I  am  writing  this  letter,  you  will  have  received 
at  least  one  of  mine.  God  knows  what  the  cause  may  be! 
I  received  in  Leipzig  on  April  2ist  your  letter  of  April 
1 3th.  Then  I  spent  seventeen  days  in  Potsdam  without 
any  letters.  Not  until  May  8th  did  I  receive  your  letter  of 
April  24th,  while  apart  from  this  I  have  not  received  any, 
with  the  exception  of  one  dated  May  5th,  which  came 
yesterday.  For  my  part  I  wrote  to  you  from  Leipzig  on 
April  22nd,  from  Potsdam  on  the  28th,  again  from  Pots 
dam  on  May  5th,  from  Leipzig  on  the  gth,  and  now  I  am 
writing  on  the  i6th.  The  strangest  thing  of  all  is  that  we 
both  found  ourselves  at  the  same  time  in  the  same  sad 
situation,  I  was  very  anxious  from  April  24th  until 
May  8th,  and  to  judge  from  your  letter  this  was  also  the 
time  when  you  were  worried.  But  I  trust  that  by  now  you 
will  have  got  over  this.  And  my  consolation  is  that  soon 
letters  will  no  longer  be  necessary,  for  we  shall  be  able  to 
talk  to  each  other  and  kiss  and  press  each  other  to  our  1377  Y 

Z.  563  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  i78g 

hearts.  In  my  last  letter  I  told  you  not  to  write  to  me  any 
more;  and  that  is  the  safest  course.  But  I  am  now  asking 
you  to  send  a  reply  to  this  letter,  and  to  address  it  to 
Duschek  at  Prague.  You  must  put  it  in  a  proper  convert 
and  ask  him  to  keep  it  until  my  arrival.  I  shall  probably 
have  to  spend  at  least  a  week  in  Berlin.  So  I  shall  not  be 
able  to  reach  Vienna  before  June  5th  or  6th — that  is,  ten 
or  twelve  days  after  you  receive  this  letter.  One  thing 
more  about  the  loss  of  our  letters.  I  also  wrote  to  our  dear 
friend  Puchberg  on  April  28th.  Please  give  him  a  thousand 
greetings  from  me  and  thank  him  on  my  behalf.  I  had  no 
idea  that  Schmidt *  was  ill.  You  probably  told  me  this  in 
the  letter  which  I  did  not  receive.  A  thousand  thanks 
for  the  account  of  Seydelmann's  opera.2  Indeed  a  more 
suitable  name  for  him  would  be  Maasmann.  But  if  you 
knew  him  personally,  as  I  do,  you  would  probably  call 
him  Bluzermann,  or  at  any  rate,  Zimmentmann.3  Fare 
well,  dear  little  wife.  Please  do  all  the  things  I  have  asked 
you  to  do  in  "my  letters,  for  what  prompted  me  was  love — 
real,  true  love;  and  love  me  as  much  as  I  do  you.  I  am 

your  only  true  friend  and  faithful  husband 


1  Possibly  Ludwig  Schmidt.  See  p.  1317,  n.  3. 

2  Franz  Seydelmann  (1748-1806),  a  native  of  Dresden  and  a  pupil  of 
J.  G.  Naumann.  After  studying  in  Italy  he  was  appointed  in  1772  church 
composer  in  Dresden  and  in  1787  Kapellmeister.  His  opera  "II  Turco  in 
Italia",  produced  at  Dresden  in  1788,  was  performed  in  Vienna  on  April 
28th,  1789.  Evidently  Constanze  had  seen  it. 

3  The  words  "Seidel,  Maas,  Bluzer  and  Zimment"  are  expressions  in  the 
Viennese  dialect  for  drinking-measures.  Mozart  alludes,  of  course,  to  Seydel- 
mann's  tendency  to  drink. 


1789  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  £.565 

(564)  Mozart  to  his  Wife 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozarfiana,  p.  33] 

BERLIN,  May  igtk,  1789  * 

Well,  I  trust  that  you  will  by  now  have  received  some 
letters  from  me,  for  they  can't  all  have  been  lost.  This  time 
I  can't  write  very  much  to  you,  as  I  have  to  pay  some 
calls  and  I  am  only  sending  you  this  to  announce  my 
arrival.  I  shall  probably  be  able  to  leave  by  the  25th;  at 
least  I  shall  do  my  best  to  do  so.  But  I  shall  let  you  know 
definitely  before  then.  I  shall  quite  certainly  get  away  by 
the  27th.  Oh,  how  glad  I  shall  be  to  be  with  you  again, 
my  darling!  But  the  first  thing  I  shall  do  is  to  take  you  by 
your  front  curls;  for  how  on  earth  could  you  think,  or  even 
imagine,  that  I  had  forgotten  you?  How  could  I  possibly 
do  so?  For  even  supposing  such  a  thing  you  will  get  on  the 
very  first  night  a  thorough  spanking  .  .  .,  and  this  you 
may  count  upon. 

Ever  your  only  friend  and  your  husband 
who  loves  you  with  all  his  heart 


(565)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  . 

[Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Frau  Floersheim-Koch,  Florence] 

BERLIN,  May  2yd,  1789 


I  was  above  measure  delighted  to  receive  here  your 

dear  letter  of  May  I3th,  and  only  this  very  moment  your 

1  For  an  account  of  Mozart's  visit  to  Berlin,  see  an  article  by  Ernst  Fried- 
lander,  "Mozarts  Beziehungen  zu  Berlin",  in  MMB,  April  1897. 



previous  one  of  the  gth,  which  had  to  find  its  way  from 
Leipzig  to  Berlin.  Well,  the  first  thing  I  am  going  to  do  is 
to  make  a  list  of  all  the  letters  which  I  sent  you  and  then  a 
list  of  the  letters  which  I  have  received  from  you. 

I  wrote  to  you  on  April  8th  from  the  post-stage  Budwitz 

On  April  loth  from  Prague 
On  April  i3thJfromDresden 

and  I7thj 
On  April  22nd  (in  French)  from  Leipzig 

On  April  28th]  ,         D  „  A 

.  £,          ,  Krom  Potsdam 
and  May  5th  J 

On    May    othl  r         T    •     • 

•;     ;  ,  \  from  Leipzig 
and  i6thj  ^   5 

On  May  iQth  from  Berlin 

and  I  am  now  writing  on  the  23rd.1 

That  makes  eleven  letters. 
I  received  your  letter  of  April  8th  on  April  I5th 

in  Dresden 
„        „     of  April  i3th  „  April  2ist 

in  Leipzig 

„     of  April  24th  „  May  8th       '   \  g 

in  Leipzig  1  | 

„     of  May  5th     „  May  I4th         I  £ 

in  Leipzig;  § 
„         „     of  May  i3th  „  May  2oth 

in  Berlin 
„         „    of  May    9th   „  May  22nd 

in  Berlin 

That  makes  six  letters. 

You  see  that  there  is  a  gap  between  April  i3th  and  24th. 
So  one  of  your  letters  must  have  gone  astray  and  thus  I 
was  without  a  letter  for  seventeen  days.  So  if  you  too  had 

1  Mozart's  four  letters  written  between  April  22nd  and  May  9th  have  un 
fortunately  been  lost. 


1789  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  L.  565 

to  spend  seventeen  days  in  the  same  condition,  one  of  my 
letters  must  have  been  lost.  Thank  God,  we  shall  soon 
have  got  over  these  mischances.  In  your  arms  I  shall  be 
able  to  tell  you  all,  all  that  I  felt  at  that  time.  But  you 
know  how  I  love  you.  Well,  where  do  you  think  I  am 
writing  this  letter?  In  my  room  at  the  inn?  Not  at  all.  In 
a  restaurant  in  the  Tiergarten  (in  a  summer  house  with 
a  lovely  view)  where  I  lunched  to-day  all  by  myself,  in 
order  to  devote  myself  wholly  to  you.  The  Queen  wants 
to  hear  me  play  on  Tuesday,  but  J  sharit  make  much 
money.  I  only  announced  my  arrival  because  such  is  the 
custom  here,  and  because  she  would  have  taken  it  amiss 
had  I  not  done  so.  First  of  all,  my  darling  little  wife,  when 
I  return  you  must  be  more  delighted  with  having  me 
back  than  with  the  money  I  shall  bring.  A  hundred 
friedrichs  d'or  are  not  nine  hundred  gulden  but  seven 
hundred — at  least  that  is  what  they  have  told  me  here. 
Secondly,  Lichnowsky  (as  he  was  in  a  hurry)  left  me  here, 
and  so  I  have  had  to  pay  for  my  keep  in  Potsdam,  which 
is  an  expensive  place.  Thirdly,  I  had  to  lend  him  a 
hundred  gulden,  as  his  purse  was  getting  empty.  I  could 
not  well  refuse  him:  you  will  know  why.  Fourthly,  my 
concert  at  Leipzig  was  a  failure,  as  I  always  said  it  would 
be,  so  I  had  a  journey  of  sixty-four  miles  there  and  back 
almost  for  nothing.  Lichnowsky  alone  is  to  blame  for  this, 
for  he  gave  me  no  peace  but  insisted  on  my  returning  to 
Leipzig.  I  shall  tell  you  more  about  this  when  we  meet. 
But  (i)  if  I  gave  a  concert  here  I  should  not  make  much 
out  of  it  and  (2)  the  King  would  not  care  for  me  to  give 
one.  So  you  must  just  be  satisfied  as  I  am  with  this,  that 
I  am  fortunate  enough  to  be  enjoying  the  King's  favour. 
What  I  have  just  written  to  you  is  for  ourselves  alone.  On 
Thursday,  the  28th,  I  shall  leave  for  Dresden,  where  I 
shall  spend  the  night.  On  June  ist  I  intend  to  sleep  in 
Prague,  and  on  the  4th — the  4th — with  my  darling  little 



wife.  Arrange  your  dear  sweet  nest  very  daintily,  for  my 
little  fellow  deserves  it  indeed,  he  has  really  behaved 
himself  very  well  and  is  only  longing  to  possess  your 
sweetest.  .  .  .*  Just  picture  to  yourself  that  rascal;  as  I  write 
he  crawls  on  to  the  table  and  looks  at  me  questioningly. 
I,  however,  box  his  ears  properly — but  the  rogue  is 
simply  .  .  .  and  now  the  knave  burns  only  more  fiercely 
and  can  hardly  be  restrained.  Surely  you  will  drive  out 
to  the  first  post-stage  to  meet  me?  I  shall  get  there  at 
noon  on  the  4th.  I  hope  that  Hofer,  whom  I  embrace  a 
thousand  times,  will  be  with  you.  If  Herr  and  Frau  von 
Puchberg  drive  out  with  you  too,  then  all  the  friends  I 
want  to  see  will  be  together.  Don't  forget  to  bring  our 
Karl.  But  the  most  important  thing  of  all  is  that  you 
should  have  with  you  someone  you  can  rely  on  (Satmann 
or  someone  else),  who  can  drive  off  to  the  customs  in 
my  carriage  with  my  luggage,  so  that  /  may  not  have 
to  face  that  unnecessary  seccatura,  but  can  drive  home 
with  all  you  dear  people.  Now  remember  this. 

Well,  adieu.  I  kiss  you  millions  of  times  and  am  ever 
your  most  faithful  husband 

W.  A.  MOZART  2 

(566)  Mozart  to  his  Wife 

[Autograph  in  the  Nationalbibliothek,  Vienna] 

PRAGUE,  May  $ist,  1789 

I  have  just  arrived  this  very  moment.  I  hope  that 
you  received  my  last  letter  of  the  23rd.  Well,  the  arrange 
ment  still  stands.  I  shall  arrive  on  Thursday,  June  4th, 

1  The  dotted  passages  are  words  which  have  been  blotted  out  in  the 

2  The  autograph  of  this  letter  has  the  address  "Auf  dem  Hohen  Markt, 
im  Malseckischen  Hause,  bei  Herrn  von  Puchberg".  Probably  Mozart's  wife 
and  child  were  living  with  the  Puchbergs  during  his  absence  in  Germany. 



between  eleven  and  twelve  o'clock  at  the  last,  or  rather  the 
first  post-stage,  where  I  hope  to  find  you  all.  Do  not  forget 
to  bring  someone  with  you,  who  can  drive  to  the  customs 
instead  of  me.  Adieu.  Good  God,  how  delighted  I  am  to 
be  seeing  you  again!  In  haste. 


(567)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  pp.  12-14] 



Great  God!  I  would  not  wish  my  worst  enemy  to  be 
in  my  present  position.  And  if  you,  most  beloved  friend 
and  brother,  forsake  me,  we  are  altogether  lost,  both  my 
unfortunate  and  blameless  self  and  my  poor  sick  wife  and 
child.  Only  the  other  day  when  I  was  with  you  I  was 
longing  to  open  my  heart  to  you,  but  I  had  not  the 
courage  to  do  so  —  and  indeed  I  should  still  not  have  the 
courage  —  for,  as  it  is,  I  only  dare  to  write  and  tremble  as 
I  do  so  —  and  I  should  not  even  dare  to  write,  were  I  not 
certain  that  you  know  me,  that  you  are  aware  of  my 
circumstances,  and  that  you  are  wholly  convinced  of  my 
innocence  so  far  as  my  unfortunate  and  most  distressing 
situation  is  concerned.  Good  God!  I  am  coming  to  you 
not  with  thanks  but  with  fresh  entreaties!  Instead  of 
paying  my  debts  I  am  asking  for  more  money!  If  you 
really  know  me,  you  must  sympathise  with  my  anguish 
in  having  to  do  so.  I  need  not  tell  you  once  more  that 
owing  to  my  unfortunate  illness  I  have  been  prevented 
from  earning  anything.  But  I  must  mention  that  in  spite 
of  my  wretched  condition  I  decided  to  give  subscription 
concerts  at  home  in  order  to  be  able  to  meet  at  least  my 
present  great  and  frequent  expenses,  for  I  was  absolutely 



convinced  of  your  friendly  assistance.  But  even  this  has 
failed.  Unfortunately  Fate  is  so  much  against  me,  though 
only  in  Vienna,  that  even  when  I  want  to,  I  cannot  make 
any  money.  A  fortnight  ago  I  sent  round  a  list  for  sub 
scribers  and  so  far  the  only  name  on  it  is  that  of  Baron 
van  Swieten!  Now  that  (the  I3th)  my  dear  little  wife  seems 
to  be  improving  every  day,  I  should  be  able  to  set  to 
work  again,  if  this  blow,  this  heavy  blow,  had  not  come. 
At  any  rate,  people  are  consoling  me  by  telling  me  that 
she  is  better — although  the  night  before  last  she  was 
suffering  so  much — and  I  on  her  account — that  I  was 
stunned  and  despairing.  But  last  night  (the  I4th),  she 
slept  so  well  and  has  felt  so  much  easier  all  the  morning 
that  I  am  very  hopeful;  and  at  last  I  am  beginning  to  feel 
inclined  for  work.  I  am  now  faced,  however,  with  mis 
fortunes  of  another  kind,  though,  it  is  true,  only  for 
the  moment.  Dearest,  most  beloved  friend  and  brother — 
you  know  my  present  circumstances,  but  you  also  know 
my  prospects.  So  let  things  remain  as  we  arranged;  that 
is,  thus  or  thus,  you  understand  what  I  mean.  Mean 
while  I  am  composing  six  easy  clavier  sonatas  for  Princess 
Friederike  J  and  six  quartets  for  the  King,2  all  of  which 
Kozeluch  is  engraving  at  my  expense.  At  the  same  time 
the  two  dedications  will  bring  me  in  something.  In  a 
month  or  two  my  fate  must  be  decided  in  every  detail. 
Therefore,  most  beloved  friend,  you  will  not  be  risking 
anything  so  far  as  I  am  concerned.  So  it  all  depends,  my 
only  friend,  upon  whether  you  will  or  can  lend  me  another 
500  gulden.  Until  my  affairs  are  settled,  I  undertake  to 

1  Princess  Friederike,  the  eldest  daughter  of  King  Frederick  William  II 
of  Prussia.  Mozart  appears  to  have  finished  only  one  of  these  sonatas,  K.  576, 
in  D  major,  his  last  clavier  sonata. 

2  Mozart  finished  three  quartets,  K.  575,  composed  in  1789,  and  K.  589 
and   590,   composed  in  1790.   K.  590  was  Mozart's  last  string  quartet. 
Kozeluch  did  not  engrave  these  works,  which  were  published  by  Artaria 
immediately  after  Mozart's  death. 



pay  back  ten  gulden  a  month;  and  then,  as  this  is  bound 
to  happen  in  a  few  months,  I  shall  pay  back  the  whole 
sum  with  whatever  interest  you  may  demand,  and  at  the 
same  time  acknowledge  myself  to  be  your  debtor  for  life. 
That,  alas,  I  shall  have  to  remain,  for  I  shall  never  be 
able  to  thank  you  sufficiently  for  your  friendship  and 
affection.  Thank  God,  that  is  over.  Now  you  know  all. 
Do  not  be  offended  by  my  confiding  in  you  and  remember 
that  unless  you  help  me,  the  honour,  the  peace  of  mind, 
and  perhaps  the  very  life  of  your  friend  and  brother 
Mason  will  be  ruined. 

Ever  your  most  grateful  servant,  true 
friend  and  brother 

At  home,  July  I4th,  1789. 

O  God!— I  can  hardly  bring  myself  to  despatch  this 
letter! — and  yet  I  must!  If  this  illness  had  not  befallen  me, 
I  should  not  have  been  obliged  to  beg  so  shamelessly 
from  my  only  friend.  Yet  I  hope  for  your  forgiveness,  for 
you  know  both  the  good  and  the  bad  prospects  of  my 
situation.  The  bad  is  temporary;  the  good  will  certainly 
persist,  once  the  momentary  evil  has  been  alleviated. 
Adieu.  For  God's  sake  forgive  me,  only  forgive  me! — 
and — Adieu! 

(568)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

[A  utograph formerly  in  the  Musikhistorisches  Museum  von  W.  Heyer,  Cologne] 

VIENNA,/^  17$  A,  1789 

I  fear  you  are  angry  with  me,  for  you  are  not  sending 
me  a  reply!  When  I  compare  the  proofs  of  your  friendship 
with  my  present  demands  upon  it,  I  cannot  but  admit  that 



you  are  perfectly  right.  But  when  I  compare  my  mis 
fortunes  (for  which  I  am  not  to  blame)  with  your  kindly 
disposition  towards  me,  then  I  do  find  that  there  is  some 
excuse  for  me.  As  in  my  last  letter  to  you,  my  dear  friend, 
I  told  you  quite  frankly  everything  that  was  burdening 
my  heart,  I  can  only  repeat  to-day  what  I  said  then.  But 
I  must  still  add  that  (i)  I  should  not  require  such  a  con 
siderable  sum  if  I  did  not  anticipate  very  heavy  expenses 
in  connection  with  the  cure  my  wife  may  have  to  take, 
particularly  if  she  has  to  go  to  Baden.1  (2)  As  I  am 
positive  that  in  a  short  time  I  shall  be  in  better  circum 
stances,  the  amount  of  the  sum  I  shall  have  to  repay  is  a 
matter  of  indifference  to  me.  Nevertheless  at  the  present 
moment  I  should  prefer  it  to  be  a  large  sum,  which  would 
make  me  feel  safer.  (3)  I  entreat  you,  if  it  is  quite  impos 
sible  for  you  to  assist  me  this  time  with  such  a  large  sum, 
to  show  your  friendship  and  brotherly  affection  by  helping 
me  at  once  with  as  much  as  you  can  spare ,  for  I  am  really 
in  very  great  need.  You  certainly  cannot  doubt  my 
integrity,  for  you  know  me  too  well  for  that.  Nor  can  you 
distrust  my  assurances,  my  behaviour  or  my  mode  of  life, 
as  you  are  well  acquainted  with  my  manner  of  living  and 
my  conduct.  Consequently,  forgive  me  for  thus  confiding 
in  you,  for  I  am  absolutely  convinced  that  only  the  im 
possibility  of  doing  so  will  prevent  you  from  helping  your 
friend.  If  you  can  and  if  you  will  entirely  relieve  me,  I 
shall  return  thanks  to  you  as  my  saviour,  even  beyond 
the  grave,  for  you  will  be  enabling  me  to  enjoy  further 
happiness  on  earth.  But  if  you  cannot  do  this,  then  I  beg 
and  implore  you,  in  God's  name,  for  whatever  temporary 
assistance  you  can  give  me  and  also  for  your  advice  and 
comforting  sympathy. 

Ever  your  most  grateful  servant 


1  A  watering-place  and  health  resort  about  seventeen  miles  south  of  Vienna. 


I78g  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  L.  570 

P.S. — My  wife  was  wretchedly  ill  again  yesterday. 
To-day  leeches  were  applied  and  she  is,  thank  God, 
somewhat  better.  I  am  indeed  most  unhappy,  and  am 
forever  hovering  between  hope  and  fear!  Dr.  Closset  came 
to  see  her  again  yesterday.1 

(569)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  p.  85] 

VIENNA,  second  half  of  July -,  1789 

Since  the  time  when  you  rendered  me  that  great  and 
friendly  service,  I  have  been  living  in  such  misery  y  that  for 
very  grief  not  only  have  I  not  been  able  to  go  out,  but  I 
could  not  even  write. 

At  the  moment  she  is  easier,  and  if  she  had  not  con- 
traded  bed-sores,  which  make  her  condition  most  wretched, 
she  would  be  able  to  sleep.  The  only  fear  is  that  the  bone 
may  be  affected.  She  is  extraordinarily  resigned  and 
awaits  recovery  or  death  with  true  philosophic  calm.  My 
tears  flow  as  I  write.  Come  and  see  us,  most  beloved  friend, 
if  you  can;  and,  if  you  can,  give  me  your  advice  and  help 

in  the  matter  you  know  of. 


(570)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 2 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  p.  35] 

VIENNA,  middle  of  August,  1789 

I  was  delighted  to  get  your  dear  letter — and  I  trust 
that  you  received  yesterday  my  second  one  together  with 

1  Puchberg  noted  on  this  letter,  "answered  the  same  day,  July  iyth,  1789, 
and  sent  150  gulden". 

2  This  and  the  following  letters  to  Constanze  are  addressed  to  her  at 
Baden,  where  she  had  gone  for  her  health. 


L.  570  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  776*9 

the  infusion,  the  electuaries  and  the  ants'  eggs.  I  shall 
sail  off  to  you  at  five  o'clock  to-morrow  morning.  Were 
it  not  for  the  joy  of  seeing  you  again  and  embracing  you, 
I  should  not  drive  out  to  Baden  just  yet,  for  "Figaro"  is 
going  to  be  performed  very  soon,1  and  as  I  have  some 
alterations  to  make,  my  presence  will  be  required  at  the 
rehearsals.  I  shall  probably  have  to  be  back  here  by  the 
i  gth.  But  to  stay  here  until  the  igth  without  you  would 
be  quite  impossible.  Dear  little  wife!  I  want  to  talk  to  you 
quite  frankly.  You  have  no  reason  whatever  to  be  un 
happy.  You  have  a  husband  who  loves  you  and  does  all 
he  possibly  can  for  you.  As  for  your  foot,  you  must  just 
be  patient  and  it  will  surely  get  well  again.  I  am  glad 
indeed  when  you  have  some  fun — of  course  I  am — but  I 
do  wish  that  you  would  not  sometimes  make  yourself  so 
cheap.  In  my  opinion  you  are  too  free  and  easy  with 
N.N.2  ,  .  .  and  it  was  the  same  with.  N.N.,  when  he  was 
still  at  Baden.  Now  please  remember  that  N.N.  are  not  half 
so  familiar  with  other  women,  whom  they  perhaps  know 
more  intimately,  as  they  are  with  you.  Why,  N.N.  who  is 
usually  a  well-conducted  fellow  and  particularly  respect 
ful  to  women,  must  have  been  misled  by  your  behaviour 
into  writing  the  most  disgusting  and  most  impertinent 
sottises  which  he  put  into  his  letter.  A  woman  must 
always  make  herself  respected,  or  else  people  will  begin 
to  talk  about  her.  My  love!  Forgive  me  for  being  so 
frank,  but  my  peace  of  mind  demands  it  as  well  as  our 
mutual  happiness.  Remember  that  you  yourself  once 
admitted  to  me  that  you  were  inclined  to  comply  too 
easily.  You  know  the  consequences  of  that.  Remember 
too  the  promise  you  gave  to  me.  Oh,  God,  do  try,  my  love! 

1  "Le  Nozze  di  Figaro"  was  revived  in  Vienna  during  the  summer  of 


2  In  this  and  the  following  letters  to  his  wife  certain  names  have  been 
crossed  out  by  a  later  hand. 


MOZART  (1789) 

From  a  silver  point  drawing  by  Doris  Stock 
(Musikbibliothek  Peters,  Leipzig) 

1789  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  Z.  571 

Be  merry  and  happy  and  charming  to  me.  Do  not  tor 
ment  yourself  and  me  with  unnecessary  jealousy.  Believe 
in  my  love,  for  surely  you  have  proofs  of  it,  and  you 
will  see  how  happy  we  shall  be.  Rest  assured  that  it  is 
only  by  her  prudent  behaviour  that  a  wife  can  enchain 
her  husband.  Adieu.  To-morrow  I  shall  kiss  you  most 


(571)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

[From  Nottebohm^  Mozartianat  p.  27] 

DEAREST  LITTLE  WIFE!  VIENNA,  end  of  August,  1789 

I  arrived  here  safely  at  a  quarter  to  eight l  and  when 
I  knocked  at  my  door — Hofer  has  written  this,  who 
happens  to  be  here  and  sends  you  greetings — I  found  it 
closed,  as  the  servant  was  not  at  home.  I  waited  in  vain 
for  about  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  then  I  drove  to  Hofer's, 
imagined  I  was  at  home  and  finished  dressing  there.  The 
little  aria,  which  I  composed  for  Madame  Ferraresi,2 
ought,  I  think,  to  be  a  success,  provided  she  is  able  to 
sing  it  in  an  artless  manner,  which,  however,  I  very 
much  doubt.  She  herself  liked  it  very  much.  I  have  just 
lunched  at  her  house.  I  think  that  "Figaro''  will  be  per 
formed  on  Sunday  for  certain,  but  I  shall  let  you  know 
beforehand.  How  delighted  I  am  when  we  hear  it  to 
gether!  I  am  off  this  very  moment  to  see  whether  any 
change  has  possibly  been  made  in  the  arrangements.  If 
it  is  not  going  to  be  performed  before  Saturday,  I  shall 
be  with  you  to-day.  Adieu,  my  love!  Never  go  out  walk 
ing  alone.  The  very  thought  of  this  terrifies  me. 
Ever  your  loving 


1  Mozart  had  been  staying  with  his  wife  at  Baden. 

2  K.  579,  "Un  moto  di  gioia",  an  extra  aria  for  Susanna  in  "Le  Nozze 
di  Figaro".  See  Kochel,  p.  728. 


Z.  572  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  1789 

(572)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  p.  75] 

VIENNA,  Autumn,  1789 

I  trust  that  you  have  received  my  letter.  Well,  I  must 
scold  you  a  little,  my  love!  Even  if  it  is  not  possible  for 
you  to  get  a  letter  from  me,  you  could  write  all  the  same; 
for  must  all  your  letters  be  replies  to  mine?  I  was  most 
certainly  expecting  a  letter  from  my  dear  little  wife — but 
unfortunately  I  was  mistaken.  Well,  you  must  make 
amends  and  I  advise  you  to  do  so,  otherwise  I  shall  never, 
never  forgive  you.  Yesterday  I  was  at  the  second  part  of 
"Cosa  rara'V  but  I  did  not  like  it  as  much  as  "Die 
Antons".2  If  you  return  to  Vienna  on  Saturday,  you  will 
be  able  to  spend  Sunday  morning  here.  We  have  been 
invited  to  a  service  and  to  lunch  at  Schwechat.3  Adieu — 
Take  care  of  your  health.  A  propos.  N.N.  (you  know 
whom  I  mean)  is  a  cad.  He  is  very  pleasant  to  my  face, 
but  he  runs  down  "Figaro"  in  public — and  has  treated 
me  most  abominably  in  the  matters  you  know  of — 
/  know  it  for  certain. 

Your  husband,  who  loves  you  with  all  his  heart, 


1  "Una  cosa  rara",  an  opera  composed  by  Vicente  Martin  y  Solar  (1754- 
1810),  which,  on  its  production  in  Vienna  in  November  1786,  completely 
threw  Mozart's  "Figaro"  into  the  shade.  According  to  the  recently  published 
monograph  by  0.  E.  Deutsch,  Das  Wiener  Freihaustheater,  Vienna,  1937, 
p.  1 6,  the  second  part  of  this  opera,  "Der  Fall  ist  noch  weit  seltner",  by 
Schikaneder  and  Schack,  was  first  performed  on  May  loth,  1790.  Hence 
Mozart's  letter  must  have  been  written  after  that  date. 

*  "Der  dumme  Gartner  oder  Die  beiden  Antons",  an  operetta  by  Benedict 
Schack  (1758-1826),  a  Czech,  who  in  1784  had  joined  Schikaneder's  theatre 
in  Vienna,  He  was  an  excellent  flautist,  possessed  a  good  tenor  voice,  and 
created  the  part  of  Tamino  in  Mozart's  "Zauberflote". 

3  A  small  village  near  Vienna,  where  Mozart's  friend  Joseph  Eybler 



(573)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puckberg 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana>  p.  63] 

VIENNA,  December  2$th,  1789 

Do  not  be  alarmed  at  the  contents  of  this  letter.  Only 
to  you,  most  beloved  friend,  who  know  everything  about 
me  and  my  circumstances,  have  I  the  courage  to  open  my 
heart  completely.  According  to  the  present  arrangement 
I  am  to  receive  from  the  management  next  month  200 
ducats  for  my  opera.1  If  you  can  and  will  lend  me  400 
gulden  until  then,  you  will  be  rescuing  your  friend  from 
the  greatest  embarrassment;  and  I  give  you  my  word  of 
honour  that  by  that  time  you  will  have  the  money  back  in 
full  and  with  many  thanks.  In  spite  of  the  great  expenses 
I  have  to  incur  daily,  I  should  try  to  hold  out  until  then, 
were  it  not  the  New  Year,  when  I  really  must  pay  off  the 
chemists  and  doctors,  whom  I  am  no  longer  employing, 
unless  I  wish  to  lose  my  good  name.  We  have  in  particular 
alienated  Hundschowsky  *  (for  certain  reasons)  in  a 
rather  unfriendly  fashion,  so  that  I  am  doubly  anxious 
to  settle  accounts  with  him.  Beloved  friend  and  brother! 
— I  know  only  too  well  how  much  I  owe  you!  I  beg  you 
to  be  patient  a  little  longer  in  regard  to  my  old  debts.  I 
shall  certainly  repay  you,  that  I  promise  on  my  honour. 
Once  more  I  beg  you,  rescue  me  just  this  time  from  my 
horrible  situation.  As  soon  as  I  get  the  money  for  my 
opera,  you  shall  have  the  400  gulden  back  for  certain. 
And  this  summer,  thanks  to  my  work  for  the  King  of 
Prussia,3  I  hope  to  be  able  to  convince  you  completely  of 
my  honesty.  Contrary  to  our  arrangement  we  cannot  have 

1  "Cosl  fan  tutte",  performed  on  January  26th,  1790. 

2  Nottebohm,  p.  64,  n.  i,  suggests  "Lichnowsky". 

3  See  p.  1384,  n.  2. 



any  music  at  our  house  to-morrow — I  have  too  much 
work.  By  the  way,  if  you  see  Zistler,1  you  might  tell  him 
this.  But  I  invite  you,  you  alone,  to  come  along  on 
Thursday  at  10  o'clock  in  the  morning  to  hear  a  short 
rehearsal  of  my  opera,2  I  am  only  inviting  Haydn  and 
yourself.  I  shall  tell  you  when  we  meet  about  Salieri's 
plots,  which,  however,  have  completely  failed  already. 

Ever  your  grateful  friend  and  brother, 

W.  A.  MOZART  3 

(574)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  p.  57] 

DEAREST  FRIEND!  VIENNA,  January  zotk,  1790 

They  forgot  to  deliver  at  the  proper  time  your  last 
kind  note.  So  I  could  not  reply  to  it  sooner.  I  am  very 
much  touched  by  your  friendship  and  kindness.  If  you 
can  and  will  send  an  extra  hundred  gulden,  you  will 
oblige  me  very  greatly. 

We  are  having  the  first  instrumental  rehearsal  in  the 
theatre  to-morrow.4  Haydn  is  coming  with  me.  If  your 
business  allows  you  to  do  so  and  if  you  care  to  hear  the 
rehearsal,  all  you  need  do  is  to  be  so  kind  as  to  turn  up 
at  my  quarters  at  ten  o'clock  to-morrow  morning  and 
then  we  shall  all  go  there  together. 

Your  most  grateful  friend 

W.  A.  MOZART  s 
January  2oth,  1790. 

1  Nottebohm,  p.  64,  n.  2,  suggests  the  violinist,  Joseph  Zistler,  who  in 
1782  became  Konzertmeister  at  Pressburg. 

2  "Cosi  fan  tutte."      3  Puchberg  noted  on  this  letter,  "sent  300  gulden". 

4  "Cosi  fan  tutte." 

5  Puchberg  noted  on  this  letter,  "sent  on  the  same  day  100  gulden". 



(575)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

[From  Notts  bo  km,  Mozartiana,  p.  56] 

DEAREST  FRIEND!  VIENNA,  February  2otk,  1790 

Had  I  known  that  your  supply  of  beer  had  almost 
run  out,  I  should  certainly  never  have  ventured  to  rob 
you  of  it;  I  therefore  take  the  liberty  of  returning  here 
with  the  second  measure,  as  to-day  I  am  already  provided 
with  wine.  I  thank  you  heartily  for  the  first  one,  and  the 
next  time  you  have  a  supply  of  beer,  pray  send  me  a  little 
of  it.  You  know  how  much  I  like  it.  I  beg  you,  most 
beloved  friend,  to  lend  me  a  few  ducats  just  for  a  few  days, 
if  you  can  do  so,  as  I  have  to  settle  a  matter  at  once,  which 
cannot  be  postponed.  Forgive  my  importunity,  which  is 
prompted  by  my  complete  confidence  in  your  friendship. 

Ever  your 


(576)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  p,  87] 

VIENNA,  end  of  March  or  beginning  of  April,  1 790 

Herewith,  dearest  friend,  I  am  sending  you  Handel's 

life.2  When  I  got  home  from  my  visit  to  you  the  other 

day,  I  found  the  enclosed  note  from  Baron  van  Swieten.3 

You  will  gather  from  it,  as  I  did,  that  my  prospects  are 

1  Puchberg  noted  on  this  letter,  "sent  on  February  2Oth,  1790,  25  gulden". 

2  John  Mainwaring's  Memoirs  of  the  life  of  the  late  G.  F.  Handel,  1760, 
which  had  appeared  in  1761  in  a  German  translation  by  Johann  Mattheson. 

3  Baron  van  Swieten  was  endeavouring  to  introduce  Handel's  oratorios  to 
the  Viennese  public  and  had  already  given  some  performances  in  the  large 
hall  of  the  Hofbibliothek  under  the  management  of  Joseph  Starzer.  On  the 
latter's  death  in  1787  Mozart  was  entrusted  with  the  organisation  of  these 
performances,   and  for  this   purpose  reorchestrated    Handel's    "Acis    and 
Galatea"  hi  1788,  his  "Messiah"  in  1789,  and  his  "Alexander's  Feast"  and 
"Ode  on  St.  Cecilia's  Day"  in  1790. 

VOL.  Ill  1393  Z 


now  better  than  ever.1  I  now  stand  on  the  threshold  of 
my  fortune;  but  the  opportunity  will  be  lost  for  ever,  if  this 
time  I  cannot  make  use  of  it.  My  present  circumstances, 
however,  are  such  that  in  spite  of  my  excellent  prospects 
I  must  abandon  all  hope  of  furthering  my  fortunes  unless 
I  can  count  on  the  help  of  a  staunch  friend.  For  some  time 
you  must  have  noticed  my  constant  sadness — and  only 
the  very  many  kindnesses  which  you  have  already 
rendered  me,  have  prevented  me  from  speaking  out. 
Now,  however — once  more,  but  for  the  last  time — I  call 
upon  you  to  stand  by  me  to  the  utmost  of  your  power  in 
this  most  urgent  matter  which  is  going  to  determine  my 
whole  happiness.  You  know  how  my  present  circum 
stances,  were  they  to  become  known,  would  damage  the 
chances  of  my  application  to  the  court,  and  how  necessary 
it  is  that  they  should  remain  a  secret;  for  unfortunately 
at  court  they  do  not  judge  by  circumstances,  but  solely  by 
appearances.  You  know,  and  I  am  sure  you  are  convinced 
that  if,  as  I  may  now  confidently  hope,  my  application  is 
successful,  you  will  certainly  lose  nothing.  How  delighted 
I  shall  be  to  discharge  my  debts  to  you!  How  glad  I  shall 
be  to  thank  you  and,  in  addition,  to  confess  myself 
eternally  your  debtor!  What  a  pleasant  sensation  it  is  to 
reach  one's  goal  at  last — and  what  a  blessed  feeling  it 
is  when  one  has  helped  another  to  do  so!  Tears  prevent 
me  from  completing  the  picture!  In  short! — my  whole 
future  happiness  is  in  your  hands.  Act  according  to  the 
dictates  of  your  noble  heart!  Do  what  you  can  and  re 
member  that  you  are  dealing  with  a  right-minded  and 
eternally  grateful  man,  whose  situation  pains  him  even 
more  on  your  account  than  on  his  own. 


1  Since  the  death  of  Emperor  Joseph  II  and  the  accession  of  Emperor 
Leopold  II  Mozart  had  greater  hopes  of  being  appointed  Kapellmeister  to 
the  Viennese  court.  2  Puchberg  noted  on  this  letter,  "sent  150  gulden". 


1790  MOZART  TO  MICHAEL  PUCHBERG          Z.  577 

(577)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

\Copy  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berliri\ 

VIENNA,  April  %tk,  1790 

You  are  right,  dearest  friend,  not  to  honour  me  with  a 
reply!  My  importunity  is  too  great.  I  only  beg  you  to  con 
sider  my  position  from  every  point  of  view,  to  remember 
my  cordial  friendship  and  my  confidence  in  you  and  to 
forgive  me!  But  if  you  can  and  will  extricate  me  from 
a  temporary  embarrassment,  then,  for  the  love  of  God, 
do  so!  Whatever  you  can  easily  spare  will  be  welcome.  If 
possible,  forget  my  importunity  and  forgive  me. 

To-morrow,  Friday,  Count  Hadik I  has  invited  me  to 
perform  for  him  Stadler's  Quintet 2  and  the  Trio  I  com 
posed  for  you.3  Hering4  is  going  to  play.  I  should  have 
gone  to  see  you  myself  in  order  to  have  a  chat  with 
you,  but  my  head  is  covered  with  bandages  due  to  rheu 
matic  pains,  which  make  me  feel  my  situation  still  more 
keenly.  Again  I  beg  you  to  help  me  as  much  as  you  can 
just  for  this  once\  and  forgive  me. 

Ever  your 


1  Field-marshal  Count  Andreas  Hadik,  President  of  the  War  Council  in 
Vienna.  It  was  owing  to  his  influence  that  Aloysia  Weber  had  obtained  her 
appointment  at  the  Vienna  National  Theatre. 

2  K.  581,  quintet  in  A  major  for  clarinet  and  strings,  composed  in  1789 
for  Anton  Stadler  (1753-1812),  an  excellent  clarinettist  for  whom  Mozart 
also  wrote  in  1791  his  clarinet  concerto  in  A  major,  K.  622. 

3  K.  563,  Divertimento  in  &  for  violin,  viola  and  violoncello,  composed 
in  1788. 

4  A  banker  and  amateur  violinist. 

5  Puchberg  noted  on  this  letter,  "sent  on  April  8th,  1790,  25  gulden  in  bank 



(578)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

{From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana^p.  57] 

VIENNA,  April  2$rd,  1790 

If  you  can  send  me  something,  even  though  it  be 
only  the  small  sum  you  sent  me  last  time,  you  will  greatly 
oblige  your  ever  grateful  friend  and  brother 


(579)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  p.  62] 

VIENNA,  beginning  of  May,  1790 

I  am  very  sorry  that  I  cannot  go  out  and  have  a 
talk  with  you  myself,  but  my  toothache  and  headache  are 
still  too  painful  and  altogether  I  still  feel  very  unwell.  I 
share  your  view  about  getting  some  good  pupils,  but  I 
thought  of  waiting  until  I  should  be  in  our  new  quarters,2 
as  I  intended  to  give  lessons  at  home.  In  the  meantime 
I  beg  you  to  tell  people  about  this  plan  of  mine.  I  am  also 
thinking  of  giving  subscription  concerts  at  home  during 
the  three  months  of  June,  July  and  August.  So  it  is  only 
my  present  situation  which  is  oppressing  me.  When  I 
move  out  of  these  quarters,  I  shall  have  to  pay  275  gulden 
towards  my  new  home.  But  I  must  have  something  to 
live  on  until  I  have  arranged  my  concerts  and  until  the 
quartets  3  on  which  I  am  working  have  been  sent  to  be 
engraved.  So,  if  only  I  had  in  hand  600  gulden  at  least, 

1  Puchberg  noted  on  this  letter,  "sent  on  April  23rd,  25  gulden". 

2  The  Mozarts  moved  early  in  October  1790  to  the  first  floor  of  a  house 
in  the  Rauhensteingasse  970  (now  no.  8).  It  was  here  that  Mozart  died. 

3  K.  589  and  590.  They  were  not  engraved  during  Mozart's  lifetime.  See 
p.  1384,  n.  2. 


1790         MOZART  TO  THE  ARCHDUKE  FRANCIS      Z.  580 

I  should  be  able  to  compose  with  a  fairly  easy  mind.  And 
ah!  I  must  have  peace  of  mind.  But  what  worries  me 
dreadfully  at  the  moment  is  a  debt  to  the  haberdasher  in 
the  Stock  im  Eisen,1  who,  although  he  at  first  saw  my 
difficulty  and  said  that  he  was  content  to  wait,  is  now 
demanding  payment  urgently  and  impatiently.  The  debt 
amounts  to  100  gulden.  I  wish  with  all  my  heart  that  I 
were  rid  of  this  unpleasant  business.  Well,  I  have  made 
frank  confession  to  you  and  I  entreat  you  to  do  the 
utmost  that  your  means  and  true  friendship  permit. 

Ever  your 


(580)  Mozart  to  the  Archduke  Francis 3 

[Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 
VIENNA,  during  the  first  half  of  May,  1790 


I  make  so  bold  as  to  beg  your  Royal  Highness  very 
respectfully  to  use  your  most  gracious  influence  with  His 
Majesty  the  King  with  regard  to  my  most  humble  petition 
to  His  Majesty.  Prompted  by  a  desire  for  fame,  by  a  love 
of  work  and  by  a  conviction  of  my  wide  knowledge,  I 
venture  to  apply  for  the  post  of  second  Kapellmeister, 
particularly  as  Salieri,4  that  very  gifted  Kapellmeister,  has 
never  devoted  himself  to  church  music,  whereas  from  my 
youth  up  I  have  made  myself  completely  familiar  with 
this  style.  The  slight  reputation  which  I  have  acquired 
in  the  world  by  my  pianoforte  playing,  has  encouraged 

1  A  small  place  adjoining  the  Stefansplatz  in  Vienna. 

2  Puchberg  noted  on  this  letter,  "sent  100  gulden". 

3  This  is  the  unfinished  draft  of  a  petition  to  the  Archduke  Francis  to  use 
his  influence  with  his  brother,  King  Leopold  II,  who  had  succeeded  to  the 
throne  on  March  I3th,  1790,  and  was  crowned  Emperor  on  October  9th. 

4  Salieri  had  been  appointed  Court  Kapellmeister  in  1788. 



me  to  ask  His  Majesty  for  the  favour  of  being  entrusted 
with  the  musical  education  of  the  Royal  Family.  In  the 
sure  conviction  that  I  have  applied  to  the  most  worthy 
mediators  who,  moreover,  are  particularly  gracious  to 
me,  I  remain  with  the  utmost  confidence  and  shall l  .  .  . 

(581)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchb erg 

[Coj>y  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin\ 

DEAREST  FRIEND  AND  B.O.  VIENNA,  May  ijth,  1790 
You  will  have  heard,  no  doubt,  from  your  household 
that  I  called  on  you  yesterday,  uninvited,  as  you  had 
given  me  permission  to  do.  You  know  how  things  are 
with  me;  in  short,  as  I  can  find  no  true  friends  to  help  me, 
I  am  obliged  to  resort  to  moneylenders;  but  as  it  takes 
time  to  seek  out  the  most  Christian  among  this  un- 
Christian  class  of  people,  I  am  at  the  moment  so  destitute 
that  I  must  beg  you,  dearest  friend,  in  the  name  of  all 
that  is  sacred,  to  assist  me  with  whatever  you  can  spare. 
If,  as  I  hope  to  do,  I  get  the  money  in  a  week  or  a  fort 
night,  I  shall  at  once  repay  what  you  lend  me  now.  Alas, 
I  must  still  ask  you  to  wait  patiently  for  the  sums  I  have 
already  been  owing  you  for  such  a  long  time.  If  you  only 
knew  what  grief  and  worry  all  this  causes  me.  It  has 
prevented  me  all  this  time  from  finishing  my  quartets.2 
I  now  have  great  hopes  of  an  appointment  at  court,  for 
I  have  reliable  information  that  the  Emperor  has  not 
sent  back  my  petition  with  a  favourable  or  damning 
remark,  as  he  has  the  others,  but  has  retained  it.  That 
is  a  good  sign.  Next  Saturday  I  intend  to  perform  my 
quartets  at  home,  and  request  the  pleasure  of  your  com 
pany  and  that  of  your  wife.  Dearest,  most  beloved  friend 
and  brother,  do  not  withdraw  your  friendship  because  of 

1  The  autograph  breaks  off  with  these  words.  2  See  p.  1396,  n.  3. 



my  importunity,  but  stand  by  me.  I  rely  wholly  on  you 
and  am  ever  your  most  grateful 


P.S. — I  now  have  two  pupils  and  should  very  much 
like  to  raise  the  number  to  eight.  Do  your  best  to  spread 
the  news  that  I  am  willing  to  give  lessons.1 

(582)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

\From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  p.  85] 

DEAREST  FRIEND  AND  B.O.,  VIENNA,  June  i2tky  1790 
I  have  returned  to  town  in  order  to  conduct  my 
opera.2  My  wife  is  slightly  better.  She  already  feels  some 
relief,  but  she  will  have  to  take  the  baths  sixty  times — 
and  later  on  in  the  year  she  will  have  to  go  out  there 
again.  God  grant  that  it  may  do  her  good.  Dearest 
friend,  if  you  can  help  me  to  meet  my  present  urgent 
expenses,  oh,  do  so!  For  economy's  sake  I  am  staying 
at  Baden  and  only  come  into  town  when  it  is  absolutely 
necessary.  I  have  now  been  obliged  to  give  away  my 
quartets  3  (those  very  difficult  works)  for  a  mere  song, 
simply  in  order  to  have  cash  in  hand  to  meet  my  present 
difficulties.  And  for  the  same  reason  I  am  now  composing 
some  clavier  sonatas.4  Adieu.  Send  me  what  you  can  most 
easily  spare.  One  of  my  masses 5  is  being  performed  to 
morrow  at  Baden.  Adieu.  About  ten  o'clock. 

Ever  your 

P.S. — Please  send  me  the  viola  as  well.6 

1  Puchberg  noted  on  this  letter,  "sent,  on  May  ryth,  150  gulden". 

2  "Cosl  fan  tutte."  3  See  p.  1384,  n.  2. 

*  There  is  no  trace  of  these  works.  So  far  as  we  know,  Mozart's  last  clavier 
sonata  was  K.  576,  composed  in  1789. 
s  Probably  K.  317.  See  p.  1413*  n-  3- 
6  Puchberg  noted  on  this  letter,  "sent,  on  June  I2th,  25  gulden". 


L.  584  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  2-790 

(583)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

\From  Nottebohm%  Mozartiana,  p.  53] 

VIENNA,  August  iqth,  1790 

Whereas  I  felt  tolerably  well  yesterday,  I  am 
absolutely  wretched  to-day.  I  could  not  sleep  all  night 
for  pain.  I  must  have  got  overheated  yesterday  from 
walking  so  much  and  then  without  knowing  it  have 
caught  a  chill.  Picture  to  yourself  my  condition — ill  and 
consumed  with  worries  and  anxieties.  Such  a  state  quite 
definitely  prevents  me  from  recovering.  In  a  week  or  a 
fortnight  I  shall  be  better  off — certainly — but  at  present 
I  am  in  want!  Can  you  not  help  me  out  with  a  trifle? 
The  smallest  sum  would  be  very  welcome  just  now.  You 
would,  for  the  moment  at  least,  bring  peace  of  mind  to 
your  true  friend,  servant  and  brother 

W.  A.  MOZART  I 

(584)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  2 

{Autograph  sold  by  V.  A.  Heck,  Vienna,  Catalogue  58] 

FRANKFURT  AM  MAIN,  September  28t&,  1790 

We  have  this  moment  arrived,  that  is,  at  one  o'clock 
in  the  afternoon;  so  the  journey  has  only  taken  us  six 
days.  We  could  have  done  it  still  more  quickly,  if  on  three 

1  Puchberg  noted  on  this  letter,  "sent,  on  August  I4th,  1790,  10  gulden". 

z  This  and  the  following  letters  were  written  from  Frankfurt  am  Main, 
which  Mozart  visited  in  the  hope  of  getting  work  in  connection  with  the 
coronation  of  the  Emperor  Leopold  II  on  October  9th.  He  took  as  his 
companion  his  brother-in-law,  Franz  de  Paula  Hofer.  They  left  Vienna  on 
September  23rd. 


1790  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  L.  584 

occasions  we  had  not  rested  a  little  at  night.  Well,  we 
have  just  alighted  at  an  inn  in  the  suburb  of  Sachsen- 
hausen,  and  are  in  the  seventh  heaven  of  delight  at 
having  secured  a  room.  So  far  we  do  not  yet  know  what 
our  fate  will  be,  I  mean,  whether  we  shall  be  together  or  be 
separated.  If  I  cannot  get  a  room  anywhere  for  nothing 
and  if  I  do  not  find  the  inns  too  expensive,  I  shall  certainly 
stay  on  here.  I  hope  that  you  received  my  letter  from 
Efferding.1  I  could  not  write  more  to  you  during  our 
journey,  as  we  stopped  seldom  and  then  only  to  rest.  The 
journey  was  very  pleasant,  and  we  had  fine  weather 
except  on  one  day;  and  even  this  one  day  caused  us  no 
discomfort,  as  my  carriage  (I  should  like  to  give  it  a 
kiss!)  is  splendid.  At  Regensburg  we  lunched  magnifi 
cently  to  the  accompaniment  of  divine  music,  we  had 
angelic  cooking  and  some  glorious  Moselle  wine.  We 
breakfasted  at  Nuremberg,  a  hideous  town.  At  Wiirz- 
burg,  a  fine,  magnificent  town,  we  fortified  our  precious 
stomachs  with  coffee.  The  food  was  tolerable  everywhere, 
but  at  Aschaffenburg,  two  and  a  half  stages  from  here, 
mine  host  was  kind  enough  to  fleece  us  disgracefully. 

I  am  longing  for  news  of  you,  of  your  health,  our  affairs 
and  so  forth.  I  am  firmly  resolved  to  make  as  much  money 
as  I  can  here  and  then  return  to  you  with  great  joy.  What 
a  glorious  life  we  shall  have  then!  I  will  work — work  so 
hard — that  no  unforeseen  accidents  shall  ever  reduce  us 
to  such  desperate  straits  again.  I  should  like  you  to  get 
Stadler  to  send  N.N.  to  you  about  that  matter.  His  last 
suggestion  was  that  the  money  should  be  advanced  on 
Hoffmeister's  draft  alone,  that  is,  1000  gulden  in  cash 
and  the  remainder  in  cloth.  Then  everything  could  be 
paid  off,  we  should  have  a  little  over,  and  on  my  return  I 
should  have  nothing  to  do  but  work.  The  whole  business 

1  There  is  no  trace  of  this  letter,  which  must  have  been  sent  off  on  Sep 
tember  24th  or  25th. 


Z.  585  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  i7go 

could  t>e  settled  by  a  friend  with  carte  blanche  from  me. 
Adieu.  I  kiss  you  a  thousand  times. 

Ever  your 


(585)  Mozart  to  his  Wife 

[Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Arturo  Toscanint] 

FRANKFURT  AM  MAIN,  September  30^,  1790 

If  only  I  had  a  letter  from  you,  all  would  be  well.  I 
hope  that  you  have  received  mine  from  Efferding  l  and 
Frankfurt.  In  my  last  one  I  told  you  to  speak  to  Red- 
currant  Face.2  For  safety's  sake  I  should  very  much  like 
to  raise  2000  gulden  on  Hoffmeister's  draft.  But  you  will 
have  to  give  some  other  reason;  you  may  say,  for  example, 
that  I  am  making  some  speculation  about  which  you  know 
nothing.  My  love,  there  is  no  doubt  whatever  that  I  shall 
make  something  in  this  place,  but  certainly  not  as  much 
as  you  and  some  of  my  friends  expect.  That  I  am  both 
known  and  respected  here  is  undeniable.  Well,  we  shall 
see.  But  as  in  every  case  I  prefer  to  play  for  safety,  I 
should  like  to  make  that  deal  with  H — • — ,3  as  I  shall  thus 
obtain  some  money  and  not  have  to  pay  anything;  all  I 
shall  have  to  do  is  to  work  and  that  I  shall  willingly  do 
for  the  sake  of  my  dear  little  wife.  When  you  write  to  me, 
always  address  your  letters,  Poste  Restante.  Where  do 
you  think  I  am  living?  In  the  same  house  as  Bohm,4  and 
Hofer  is  with  me  too.  We  pay  thirty  gulden  a  month, 
which  is  wonderfully  cheap,  and  we  also  take  our  meals 

1  See  p.  1401,  n.  i. 

2  Mozart's  nickname  for  Anton  Stadler.  3  Probably  Hoffmeister. 
4  Johannes  B ohm's  theatrical  company  had  been  giving-  performances  in 

Frankfurt  since  1780.  On  October  I2th  and  22nd  they  produced  Mozart's 
"Entfuhrung  aus  dem  Serail"  and  "La  finta  giardiniera",  the  latter 
in  a  German  translation.  Bohm  was  living  in  the  Kalbachergasse,  near  the 


I79o  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  L.  586 

there.  And  whom  do  you  think  I  have  come  across?  The 
girl  who  so  often  played  hide-and-seek  with  us  in  the 
Auge  Gottes.  I  think  her  name  was  Buchner.  She  is  now 
Madame  Porsch  :  and  this  is  her  second  marriage.  She 
asks  me  to  send  you  all  sorts  of  kind  messages.  As  I  do 
not  know  whether  you  are  at  Baden  or  Vienna,  I  am 
addressing  this  letter  again  to  Madame  Hofer.2  I  am  as 
excited  as  a  child  at  the  thought  of  seeing  you  again.  If 
people  could  see  into  my  heart,  I  should  almost  feel 
ashamed.  To  me  everything  is  cold  —  cold  as  ice.  Perhaps 
if  you  were  with  me  I  might  possibly  take  more  pleasure 
in  the  kindness  of  those  I  meet  here.  But,  as  it  is,  every 
thing  seems  so  empty.  Adieu,  my  love.  I  am  ever  your 
husband,  who  loves  you  with  all  his  soul, 

Frankfurt  am  Main,  September  3Oth,  1790. 

(586)  Mozart  to  his  Wife 

Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  p.  44] 

FRANKFURT  AM  MAIN,  October  ^rd,  1790 

At  last  I  feel  comforted  and  happy.  First  of  all, 
because  I  have  had  news  from  you,  my  love,  news  for 
which  I  was  simply  aching;  and,  secondly,  on  account  of 
the  reassuring  information  about  my  affairs.  I  have  now 
made  up  my  mind  to  compose  at  once  the  Adagio  for  the 
watchmaker  3  and  then  to  slip  a  few  ducats  into  the  hand 

1  Porsch  was  an  actor  at  the  Frankfurt  National  Theatre. 

*  Josefa,  Constanze's  eldest  sister,  who  since  1788  had  been  married  to 

3  K.  594,  adagio  and  allegro  in  F  minor  and  major  for  a  mechanical  organ, 
composed  for  Count  Josef  Deym,  owner  of  the  M  tiller  waxworks,  on  the 
occasion  of  the  exhibition  of  the  effigy  of  the  late  Field-marshal  Laudon,  who 
had  died  on  July  I4th,  1  79O.This  work  has  been  published  only  in  a  transcription 
as  a  piano  duet.  For  the  same  instrument  Mozart  wrote  in  1791.  K.  608,  fantasy 
in  F  minor,  and  K.  616,  andante  in  F  major.  See  also  p.  147  9,  n.  I. 


L.  586  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  i79o 

of  my  dear  little  wife.  And  this  I  have  done;  but  as  it 
is  a  kind  of  composition  which  I  detest,  I  have  unfor 
tunately  not  been  able  to  finish  it.  I  compose  a  bit  of  it 
every  day — but  I  have  to  break  off  now  and  then,  as  I  get 
bored.  And  indeed  I  would  give  the  whole  thing  up,  if 
I  had  not  such  an  important  reason  to  go  on  with  it.  But 
I  still  hope  that  I  shall  be  able  to  force  myself  gradually  to 
finish  it.  If  it  were  for  a  large  instrument  and  the  work 
would  sound  like  an  organ  piece,  then  I  might  get  some 
fun  out  of  it.  But,  as  it  is,  the  works  consist  solely  of  little 
pipes,  which  sound  too  high-pitched  and  too  childish  for 
my  taste. 

Up  to  the  present  I  have  been  living  here  altogether 
in  retirement.  Every  morning  I  stay  indoors  in  my 
hole  of  a  bedroom  and  compose.  My  sole  recreation  is  the 
theatre,  where  I  meet  several  acquaintances  from  Vienna, 
Munich,  Mannheim  and  even  Salzburg.  Franz  Lang,  the 
horn  player,  and  Gres,  the  Treasurer,  are  here — and  old 
Wendling  too  with  his  Dorothea.  This  is  the  way  I  should 
like  best  of  all  to  go  on  living — but — I  fear  that  it  will 
soon  come  to  an  end  and  that  I  am  in  for  a  restless  life. 
Already  I  am  being  invited  everywhere — and  however 
tiresome  it  may  be  to  let  myself  be  on  view,  I  see  never 
theless  how  necessary  it  is.  So  in  God's  name  I  submit  to 
it.  Well,  it  is  probable  that  my  concert  may  not  be  a 
failure.  I  wish  it  were  over,  if  only  to  be  nearer  the  time 
when  I  shall  once  more  embrace  my  love!  On  Tuesday 
the  theatrical  company  of  the  Elector  of  Mainz  are  per 
forming  "Don  Giovanni"  in  my  honour.1  Farewell,  my 
love.  Give  my  greetings  to  the  few  friends  who  wish  me 
well.  Take  care  of  your  health  which  is  so  precious  to  me 
and  be  ever  my  Constanze  as  I  shall  ever  be  your 


1  This  performance  did  not  take  place.  But  "Figaro"  was  performed  during 
Mozart's  stay  at  Frankfurt. 


I79o  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  L.  587 

Remember,  keep  on  writing  to  me  even  though  you 
only  send  me  a  few  lines. 

P.S. — I  lunched  yesterday  with  Herr  Schweitzer,  the 
wealthiest  banker  in  all  Frankfurt.  Mile  Crux  is  here  too. 
I  have  not  yet  seen  the  girl,  but  Madame  Quallenberg 
tells  me  that  she  has  grown  so  tall  and  buxom  that  I  shan't 
recognise  her.  Adieu. 

The  state  entry  takes  place  to-morrow — Monday,  and 
the  coronation  a  week  later.1 

(587)  Mozart  to  his  Wife 

[A  utograph  in  the  possession  of  Frau  Floersheim-Koch^  Florence] 

FRANKFURT  AM  MAIN,  October  StA,  1790 

I  have  now  had  three  letters  from  you,  my  love.  That 
of  September  28th  has  this  moment  arrived.  I  have  not 
yet  received  the  one  you  sent  by  Herr  von  Alt,  but  I  shall 
make  enquiries  about  it  at  once  at  Le  Noble's.  You  must 
now  have  had  four  letters  from  me.2  This  is  the  fifth.  You 
will  not  be  able  to  write  to  me  any  more,  for  in  all 
probability  when  you  read  this  letter  I  shall  no  longer  be 
here,  as  I  intend  to  give  my  concert  on  Wednesday  or 
Thursday  and  then  on  Friday  forthwith — tschiri-tschitschi 
— seek  safety  in  flight!  Dearest  little  wife!  I  trust  that 
you  have  dealt  with  the  business  about  which  I  wrote  to 
you,  and  are  still  dealing  with  it.  I  shall  certainly  not 
make  enough  money  here  to  be  able  to  pay  back  800  or 
1000  gulden  immediately  on  my  return.  But  if  the  business 
with  Hoffmeister  is  at  least  so  far  advanced  that  only  my 
presence  is  required,  then,  after  deducting  interest  at  the 

1  The  coronation  took  place  on  October  9th. 
2  See  p.  1401,  n.  I. 


L.  587  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  i79o 

rate  of  20%,  I  shall  have  1600  out  of  2000  gulden.  I  can 
then  pay  out  1000  gulden  and  shall  have  600  left.  Well,  I 
shall  begin  to  give  little  quartet  subscription  concerts  in 
Advent  and  I  shall  also  take  pupils.  I  need  never  repay 
the  sum,  as  /  am  composing  for  Hoffmeister — so  every 
thing  will  be  quite  in  order.  But  please  settle  the  affair 
with  Hoffmeister,  that  is,  if  you  really  want  me  to  return. 
If  you  could  only  look  into  my  heart.  There  a  struggle  is 
going  on  betv/een  my  yearning  and  longing  to  see  and 
embrace  you  once  more  and  my  desire  to  bring  home  a 
large  sum  of  money.  I  have  often  thought  of  travelling 
farther  afield,  but  whenever  I  tried  to  bring  myself  to  take 
the  decision,  the  thought  always  came  to  me,  how  bitterly 
I  should  regret  it,  if  I  were  to  separate  myself  from  my 
beloved  wife  for  such  an  uncertain  prospect,  perhaps  even 
to  no  purpose  whatever.  I  feel  as  if  I  had  left  you  years 
ago.  Believe  me,  my  love,  if  you  were  with  me  I  might 
perhaps  decide  more  easily,  but  I  am  too  much  accustomed 
to  you  and  I  love  you  too  dearly  to  endure  being  separated 
from  you  for  long.  Besides,  all  this  talk  about  the 
Imperial  towns  is  mere  misleading  chatter.  True,  I  am 
famous,  admired  and  popular  here;  on  the  other  hand,  the 
Frankfurt  people  are  even  more  stingy  than  the  Viennese. 
If  my  concert  is  at  all  successful,  it  will  be  thanks  to  my 
name,  to  the  Countess  Hatzfeldt  and  the  Schweitzer 
family  who  are  working  hard  on  my  behalf.  But  I  shall  be 
glad  when  it  is  over.  If  I  work  very  hard  in  Vienna  and 
take  pupils,  we  can  live  very  happily;  and  nothing  but  a 
good  engagement  at  some  court  can  make  me  abandon 
this  plan.  But  do  your  best  with  the  help  of  Red-currant 
Face *  or  someone  else  to  conclude  that  business  with 
Hoffmeister  and  to  make  known  generally  my  intention 
to  take  pupils.  Then  we  shall  certainly  have  enough  to 
live  on.  Adieu,  my  love.  You  will  still  get  a  few  more 

1  See  p.  1402,  n.  2. 

1790  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  L.  588 

letters  from  me.  But  I,  alas!  can  get  no  more  from  you. 

Ever  love  your  own 

Frankfurt  am  Main,  October  8th,  1790. 

The  Coronation  is  to-morrow. 

Take  care  of  your  health — and  be  careful  when  you  go 
out  walking.  Adieu. 

(588)  Mozart  to  his  Wife 

\From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  p.  84] 

FRANKFURT  AM  MAIN,  October  \$th>  1790 

I  have  not  yet  received  a  reply  to  any  of  my  letters 
from  Frankfurt,  which  makes  me  rather  anxious.  My 
concert  took  place  at  eleven  o'clock  this  morning.1  It  was 
a  splendid  success  from  the  point  of  view  of  honour  and 
glory,  but  a  failure  as  far  as  money  was  concerned. 
Unfortunately  some  Prince  was  giving  a  big  dejeuner  and 
the  Hessian  troops  were  holding  a  grand  manoeuvre.  But 
in  any  case  some  obstacle  has  arisen  on  every  day  during 
my  stay  here.  You  can't  imagine  how — .2  But  in  spite 
of  all  these  difficulties  I  was  in  such  good  form  and 
people  were  so  delighted  with  me  that  they  implored  me 
to  give  another  concert  next  Sunday.  I  shall  therefore 
leave  on  Monday.  I  must  close  this  letter,  or  I  shall  miss 
the  post.  I  gather  from  your  letters  that  you  have  not  yet 
received  any  from  me  from  Frankfurt.  Yet  I  sent  you 
four.  Moreover  I  seem  to  notice  that  you  doubt  my 

1  Mozart  played  his  piano  concertos  K.  459  and  K.  537,  the  so-called 
coronation  concerto.  He  also  accompanied  Hofer  in  a  violin  sonata  and 
played  a  piano  duet  with  Beecke. 

2  Nottebohm,  the  only  source  for  this  letter,  omits  the  word  or  words. 
According  to  Dr.  A.  Einstein  they  may  be  about  the  wretched  performance 
of  Margarete  Schick  (nle  Hampel),  who  sang  an  aria  and  a  duet  with 


Z.  590  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  i79a 

punctuality  or  rather  my  eagerness  to  write  to  you,  and 
this  pains  me  bitterly.  Surely  you  ought  to  know  me 
better.  Good  God!  Only  love  me  half  as  much  as  I  love 
you,  and  I  shall  be  content.  Ever  your 

Frankfurt,  October  I5th,  1790. 

(589)  Mozart  to  his  Wife 

\Cofiy  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin\ 

MAINZ,  October  17  th,  1790  x 

P.S.  —  While  I  was  writing  the  last  page,  tear  after  tear 
fell  on  the  paper.  But  I  must  cheer  up  —  catch!  —  An 
astonishing  number  of  kisses  are  flying  about  —  The 
deuce!  —  I  see  a  whole  crowd  of  them!  Ha!  Ha!  ...  I  have 
just  caught  three  —  They  are  delicious!  —  You  can  still 
answer  this  letter,  but  you  must  address  your  reply  to 
Linz,  Poste  Restante  —  That  is  the  safest  course.  As  I  do 
not  yet  know  for  certain  whether  I  shall  go  to  Regens- 
burg,  I  can't  tell  you  anything  definite.  Just  write  on 
the  cover  that  the  letter  is  to  be  kept  until  called  for. 
Adieu  —  Dearest,  most  beloved  little  wife  —  Take  care  of 
your  health  —  and  don't  think  of  walking  into  town.  Do 
write  and  tell  me  how  you  like  our  new  quarters  2  — 
Adieu.  I  kiss  you  millions  of  times. 

(590)  Mozart  to  his  Wife 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  p.  29] 

MANNHEIM,  October  zydt  1790 

We  are  going  to  Schwetzingen  to-morrow  to  see  the 
gardens.  In  the  evening  "  Figaro"  will  be  given  here  for 

1  The  letter  to  which  this  is  a  postscript  has  unfortunately  been  lost. 
2  See  p.  1396,  n.  2. 


1790  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  Z.  591 

the  first  time.  We  shall  leave  the  day  after  to-morrow.  It 
is  "Figaro"  which  is  responsible  for  my  being  here  still, 
for  the  whole  cast  implored  me  to  stay  on  and  help  them 
with  the  rehearsals.  "  Figaro"  too  is  the  reason  why  I  cannot 
write  as  much  to  you  as  I  should  like  to,  for  it  is  just  the 
time  for  the  dress  rehearsal.  Why,  the  first  act  at  least  will 
already  be  over.  I  trust  that  you  received  my  letter  of  the 
iyth  from  Mainz.  The  day  before  my  departure  I  played 
before  the  Elector,  but  only  received  the  meagre  sum  of 
fifteen  carolins.  Get  things  going  so  that  that  affair  with 
Hoffmeister  may  be  concluded.  I  now  hope  to  embrace 
you  for  certain  in  a  fortnight,  that  is,  six  or  seven  days 
after  you  receive  this  letter.  But  you  will  still  get  letters 
from  me  from  Augsburg,  Munich  and  Linz.  You,  how 
ever,  cannot  send  any  more  letters  to  me.  All  the  same  if 
you  write  immediately  after  receiving  this  letter,  I  can 
still  get  your  reply  at  Linz.  Do  try  to  do  this.  Now,  fare 
well,  dearest  little  wife!  I  kiss  you  a  thousand  times  and 
am  ever  and  unchangingly  your  faithful  husband 


(591)  Mozart  to  his  Wife 

[Copy  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  £erlin\ 

MUNICH,  November  2nd,  1790 

You  have  no  idea  how  much  it  pains  me  that  I  have 
to  wait  until  I  get  to  Linz  before  I  can  have  news  from  you. 
Patience;  for  if  one  does  not  know  how  long  one  is  going 
to  stay  in  a  place,  it  is  impossible  to  make  better  arrange 
ments.  Though  I  would  have  gladly  prolonged  my  stay 
with  my  old  Mannheim  friends,  I  only  wanted  to  spend 
a  day  here;  but  now  I  am  obliged  to  remain  until  the  5th 
or  6th,  as  the  Elector  has  asked  me  to  perform  at  a  concert 
which  he  is  giving  for  the  King  of  Naples.  It  is  greatly  to 

VOL.  in  1409  2  A 

Z.  59J  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  I?9o 

the  credit  of  the  Viennese  court  that  the  King  has  to  hear 
me  in  a  foreign  country.1  You  can  well  imagine  that  I  have 
had  a  good  time  with  the  Cannabichs,  la  bonne  Madame 
Ramm,  Marchand  and  Brochard,  and  that  we  have  talked 
a  great  deal  about  you,  my  love.  I  am  looking  forward  to 
seeing  you,  for  I  have  a  great  deal  to  discuss  with  you.  I 
am  thinking  of  taking  this  very  same  journey  with  you, 
my  love,  at  the  end  of  next  summer,  so  that  you  may  try 
some  other  waters.  At  the  same  time  the  company,  the 
exercise  and  the  change  of  air  will  do  you  good,  for  it  has 
agreed  very  well  with  me.  I  am  greatly  looking  forward  to 
this,  and  so  are  all  my  friends. 

Forgive  me  for  not  writing  as  much  as  I  should  like  to, 
but  you  cannot  conceive  what  a  fuss  they  are  making  of 
me.  I  must  now  be  off  to  Cannabich's,  where  a  concerto 
is  being  rehearsed.  Adieu,  dear  little  wife.  According  to 
my  calculation  I  cannot  expect  an  answer  to  this  letter. 
Farewell,  my  love,  I  kiss  you  millions  of  times  and  am 
ever,  until  death,  your  loving  husband 


P.S. — Gretl2  is  now  married  to  Madame  Le  Brun's3 
brother,  so  her  name  is  Madame  Danzi.  Little  Hannah 
Brochard 4  is  now  sixteen  and  alas!  her  looks  have  been 
spoilt  by  smallpox.  What  a  pity!  She  never  stops  talking 
about  you.  She  plays  the  clavier  very  nicely. 

1  Mozart  is  alluding  to  the  visit  to  Vienna  in  September  1790  of  King 
Ferdinand  and  Queen  Caroline  of  Naples  for  the  celebration  of  the  double 
wedding  of  their  daughters,  Maria  Theresa  and  Louise,  to  the  Archdukes 
Francis  and  Ferdinand.  The  festivities  consisted  of  performances  of  operas  by 
S  alien  and  Weigl  and  a  concert  at  which  works  by  Haydn  and  other  com 
posers  were  rendered.  Mozart  was  entirely  neglected. 

2  Margarete  Marchand,  Leopold  Mozart's  former  pupil,  married  in  1790 
Franz  Danzi  (1763-1826),  'cellist  in  the  Munich  court  orchestra. 

3  Franziska  Danzi,  daughter  of  the  Mannheim  'cellist,  Innocenz  Danzi, 
had  married  in  1778  the  Mannheim  oboist,  Ludwig  August  Le  Brun. 

4  Maria  Johanna  Brochard,  cousin  of  Heinrich  and  Margarete  Marchand, 
had  been  Leopold  Mozart's  pupil. 



(592)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  p.  52] 

VIENNA,  April  i$th,  1791 

I  shall  be  drawing  my  quarterly  pay  on  April  2oth, 
that  is,  in  a  week.  If  you  can  and  will  lend  me  until 
then  about  twenty  gulden,  you  will  oblige  me  very  much, 
most  beloved  friend,  and  you  will  have  it  back  with  very 
many  thanks  on  the  aoth,  as  soon  as  I  draw  my  money.  I 
am  anxiously  awaiting  the  sum.  Ever  your  most  grateful 

April  1 3th,  1791. 

(593)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

{Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Heinrich  Eisemann,  London} 

VIENNA,  between  April  list  and  27 th,  1791 
I  trust  that  Orsler 2  has  returned  the  keys.  It  was  not 
my  fault.  Further  I  hope  that  on  my  behalf  he  has  asked 
you  in  advance  to  lend  me  for  to-day  a  violin  and  two 
violas.  They  are  for  a  quartet  at  Greiner's.3  You  know 
already  that  I  am  very  anxious  to  have  them.  If  you 
should  care  to  come  to  our  little  concert  in  the  evening, 
both  he  and  I  most  politely  invite  you  to  do  so. 


1  Puchberg  noted  on  this  letter,  "sent,  on  April  ijth,  1791,  30  gulden". 

2  Joseph  Orsler,  who  from  1772  to  1806  was  'cellist  in  the  Vienna  court 

3  Court   Councillor  von    Greiner   (1732-1798),   the  father  of  Caroline 
Pichler,  write^  and  musician.  For  an  excellent  account  of  her  connection 
with  Mozart  see  Bliimml,  pp.  104-118. 


L.594      MOZART  TO  THE  COUNCIL  OF  VIENNA        1791 

P.S. — Please  forgive  me  for  not  having  repaid,  as  I 
promised  to  do,  the  sum  you  know  of.  But  Stadler,  who 
was  to  have  gone  to  the  pay  office  for  me,  because  I  have 
so  much  to  do,  altogether  forgot  about  the  2Oth.  So  I 
must  wait  for  another  week. 

(594)  Mozart  to  the  Municipal  Council  of  Vienna 

{Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Frau  Floersheim-Koch,  Florence] 

VIENNA,  beginning  of  May,  1791 

When  Kapellmeister  Hofmann T  was  ill,  I  thought 
of  venturing  to  apply  for  his  post,  seeing  that  my 
musical  talents,  my  works  and  my  skill  in  composi 
tion  are  well  known  in  foreign  countries,  my  name  is 
treated  everywhere  with  some  respect,  and  I"  myself  was 
appointed  several  years  ago  composer  to  the  distin 
guished  court  of  Vienna.  I  trusted  therefore  that  I  was 
not  unworthy  of  this  post  and  that  I  deserved  the  favour 
able  consideration  of  our  enlightened  municipal  council. 

Kapellmeister  Hofmann,  however,  has  recovered  his 
health  and  in  the  circumstances — for  I  wish  him  from 
my  heart  a  long  life — it  has  occurred  to  me  that  it  might 
perhaps  be  of  service  to  the  Cathedral  and,  most  worthy 
gentlemen,  to  your  advantage,  if  I  were  to  be  attached 
for  the  time  being  as  unpaid  assistant  to  this  ageing 
Kapellmeister  and  were  to  have  the  opportunity  of  help 
ing  this  worthy  man  in  his  office,  thus  gaining  the  appro 
bation  of  our  learned  municipal  council  by  the  actual 
performance  of  services  which  I  may  justly  consider 

1  Leopold  Hofmann  (c.  1730-1793),  Kapellmeister  at  the  Stefanskirche 
in  Vienna. 


1791  MOZART  TO  CHOIR-MASTER  STOLL          L.  595 

myself  peculiarly  fitted  to  render  on  account  of  my 
thorough  knowledge  of  both  the  secular  and  ecclesiastical 
styles  of  music. 

Your  most  humble  servant, 

Royal  and  Imperial  Court  Composer1 

(595)  Mozart  to  Choir-master  Stoll 2  at  Baden 

[Copy  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin\ 

DEAR  OLD  STOLL!  VIENNA,  beginning  of  June  y  1791 

Don't  be  a  poll! 

Primo.  I  should  like  to  know  whether  Stadler  called  on 
you  yesterday  and  asked  you  for  this  mass: 3 

Did  he?  Well  then,  I  hope  that  I  shall  get  it  to-day.  If 
not,  please  be  so  kind  as  to  send  it  to  me  at  once  and, 
remember,  with  all  the  parts.  I  shall  return  it  very  soon. 

Secondo.  Will  you  please  find  a  small  apartment  for  my 
wife?  She  only  needs  two  rooms,  or  one  room  and  a 
dressing-room.  But  the  main  thing  is  that  they  should 
be  on  the  ground  floor.  The  rooms  I  should  prefer  are 
those  which  Goldhahn  4  used  to  occupy  on  the  ground 
floor  at  the  butcher's.  Please  enquire  there  first;  perhaps 
they  are  still  to  let.  My  wife  is  going  out  to  Baden  on 

1  The  Municipal  Council  of  Vienna  granted  Mozart's  request,  but  Kapell 
meister  Hofmann  outlived  the  petitioner.  His  successor  was  Johann  Georg 

2  Anton  Stoll  (1748-1805),  school  teacher  and  choir-master  of  Baden  near 
Vienna.  Mozart  wrote  for  him  on  June  I7th,  1791,  his  motet  K.  618,  "Ave, 
verum  corpus"  for  four  voices,  strings  and  organ. 

3  K.  317,  composed  in  1779,  Mozart's  so-called  coronation  mass. 

4  Josef  Odilo  Goldhahn  was  one  of  Mozart's  acquaintances  in  Vienna. 


Z.  596  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  j79j 

Saturday,  or  Monday,  at  latest.  If  we  cannot  have  these 
rooms,  then  you  must  look  for  something  fairly  near  the 
baths;  but  the  important  point  is  that  they  should  be  on 
the  ground  floor.  The  ground  floor  at  the  town  notary's, 
where  Dr.  Alt  stayed,1  would  do  very  well,  but  the  rooms 
at  the  butcher's  would  be  best  of  all. 

Terzo.  I  should  like  to  know  whether  the  theatre  in 
Baden  is  open  yet? 

Please  reply  as  quickly  as  possible  and  send  me 
information  on  these  three  points. 


P.S. — My  address  is:  In  the  Rauhensteingasse,  in  the 
Kaiserhaus,  No.  970,  first  floor. 

P.S. — This  is  the  silliest  letter  I  have  ever  written  in 
my  life;  but  it  is  just  the  very  thing  for  you. 

(596)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

[Prom  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  p.  24] 
MA   TRES    CHERE    EPOUSE!  VIENNA,  June  5 th,  179! 

I  hope  that  on  alighting  from  the  carriage  my  letter 
handed  you  Sabinde  and  that  after  you  read  Sabinde,  you 
were  very  glad  that  I  let  it  go  off  for  a  drive  to  Baden. 
It  slept  with  me  last  night  and  I  wrote  Sabinde  early  this 
morning — ss — ss — a.  A  whole  crowd  of  people  were  made 
fools  of  to-day  in  St.  Stefan.  Madame  Schwingenschuh 
and  Lisette  called  on  me  very  early  in  the  morning  and  I  told 
them  so.  Then  I  sent  Lori 2  to  church  to  tell  Jacquin  and 
Schafer  at  once.  They  both  came  to  see  me  immediately. 
I  then  sent  another  message,  as  they  had  seen  Hofmann 
go  to  the  choir.  I  shall  fly  to  you  on  Wednesday  in  the 

1  Stoll  took  these  rooms  in  the  Renngasse  for  Constanze.  See  MM.  May 
1920,  pp.  109-112.  2  Leonore,  the  Mozarts'  maidservant. 


1791  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  L.  597 

company  of  the  Schwingenschuhs.  I  am  sleeping  to-night 
at  Leutgeb's — and  the  whole  time  I  am  thinking  that  I 
have  given  Lori  the  consilium  abeundi.  I  am  looking 
forward  to  reading  a  letter  from  you  soon.  Adieu,  my 
love.  Ever  your  husband 


(597)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

\Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg} 
MA    TRES    CHERE    EPOUSE!  VIENNA,  June  6thy   1791 

J'ecris  cette  lettre  dans  la  petite  chambre  au  jardin 
chez  Leutgeb  ou  j'ai  couche  cette  nuit  excellemment — et 
j'espere  que  ma  chere  epouse  aura  passe  cette  nuit  aussi 
bien  que  moi.  J'y  passerai  cette  nuit  aussi,  puisque  j'ai 
congedie  Leonore  et  je  serais  tout  seul  a  la  maison,  ce  qui 
n'est  pas  agreable. 

J 'attends  avec  beaucoup  d'impatience  une  lettre  qui 
m'apprendra  comme  vous  avez  passe  le  jour  d'hier.  Je 
tremble  quand  je  pense  au  bain  de  Saint  Antoine,  car 
je  crains  toujours  le  risque  de  tomber  sur  Tescalier  en 
sortant — et  je  me  trouve  entre  Tesperance  et  la  crainte — 
une  situation  bien  desagreable!  Si  vous  n'etiez  pas  grosse, 
je  craignerais  moins.1  Mais  abandonnons  cette  idee  triste! 
Le  ciel  aura  eu  certainement  soin  de  ma  chere  Stanzi- 

Madame  de  Schwingenschuh  m'a  prie  de  leur  procurer 
une  loge  pour  ce  soir  au  theatre  de  Wieden,3  oil  Ton 
donnera  la  cinquieme  partie  d'  Antoine 4,  et  j'etais  si 
heureux  de  pouvoir  les  servir.  J'aurai  done  le  plaisir  de 
voir  cet  opera  dans  leur  compagnie. 

1  The  Mozarts'  sixth  child,  Franz  Xaver  Wolfgang,  was  born  on  July  26th, 
1791.  He  became  a  professional  pianist  and  died  at  Karlsbad  in  1844. 

2  One  of  Mozart's  pet-names  for  Constanze.          3  Schikaneder's  theatre. 
4  " Anton  bei  Hofe",  an  opera  by  Benedict  Schack. 


L.  598  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  i?gi 

I  have  this  moment  received  your  dear  letter  and  am 
delighted  to  hear  that  you  are  well  and  in  good  spirits. 
Madame  Leutgeb  has  laundered  my  nightcap  and  neck 
tie,  but  I  should  like  you  to  see  them!  Good  God!  I  kept 
on  telling  her,  "Do  let  me  show  you  how  she  (my  wife]  does 
them\" — But  it  was  no  use.  I  am  delighted  that  you  have 
a  good  appetite — but  whoever  gorges  a  lot,  must  also  shit 
a  lot — no,  walk  a  lot,  I  mean.  But  I  should  not  like  you 
to  take  long  walks  without  me.  I  entreat  you  to  follow 
my  advice  exactly,  for  it  comes  from  my  heart.  Adieu — 
my  love — my  only  one.  Do  catch  them  in  the  air — those 
2999i  little  kisses  from  me  which  are  flying  about,  waiting 
for  someone  to  snap  them  up.  Listen,  I  want  to  whisper 
something  in  your  ear — and  you  in  mine — and  now  we 
open  and  close  our  mouths — again — again  and  again — at 

last  we  say:  "It  is  all  about  Plumpi — Strumpi "  Well, 

you  can  think  what  you  like — that  is  just  why  it's  so  con 
venient.  Adieu.  A  thousand  kisses.  Ever  your 

June  6th,  1791. 

(598)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  p.  1  1] 

th,  1791 

N.B.  —  Since  you  headed  your  letter  Vienna, 
I  must  head  mine  Baden. 


I  simply  cannot  describe  my  delight  at  receiving 
your  last  letter  of  the  6th,  which  told  me  that  you  are 
well  and  in  good  health,  and  that,  very  sensibly,  you  are 
not  taking  baths  every  day.  Heavens!  How  delighted  I 

1  Mozart  was  writing  from  Vienna. 


should  have  been  if  you  had  come  to  me  with  the  Wild- 
burgs!  Indeed  I  was  wild  with  myself  for  not  telling  you 
to  drive  into  town — but  I  was  afraid  of  the  expense.  Yet 
it  would  have  been  charmant  if  you  had  done  so.  At  five 
o'clock  to-morrow  morning,  we  are  all  driving  out,  three 
carriagefuls  of  us,  and  so  between  nine  and  ten  I  expect 
to  find  in  your  arms  all  the  joy  which  only  a  man  can  feel 
who  loves  his  wife  as  I  do!  It  is  only  a  pity  that  I  can't 
take  with  me  either  the  clavier  or  the  bird!  That  is 
why  I  would  rather  have  gone  out  alone;  but,  as  it  is,  I 
can't  get  out  of  the  arrangement  without  offending  the 

I  lunched  yesterday  with  Sussmayr  l  at  the  "Un- 
garische  Krone",2  as  I  still  had  business  in  town  at  one 

o'clock, — as  S 3  has  to  lunch  early  and  Mme  S , 

who  wanted  me  very  much  to  lunch  with  them  one  of 
these  days,  had  an  engagement  at  Schonbrunn.  To-day 
I  am  lunching  with  Schikaneder,  as  you  know,  since  you 
too  were  invited. 

So  far  I  have  had  no  letter  from  Mme  Duschek;  but 
I  shall  enquire  again  to-day.  I  can't  find  out  anything 
about  your  dress,  as  I  have  not  seen  the  Wildburgs  since. 
If  it  is  at  all  possible,  I  shall  certainly  bring  your  hat  with 
me.  Adieu,  my  little  sweetheart.  I  simply  cannot  tell  you 
how  I  am  looking  forward  to  to-morrow.  Ever  your 


1  Franz  Xaver  Sussmayr  (1766-1803),  born  at  Schwanenstadt  in  Upper 
Austria,  became  a  pupil  of  Mozart  in  composition.  He  accompanied  Mozart 
and  Constanze  to  Prague  in  August  1791,  and  was  probably  responsible  for 
certain  portions  of  Mozart's  opera  "La  Clemenza  di  Tito".  He  completed 
Mozart's  Requiem  after  the  composer's  death.  See  Abert,  vol.  ii.  p.  850  S. 

2  A  restaurant  in  the  Himmelpfortgasse,  which  still  exists. 

3  Possibly  Benedict  Schack,  who  had  married  a  contralto  singer. 


L.  599      '  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  1791 

(599)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

[From  No tteb ohm,  Mozartiana,  p.  46] 
MA  TRES    CHERE    EPOUSE!  VIENNA,  June  llth>  1791 

Criez  avec  moi  centre  mon  mauvais  sort!  Mile. 
Kirchgessner  l  ne  donne  pas  son  academie  lundi  !2  Par 
consequent  j'aurais  pu  vous  posseder,  ma  chere,  tout  ce 
jour  de  dimanche.  Mercredi  je  viendrai  surement. 

I  must  hurry,  as  it  is  already  a  quarter  to  seven — and 
the  coach  leaves  at  seven.  When  you  are  bathing,  do  take 
care  not  to  slip  and  never  stay  in  alone.  If  I  were  you  I 
should  occasionally  omit  a  day  in  order  not  to  do  the  cure 
too  violently.  I  trust  that  someone  slept  with  you  last 
night.  I  cannot  tell  you  what  I  would  not  give  to  be  with 
you  at  Baden  instead  of  being  stuck  here.  From  sheer 
boredom  I  composed  to-day  an  aria  for  my  opera.3  I  got 
up  as  early  as  half  past  four.  Wonderful  to  relate,  I  have 
got  back  my  watch — but — as  I  have  no  key,  I  have  un 
fortunately  not  been  able  to  wind  it.  What  a  nuisance! 
Schlumbla!  That  is  a  word  to  ponder  on.  Well,  I  wound 
our  big  clock  instead.  Adieu — my  love!  I  am  lunching 
to-day  with  Puchberg.  I  kiss  you  a  thousand  times  and  say 
with  you  in  thought: ' '  Death  and  despair  were  his  reward! ' ' 4 

Ever  your  loving  husband 


See  that  Karl  behaves  himself .  Give  him  kisses  from  me. 
Take  an  electuary  if  you  are  constipated — not  otherwise. 

1  Marianne  Kirchgessner  (1770-1809)  was  a  blind  performer  on  the  glass 
harmonica.  She  undertook  numerous  successful  concert  tours.  Mozart  com 
posed  for  her  in  May  1791  K.  617,  an  adagio  and  rondo  in  C  minor  and 
major  for  harmonica,  flute,  oboe,  viola  and  violoncello. 

2  Her  concert,  which  was  to  have  taken  place  on  June  I3th,  was  postponed 
until  August  1 9th.  K.  617  was  performed, 

3  "Die  Zauberflote",  which  Schikaneder  had  commissioned  Mozart  to 
write  for  performance  at  his  theatre  Auf  der  Wieden. 

4  A  quotation  from  the  "Zauberflote". 


1791  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  L.  600 

Take  care  of  yourself  in  the  morning  and  evening,  if  it  is 

(600)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  pp.  27-29] 

VIENNA,  June  iztk,  1791 

Now  why  did  I  not  get  a  letter  from  you  last  night? 
So  that  you  might  keep  me  even  longer  in  anxiety  about 
your  baths?  This  and  something  else  spoilt  the  whole  of 
yesterday  for  me.  I  went  to  see  N.N.  in  the  morning,  who 
promised  me,  parole  d'honneur,  to  call  on  me  between 
twelve  and  one  in  order  to  settle  up  everything.  So  I 
could  not  lunch  with  Puchberg,  but  had  to  wait  at  home. 
Well,  I  waited  until  half  past  two.  He  never  came,  so  I  sent 
a  note  to  his  father  by  our  servant.  Meanwhile  I  went  off 
to  the  " Ungarische  Krone",  as  it  was  too  late  to  get  lunch 
anywhere  else;  even  there  I  had  to  take  my  meal  alone, 
as  all  the  guests  had  already  left.  You  can  imagine  the 
sort  of  lunch  I  had,  worried  as  I  was  about  you  and 
annoyed  with  N.N.  If  only  I  had  had  someone  to  console 
me  a  little.  It  is  not  at  all  good  for  me  to  be  alone,  when 
I  have  something  on  my  mind.  At  half  past  three  I  was 
at  home  again.  The  servant  had  not  yet  returned.  I 
waited  and  waited  until  half  past  six  when  she  turned  up 
with  a  note.  Waiting  is  always  disagreeable,  to  be  sure, 
but  even  more  so  when  the  result  is  not  what  you  expect. 
The  note  only  contained  apologies  for  not  having  been 
able  to  get  some  definite  information,  and  assurances  that 
he  would  not  forget  me  and  would  certainly  keep  his 
word.  To  cheer  myself  up  I  then  went  to  the  Kasperle 
Theatre  to  see  the  new  opera  "Der  Fagottist",1  which  is 

1  "Kaspar  der  Fagottist",  by  Wenzel  Miiller  (1767-1835),  who  was  con 
ductor  at  Marinelli's  Theatre  in  Vienna.  The  first  performance  of  this  opera 
was  on  June  8th,  1791. 


Z.  600  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  j79j 

making  such  a  sensation,  but  which  is  shoddy  stuff.  When 
passing  the  coffee-house  I  looked  in  to  see  whether  Loibl l 
was  there,  but  there  was  not  a  sign  of  him.  In  the  evening 
I  again  took  a  meal  at  the  "Krone"  simply  in  order  not 
to  be  alone,  and  there  at  least  I  found  someone  to  talk  to. 
Then  I  went  straight  to  bed.  I  was  up  again  at  five 
o'clock,  got  dressed  at  once,  went  to  see  Montecucoli 2 — 
"whom  I  found  at  home — then  went  off  to  N.N.,  who, 
however,  had  already  decamped.  I  am  only  sorry  that 
on  account  of  that  business ',  which  has  not  yet  been 
settled,  I  was  not  able  to  write  to  you  this  morning.  How 
I  should  have  liked  to  write! 

I  am  off  now  to  the  Rehbergs,  that  is,  to  the  great 
banquet  which  they  are  giving  to  their  friends.  If  I  had 
not  made  a  solemn  promise  to  turn  up  and  if  it  were  not 
extremely  rude  of  me  to  stay  away,  I  should  not  go  at 
alL  But  what  good  would  that  do  me?  Well,  to-morrow  I 
am  driving  out  to  Baden  and  to  you!  If  only  my  affairs 
were  settled!  Who  will  now  keep  on  prodding  N.N.  on 
my  behalf?  For  if  he  is  not  prodded,  he  becomes  luke 
warm.  I  have  had  to  look  him  up  every  morning,  other 
wise  he  would  not  have  done  even  what  he  has  done. 
Please  do  not  go  to  the  Casino  to-day  even  if  the 
Schwingenschuhs  should  go  out  to  Baden.  Save  it  up 
for  when  I  am  with  you.  If  only  I  had  news  from  you! 
Well,  it  is  half  past  ten  now  and  the  Rehbergs  lunch  at 
noon.  Why,  it  is  striking  eleven!  So  I  can't  wait  any 
longer!  Adieu,  dear  little  wife,  love  me  as  I  do  you.  I 
kiss  you  2000  times  in  thought.  Ever  your 


1  Johann  Martin  Loibl,  a  notary,  a  lover  of  music  and  a  member  of  the 
same  masonic  lodge  as  Mozart, 

2  Ludwig  Franz.  Marchese  di  Montecucoli,  was  a  pupil  of  Mozart's. 


179*  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  L.  602 

(60 1 )  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

[A  utografih  in  the  possession  of  Dr.  Richard  Strauss] 

N.N.  has  this  moment  gone  off  to  Baden.  It  is  now 
nine  o'clock  in  the  evening  and  I  have  been  with  him 
since  three.  I  think  he  will  keep  his  word  this  time.  He 
promised  to  call  on  you,  so  I  urge  you  to  go  for  him 
hard.  But  please  do  not  go  to  the  Casino. 

Primo,  the  company  2  is — -you  understand  what  I  mean — 

Secondo,  you  can't  dance,  as  things  are — and  to  look  on . . .  ? 

Why,   you  can  do  that  more  easily  when  your  little 
husband  is  with  you. 

I  must  close,  as  I  have  still  to  go  and  see  Montecucoli. 
I  just  wanted  to  dash  off  this  piece  of  news  to  you.  You 
will  have  a  proper  letter  to-morrow.  Adieu — do  what  I 
have  told  you  about  the  baths  and  love  me  as  much  as  I 
love  and  shall  ever  love  you. 

Ever  your 


My  greetings  to  your  court  flunkeys! 

(602)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

[From  Nottebohmt  Mozartiana,  p.  35] 

VIENNA,  June  2$thy  1791 

These  are  only  a  few  lines  written  to  you  in  haste, 
as  I  am  going  to  give  Leutgeb  a  surprise  by  going  out 
to  breakfast  with  him.  It  is  now  half  past  five.  After 

1  This  letter  is  undated.          2  Probably  the  Schwingenschuhs. 


L.  602  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  1791 

lunch  I  shall  write  more.  And  I  am  hoping  that  by  then 
I  shall  have  had  a  letter  from  you.  Adieu — I  only  wanted 
to  say  good  morning.  Take  care  of  yourself,  particularly 
when  you  are  taking  the  baths.  If  you  feel  the  slightest 
weakness,  stop  them  at  once.  Adieu!  Two  thousand 


My  compliments  to  Snai J — and  tell  him  to  pester  N.N. 

\Autograph  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin} 


I  have  this  moment  received  your  letter,  which  has 
given  me  extraordinary  pleasure.  I  am  now  longing  for 
a  second  one  to  tell  me  how  the  baths  are  affecting  you. 
I  too  am  sorry  not  to  have  been  present  yesterday  at 
your  fine  concert,  not  on  account  of  the  music,  but  be 
cause  I  should  have  been  so  happy  to  be  with  you.  I  gave 
N.N.2  a  surprise  to-day.  First  of  all  I  went  to  the  Reh- 
bergs.  Well,  Frau  Rehberg  sent  one  of  her  daughters  up 
stairs  to  tell  him  that  a  dear  old  friend  had  come  from  Rome 
and  had  searched  all  the  houses  in  the  town  without  being 
able  to  find  him.  He  sent  down  a  message  to  say,  would 
I  please  wait  for  a  few  minutes.  Meanwhile  the  poor 
fellow  put  on  his  Sunday  best,  his  finest  clothes,  and 
turned  up  with  his  hair  most  elaborately  dressed.  You 
can  imagine  how  we  made  fun  of  him.  I  can  never  resist 
making  a  fool  of  someone — if  it  is  not  N.N.,  then  it  must 
be  N.N.  or  Snai.  And  where  did  I  sleep?  At  home,  of 
course.  And  I  slept  very  well,  save  that  the  mice  kept  me 

1  Abert,  vol.  ii.  p.  753,  n.  2,  suggests  that  Snai  was  one  of  Mozart's  nick 
names  for  Siissmayr,  who  was  then  at  Baden.  2  Probably  Leutgeb. 


I7gi  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  L.  602 

most  excellent  company.  Why,  I  had  a  first-rate  argument 
with  them.  I  was  up  before  five  o'clock.  A  propos,  I  advise 
you  not  to  go  to  mass  to-morrow.  Those  peasant  louts 
are  too  cheeky  for  my  taste.  True,  you  have  a  rough 
compagnon,  but  the  peasants  don't  respect  him,  perdent 
respectum,  as  they  see  at  once  that  he  is  a  silly  ass — 

I  shall  give  a  verbal  reply  to  Stissmayr.  I  would 
rather  not  waste  paper  on  him. 

Tell  Kriigel  or  Kliisel  that  you  would  like  to  have 
better  food.  Perhaps,  when  you  are  passing,  you  could 
speak  to  him  yourself.  That  would  be  even  better.  He  is 
a  good  fellow  in  other  ways  and  respects  me. 

To-morrow  I  shall  join  the  procession  to  the  Josefstadt, 
holding  a  candle  in  my  hand! — Snai! 

Do  not  forget  my  warnings  about  the  morning  and 
evening  air  and  about  bathing  too  long.  My  kind 
regards  to  Count  and  Countess  Wagensperg.  Adieu.  I 
kiss  you  two  thousand  times  in  thought  and  am  ever 


Vienna,  June  25th,  1791. 

P.S. — Perhaps  after  all  it  would  be  well  to  give  Karl 
a  little  rhubarb.  Why  did  you  not  send  me  that  long 
letter?  Here  is  a  letter  for  him — I  should  like  to  have 
an  answer.  Catch — Catch — —bis — bis — bs — bs — kisses 
are  flying  about  for  you — bs — why,  another  one  is 
staggering  after  the  rest! 

I  have  this  moment  received  your  second  letter.  Be 
ware  of  the  baths!  And  do  sleep  more — and  not  so 
irregularly,  or  I  shall  worry — I  am  a  little  anxious  as 
it  is. 



L.  604  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  1791 

(603)  Mozart  to  Michael  Puchberg 

[Copy  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin\ 

VIENNA,  June  2$th,  1791 

Business  has  prevented  me  from  having  the  pleasure 
of  calling  on  you  to-day.  I  have  a  request  to  make.  My 
wife  writes  to  say  that  she  can  see  that,  although  they  are 
not  expecting  it,  the  people  with  whom  she  is  living  would 
be  glad  to  receive  some  payment  for  her  board  and  lodg 
ing  and  she  begs  me  to  send  her  some  money.  I  had 
intended  to  settle  everything  when  it  was  time  for  her  to 
leave  and  I  now  find  myself  in  very  great  embarrassment. 
I  should  not  like  to  expose  her  to  any  unpleasantness; 
yet  at  the  moment  I  cannot  leave  myself  short  of  money. 
If  you,  most  beloved  friend,  can  assist  me  with  a  small 
sum,  which  I  can  send  to  her  at  once,  you  will  oblige  me 
exceedingly.  I  require  the  loan  only  for  a  few  days,  when 
you  will  receive  2000  gulden  in  my  name,  from  which  you 
can  then  refund  yourself. 

Ever  your 


(604)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  p.  34] 

VIENNA,  June  ^oth  or  July  1st,  1791 

I  have  just  this  moment  arrived  and  have  already 
called  on  Puchberg  and  Montecucoli.  The  latter  was  not 
at  home — so  I  shall  call  again  at  half  past  nine.  I  am 

1  Puchberg  noted  on  this  letter,  "sent  eodem  die  25  gulden"* 

I79i  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  Z.  605 

now  going  to  look  up  N.N.  You  will  have  received  a 
letter  for  me  from  Montecucoli.  As  I  think  it  probable 
that  instead  of  spending  Sunday  with  you  I  shall  have 
to  spend  it  in  Vienna,  please  send  me  the  two  summer 
suits,  white  and  brown,  with  their  trousers.  I  entreat  you 
to  take  the  baths  only  every  other  day,  and  only  for 
an  hour.  But  if  you  want  me  to  feel  quite  easy  in  my 
mind,  do  not  take  them  at  all,  until  I  am  with  you  again. 
Adieu.  I  kiss  you  a  thousand  times  and  am  ever  your 


N.B. — My  greetings  to  Snai  and  tell  him  that  I  should 
like  to  know  how  he  is — probably  as  tough  as  an  ox.  Tell 
him  to  keep  on  writing  until  I  get  my  belongings.  Adieu. 

I  am  sealing  this  letter  in  the  presence  of  that  good 
fellow  Primus.1 

(605)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

\Autograph  in  the  possession  of  D.  N.  Heineman,  Brussels} 

MA  TRES  CHfeRE  EPOUSE!  VIENNA,  July  2nd,  1791 

I  trust  that  you  are  very  well.  I  have  just  remem 
bered  that  you  have  very  seldom  been  upset  during  preg 
nancy.  Perhaps  the  baths  are  having  a  too  laxative  effect? 
I  should  not  wait  for  certain  proofs,  which  would  be  too 
unpleasant.  My  advice  is  that  you  should  stop  them  now! 
Then  I  should  feel  quite  easy  in  my  mind.  To-day  is  the 
day  when  you  are  not  supposed  to  take  one  and  yet  I 
wager  that  that  little  wife  of  mine  has  been  to  the  baths? 
Seriously—  I  had  much  rather  you  would  prolong  your 
cure  well  into  the  autumn.  I  hope  that  you  got  my  first 
little  note. 

1  Mozart's  nickname  for  Joseph  Deiner,   a  steward  at  the  "Silberne 

Schlange",  an  eating-house  and  beer-shop  in  the  Karntnergasse,  where 
Mozart  usually  lunched. 

VOL.  Ill  H25  2B 

L.  606  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  j79j 

Please  tell  that  idiotic  fellow  Siissmayr  to  send  me  my 
score  of  the  first  act,  from  the  introduction  to  the  finale, 
so  that  I  may  orchestrate  it.1  It  would  be  a  good  thing  if 
he  could  put  it  together  to-day  and  dispatch  it  by  the  first 
coach  to-morrow,  for  I  should  then  have  it  at  noon.  I  have 
just  had  a  visit  from  a  couple  of  Englishmen  who  refused 
to  leave  Vienna  without  making  my  acquaintance.  But  of 
course  the  real  truth  is  that  they  wanted  to  meet  that  great 
fellow  Siissmayr  and  only  came  to  see  me  in  order  to  find 
out  where  he  lived,  as  they  had  heard  that  I  was  fortunate 
enough  to  enjoy  his  favour.  I  told  them  to  go  to  the 
"Ungarische  Krone"  and  to  wait  there  until  he  should 
return  from  Baden!2  Snai!  They  want  to  engage  him  to 
clean  the  lamps.  I  am  longing  most  ardently  for  news  of 
you.  It  is  half  past  twelve  already  and  I  have  heard 
nothing.  I  shall  wait  a  little  longer  before  sealing  my 
letter.  .  .  .  Nothing  has  come,  so  I  must  close  it!  Farewell, 
dearest,  most  beloved  little  wife!  Take  care  of  your  health, 
for  as  long  as  you  are  well  and  are  kind  to  me,  I  don't 
care  a  fig  if  everything  else  goes  wrong.  Follow  the 
advice  I  gave  you  at  the  beginning  of  this  letter  and 
farewell.  Adieu — a  thousand  kisses  for  you  and  a  thou 
sand  boxes  on  the  ear  for  Lacci  Bacci.  Ever  your 

Vienna,  Saturday,  July  2nd,  1791. 

(606)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 
\       I  j 

{Autograph  in  the  Mozarteum,  Salzburg] 

July  yd,  1791 

I  received  your  letter  together  with  Montecucoli's 
and  am  delighted  to  hear  that  you  are  well  and  in  good 

1  Mozart  was  composing  "Die  Zauberflote". 
2  Mozart  is  punning  on  the  word  "baden",  which  means  "to  bathe". 


Z79J  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  L.  606 

spirits.  I  thought  as  much.  If  you  take  the  baths  twice  in 
succession,  you  will  be  thoroughly  spanked  when  I  come 
out  to  you  again!  Thanks  for  the  finale  you  sent  and  my 
clothes,  but  I  cannot  understand  why  you  did  not  put  in 
a  letter.  I  searched  all  the  pockets  in  the  coat  and  trousers. 
Well,  perhaps  the  post- woman  is  still  carrying  it  about  in 
her  pocket!  I  am  only  delighted  that  you  are  in  good 
health,  my  dear  little  wife.  I  rely  on  your  following  my 
advice.  If  you  do,  I  can  feel  a  little  calmer!  As  for  my 
health,  I  feel  pretty  well.  I  trust  that  my  affairs  will 
improve  as  rapidly  as  possible.  Until  they  are  settled  I 
cannot  be  quite  easy  in  my  mind.  But  I  hope  to  be  so  soon. 
I  trust  that  N.N.1  will  not  forget  to  copy  out  at  once 
what  I  left  for  him;  and  I  am  counting  on  receiving  to-day 
those  portions  of  my  score  for  which  I  asked.  I  see  from 
N.N.'s  Latin  letter  that  neither  of  you  is  drinking  any 
wine.  I  don't  like  that.  Have  a  word  with  your  supervisor, 
who  no  doubt  will  only  be  too  delighted  to  give  you  some 
on  my  account.  It  is  a  wholesome  wine  and  not  expensive, 
whereas  the  water  is  horrid.  I  lunched  yesterday  at  Schika- 
neder's  with  the  Lieutenant-Colonel,  who  is  also  taking 
the  Antony  baths.  To-day  I  am  lunching  with  Puchberg. 
Adieu,  little  sweetheart.  Dear  Stanzi  Marini,  I  must 
close  in  haste,  for  I  have  just  heard  one  o'clock  strike; 
and  you  know  that  Puchberg  likes  to  lunch  early.  Adieu. 
Ever  your 

Sunday,  July  3rd,  1791. 

Lots  of  kisses  for  Karl  and  whippings  for — that  table- 

1  Sussmayr. 


L.  608  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  1791 

(607)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  p,  34] 

DEAREST  LITTLE  WIFE!  VIENNA,  July  $th>  1791 

I  must  be  brief.  It  is  half  past  one  and  I  have  not 
yet  had  any  lunch.  I  wish  I  could  send  you  more  money. 
Meanwhile,  here  are  three  gulden.  You  will  get  some 
more  to-morrow  at  noon.  Cheer  up  and  keep  up  your 
spirits.  All  will  be  well  yet.  I  kiss  you  a  thousand  times. 
I  am  weak  for  want  of  food.  Adieu. 

Ever  your 


I  have  waited  until  now  in  the  hope  of  being  able  to 
send  you  more  money! 

(608)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  p.  32] 

VIENNA,  July  $th,  1791 

Here  are  twenty-five  gulden.  Settle  the  account  for 
your  baths.  When  I  come  we  shall  pay  for  everything. 
Tell  N.N.1  to  send  me  Nos.  4  and  5  of  my  manuscript — 
and  the  other  things  I  asked  for  and  tell  him  to  ...  I  must 
hurry  off  to  Wetzlar2  or  I  shall  miss  him.  Adieu.  I  kiss  you 
two  thousand  times  and  am 

ever  your 

Vienna,  July  5th,  1791. 

P.S. — Didn't   you   laugh    when   you   got   my   three 

1  Siissmayr.  2  See  p.  1161,  n.  i. 


I79i  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  L.  6og 

gulden?  But  I  thought  it  would  be  better  than  nothing. 
Have  a  good  time,  little  sweetheart,  and  be  ever  my 
Stanzi  M. 

(609)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

{From.  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  p.  31] 

VIENNA,  July  $th,  1791 

Do  not  be  melancholy,  I  beg  you!  I  hope  you 
received  the  money.  It  is  surely  better  for  your  foot  that 
you  should  stay  on  at  Baden,  for  there  you  can  go  out 
more  easily.  I  hope  to  hold  you  in  my  arms  on  Saturday, 
perhaps  sooner.  As  soon  as  my  business  here  is  over,  I 
shall  be  with  you,  for  I  mean  to  take  a  long  rest  in  your 
arms;  and  indeed  I  shall  need  it,  for  this  mental  worry  and 
anxiety  and  all  the  running  about  connected  with  it  is 
really  exhausting  me.  I  received  safely  the  last  parcel  and 
thank  you  for  it.  I  am  more  delighted  than  I  can  express 
that  you  are  not  taking  any  more  baths.  In  a  word,  all  I 
need  now  is  your  presence.  Sometimes  I  think  I  cannot 
wait  for  it  any  longer.  True,  when  my  business  is  over  I 
could  have  you  back  for  good — 
but — I  should  like  to  spend  a 
few  more  delightful  days  with 
you  at  Baden.  N.N.  is  with  me 
at  the  moment  and  tells  me  that 
I  ought  to  do  this  to  you.  He 
has  a  penchant  for  you  and  is  perfectly  certain  that  you 
must  have  noticed  it. 

And  what  is  my  second  fool  doing  now?  I  find  it  hard 
to  choose  between  the  two  fools!  When  I  turned  in  at  the 
"Krone"  yesterday  evening,  I  found  the  -English  lord 
lying  there  quite  exhausted,  as  he  was  still  waiting  for 


L.  610  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  i7gi 

Snai.1  On  my  way  to  Wetzlar's  to-day  I  saw  a  couple  of 
oxen  yoked  to  a  waggon  and  when  they  began  to  pull,  they 
moved  their  heads  exactly  like  our  idiotic  N.N.  Snai! 

If  you  need  anything,  little  sweetheart,  let  me  know 
quite  frankly,  for  I  shall  indeed  be  delighted  to  try  to 
satisfy  in  every  way  my  Stanzi  Marini — 

Ever  your 

Vienna,  July  5th,  1791. 

Karl  must  be  a  good  boy.  Then  perhaps  I  shall  answer 
his  letter.  Adieu. 

(610)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana>  p.  81] 

VIENNA,  July  6tky  1791 

With  indescribable  pleasure  I  received  the  news  that 
you  got  the  money  safely.  I  can't  remember,  but  I'm  sure 
I  never  told  you  to  settle  up  everything.  Now,  how  could 
I ,  a  sensible  person,  have  written  such  nonsense?  Well,  if 
I  did,  I  must  have  been  completely  out  of  my  mind! 
Which  is  quite  possible,  as  at  the  moment  I  have  so  many 
important  things  to  think  about.  I  only  meant  that  you 
should  pay  for  your  baths  and  use  the  rest  yourself.  All 
other  debts,  the  amount  of  which  I  have  more  or  less 
reckoned  up,  I  shall  settle  myself  when  I  come.  This  very 
moment  Blanchard 2  is  either  going  up  in  his  balloon — or 
else  will  fool  the  Viennese  for  the  third  time.  That  this 
should  be  taking  place  to-day  is  most  inconvenient  for 

1  Siissmayr.  See  p.  1426 

2  Blanchard  went  up  in  his  balloon  Montgolfiere  on  July  6th,  1791,  starting 
from  the  Prater  and  coming  down  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Vienna. 


MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  z.  610 

me,  for  it  is  preventing  me  from  settling  up  my  business. 
N.N.  promised  to  come  and  see  me  before  going  out  there, 
but  he  hasn't  turned  up.  Perhaps  he  will  when  the  fun  is 
over.  I  shall  wait  until  two  o'clock,  then  I  shall  stuff  down 
a  little  food  and  go  off  and  hunt  him  up.  Our  life  is  not  at 
all  a  pleasant  one.  But  patience!  Things  are  bound  to 
improve.  And  then  I  shall  rest  in  your  arms! 

I  thank  you  for  your  advice  not  to  rely  entirely  on 
N.N.  But  in  such  cases  you  are  obliged  to  deal  with  only 
one  person.  If  you  turn  to  two  or  three,  and  the  affair 
becomes  common  property,  others,  with  whom  you  cannot 
deal,  regard  you  as  a  fool  or  an  unreliable  fellow.  But  the 
greatest  pleasure  of  all  you  can  give  me  is  to  be  happy  and 
jolly.  And  if  I  know  for  certain  that  you  have  everything 
you  want,  then  all  my  trouble  is  a  joy  and  a  delight. 
Indeed  the  most  difficult  and  complicated  situation,  in 
which  I  can  possibly  find  myself,  becomes  a  trifle,  if  only 
I  know  that  you  are  well  and  in  good  spirits.  And  now, 
farewell.  Make  good  use  of  your  table-fool.  Think  of  me 
and  talk  about  me  very  often,  both  of  you.  Love  me  for 
ever  as  I  do  you  and  be  always  my  Stanzi  Marini,  as  I 
shall  always  be  your 

Stu!  Knaller  Frailer 
Schnepeperl — 
Snai! — 

Give  N.N.  a  box  on  the  ear  and  tell  him  that  you 
simply  must  kill  a  fly  which  I  have  spied  on  his  face! 
Adieu — Look  there!  Catch  them — bi — bi — bi — three 
kisses,  as  sweet  as  sugar,  are  flying  over  to  you! 

Wednesday,  Vienna,  July  6th,  1791. 


(6  1  1)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

[From  Nottebohm,  Mozartiana,  p.  21] 

VIENNA,  July  jth,  1791 

You  will  forgive  me,  I  know,  for  only  sending  you  one 
letter  a  day.  The  reason  is  that  I  must  keep  hold  of  N.N. 
and  not  let  him  escape.  I  am  at  his  house  every  day  at 
seven  o'clock  in  the  morning. 

I  hope  that  you  got  my  letter  of  yesterday.  I  did  not  go 
to  see  the  balloon,  for  it  is  the  sort  of  thing  which  one  can 
imagine.  Besides,  I  thought  that  this  time  too  nothing 
would  come  of  it.  But  goodness!  How  the  Viennese  are 
rejoicing!  They  are  as  full  of  his  praises  now  as  they  have 
been  up  to  the  present  of  abuses. 

There  is  something  in  your  letter  which  I  cannot  read 
and  something  I  cannot  understand.  You  say:  "I  am 
certain  that  my  —  little  husband  will  be  in  the  Prater  to-day 
in  a  numerous  com.  etc."  I  cannot  read  the  adjective 
before  "little  husband".  I  presume  that  "com."  stands  for 
"company"  —  but  what  you  mean  by  "numerous  com 
pany"  I  cannot  think. 

Tell  Sauermayer  *  from  me  that  I  have  not  had  time  to 
be  for  ever  running  off  to  his  Primus  and  that  whenever 
I  did  go  he  was  never  at  home.  Just  give  him  the  three 
gulden,  so  that  he  may  not  cry. 

My  one  wish  now  is  that  my  affairs  should  be  settled, 
so  that  I  can  be  with  you  again.  You  cannot  imagine  how 
I  have  been  aching  for  you  all  this  long  while,  I  can't 
describe  what  I  have  been  feeling  —  a  kind  of  emptiness, 
which  hurts  me  dreadfully  —  a  kind  of  longing,  which  is 
never  satisfied,  which  never  ceases,  and  which  persists, 
nay  rather  increases  daily.  When  I  think  how  merry  we 

1  One  of  Mozart's  nicknames  for  Siissmayr. 

J79-T  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  L.  612 

were  together  at  Baden — like  children — and  what  sad, 
weary  hours  I  am  spending  here!  Even  my  work  gives 
me  no  pleasure,  because  I  am  accustomed  to  stop  working 
now  and  then  and  exchange  a  few  words  with  you.  Alas! 
this  pleasure  is  no  longer  possible.  If  I  go  to  the  piano  and 
sing  something  out  of  my  opera,1  I  have  to  stop  at  once, 
for  this  stirs  my  emotions  too  deeply.  Basta!  The  very  hour 
after  I  finish  this  business  I  shall  be  off  and  away  from 
here.  I  have  no  news  to  tell  you.  The  illuminations  at 
Baden  were,  I  daresay,  a  little  premature — as  the  truth  is 
precisely  to  the  contrary.  I  shall  enquire  at  the  court 
chemist's,  where  the  electuary  may  perhaps  be  obtained. 
If  so,  I  shall  send  it  to  you  at  once.  Meanwhile,  if  it  is 
necessary,  I  should  advise  you  to  take  tartar  rather  than 
brandy.  Adieu,  dearest  little  wife, 

Ever  your 
Vienna,  July  7th,  1791. 

(612)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

[Copy  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliotkek,  Berlin\ 

VIENNA,/^  gth,  1791 

I  have  received  your  letter  of  the  7th  together  with 
the  receipt  for  the  correct  payment.  But  for  your  own  sake 
I  should  like  to  have  seen  the  signature  of  a  witness.  For 
if  N.N.  chooses  to  be  dishonest,  he  may  make  things 
rather  unpleasant  for  you  in  regard  to  genuineness  and 
short  weight.  As  the  document  simply  says  "box  on  the 
ear",  he  can  suddenly  send  you  a  legal  summons  for  a 
heavy  or  a  violent  or  even  a  gentle  box  on  the  ear.  What 
will  you  do  then?  You  will  have  to  pay  him  at  once,  which 
is  not  always  convenient!  I  should  advise  you  to  come  to 
a  friendly  understanding  with  your  opponent  and  give 

1  "Die  Zauberflote," 

L.  612  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  7791 

him  two  heavy  and  three  violent  boxes  on  the  ear  followed 
by  one  gentle  one,  and  even  more,  if  he  is  not  satisfied. 
For  I  maintain  that  kindness  cures  everything,  that 
magnanimous  and  forbearing  conduct  has  often  recon 
ciled  the  bitterest  enemies  and  that  if  you  are  not  in  a 
position  to  pay  the  whole  debt,  you  still  have  acquain 
tances  who  can.  No  doubt,  if  you  ask  Madame  N.,  she 
will  make  herself  responsible  for  the  payment  in  cash,  if 
not  of  the  whole,  at  any  rate  of  part  of  the  debt. 

Dearest  little  wife,  I  hope  you  received  my  letter  of 
yesterday.  The  time,  the  happy  time  of  our  reunion  is 
drawing  ever  nearer.  Have  patience  and  be  as  cheerful  as 
possible.  Your  letter  of  yesterday  made  me  feel  so 
depressed  that  I  almost  made  up  my  mind  to  let  that 
business  slide  and  drive  out  to  you.  But  what  good  would 
it  have  done?  I  should  only  have  had  to  drive  in  again  at 
once  or,  instead  of  being  happy,  I  should  have  been  most 
dreadfully  worried.  The  affair  must  be  concluded  in  a  few 
days,  forZ's  promises  were  really  serious  and  solemn.  Then 
I  shall  go  straight  to  you.  But  if  you  prefer  it,  I  shall  send 
you  the  money  you  need  and  you  can  then  pay  everything 
and  return  to  Vienna.  There  is  nothing  I  should  like 
better.  At  the  same  time  I  do  think  that  in  this  fine  weather 
Baden  must  be  very  pleasant  for  you  and  most  beneficial 
to  your  health,  as  there  are  such  glorious  walks  there. 
You  yourself  must  feel  this  more  than  anyone.  So  if  you 
find  that  the  air  and  exercise  thoroughly  agree  with  you, 
stay  a  little  longer.  I  shall  come  and  fetch  you  or,  if  you 
like,  spend  a  few  days  with  you.  But,  as  I  have  already 
said,  if  you  would  rather  do  so,  return  to  Vienna  to 
morrow.  Tell  me  quite  frankly  which  you  prefer.  Now 
farewell,  dearest  Stanzi  Marini.  I  kiss  you  millions  of 
times  and  am  ever  your 

Vienna,  July  gth,  1791. 


P.S. — Give  the  following  message  to  N.N.  from  me: — 

What  does  he  say?  Does  he  like  it?  Not  particularly,  I 
daresay.  They  are  difficult  expressions  and  rather  hard  to 
understand.  Adieu. 

(613)  Mozart  to  Choir-master  Stoll  at  Baden 

\Copy  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin] 

VIENNA,  July  iztk,  1791 
Stoll,  my  dear, 
You're  a  little  bit  queer 
And  an  ass,  I  fear. 
You've  been  swilling  some  beer! 
The  minor,  I  hear, 
Is  what  tickles  your  ear! 

I  have  a  request  to  make,  and  that  is,  that  you  would 
be  so  kind  as  to  send  me  by  the  first  mail  coach  to-morrow 
my  mass  in  B^1  which  we  performed  last  Sunday,  and 
Michael  Haydn's  Graduale  in  B^,  "Pax  Vobis",  which 
we  also  performed.  I  mean,  of  course,  the  parts,  not 
the  scores.  I  have  been  asked  to  conduct  a  mass  in  a 
church.  Please  do  not  think  that  this  is  an  excuse  to  get 
back  my  mass.  If  I  were  not  quite  satisfied  that  you 
should  have  it,  I  should  never  have  given  it  to  you.  On 
the  contrary,  I  am  delighted  to  be  able  to  do  you  a  kind 
ness.  I  rely  entirely  on  you,  for  I  have  given  a  promise. 

Vienna,  July  I2th,  1791. 

1  K.  275,  composed  in  1777. 

•Z.  614  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  j79j 


Do  not  let  us  down  or  we  shall  be  landed  in  the 
gutter.  My  beautiful  delicate  handwriting  testifies  to  the 
truth  of  what  Herr  von  Mozart  has  said,  that  is — the  mass 
and  Michael  Haydn's  Graduale — or  no  news  of  his  opera. 

We  shall  return  them  at  once. 

By  the  way,  be  so  kind  as  to  kiss  the  hand  of  my  dear 
Theresa  for  me.  If  you  don't,  I  swear  eternal  enmity. 
Your  handwriting  must  testify  to  it,  as  mine  is  doing  now. 
Then  you  will  get  back  Michael  Haydn's  mass  about 
which  I  have  already  written  to  my  father. 

Remember,  a  man  keeps  his  word! 

I  am  .  r  -     j 

your  sincere  friend 

Shitting-house,  July  I2th. 

(614)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

[Autograph  in  the  possession  of  Karl  Geigy-Hagenbach,  Basel] 

VIENNA,  October  jth-%th,  1791  * 
Friday,  half  past  ten 
at  night 

I  have  this  moment  returned  from  the  opera,  which 
was  as  full  as  ever.2  As  usual  the  duet  "Mann  und  Weib" 
and  Papageno's  glockenspiel  in  Act  I  had  to  be  repeated 

1  The  non-existence  of  any  letters  from  Mozart  between  the  middle  of 
July  and  the  beginning  of  October  1791  is  partly  due  to  Mozart's  and  Con- 
stanze's  visit  to  Prague  for  the  performance  of  his  "Clemenza  di  Tito", 
the  opera  which  he  had  been  commissioned  to  compose  for  the  coronation  on 
September  6th  of  the  Emperor  Leopold  II  as  King  of  Bohemia.  Siissmayr 
accompanied  the  Mozarts. 

2  The  first  performance  of  "Die  Zauberflote"  took  place  on  September  3Oth, 
1791,  Mozart  himself  conducting  from  the  clavier.  Schikaneder  took  the  part 
of  Papageno.  Josefa  Hofer  was  the  Queen  of  Night. 


I79i  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  L.  614 

and  also  the  trio  of  the  boys  in  Act  II.  But  what  always 
gives  me  most  pleasure  is  the  silent  approval.  You  can 
see  how  this  opera  is  becoming  more  and  more  popular. 
Now  for  an  account  of  my  own  doings.  Immediately  after 
your  departure  I  played  two  games  of  billiards  with  Herr 
von  Mozart,  the  fellow  who  wrote  the  opera  which  is  run 
ning  at  Schikaneder's  theatre;  then  I  sold  my  nag  for 
fourteen  ducats;  then  I  told  Joseph  T  to  get  Primus  to 
fetch  me  some  black  coffee,  with  which  I  smoked  a 
splendid  pipe  of  tobacco;  and  then  I  orchestrated  almost 
the  whole  of  Stadler's  rondo.2  Meanwhile  I  have  had  a 
letter  which  Stadler  3  has  sent  me  from  Prague.  All  the 
Duscheks  are  well.  I  really  think  that  she  cannot  have 
received  a  single  one  of  your  letters — and  yet  I  can  hardly 
believe  it.  Well,  they  have  all  heard  already  about  the 
splendid  reception  of  my  German  opera.4  And  the 
strangest  thing  of  all  is  that  on  the  very  evening  when 
my  new  opera  was  performed  for  the  first  time  with  such 
success,  "Tito"  was  given  in  Prague  for  the  last  time  with 
tremendous  applause.  Bedini 5  sang  better  than  ever.  The 
little  duet  in  A  major  which  the  two  maidens  sing  was 
repeated;6  and  had  not  the  audience  wished  to  spare 
Madame  Marchetti,7  a  repetition  of  the  rondo  would  have 
been  very  welcome.8  Cries  of  "Bravo"  were  shouted  at 
Stodla  9  from  the  parterre  and  even  from  the  orchestra — 
"What  a  miracle  for  Bohemia!"  he  writes,  "but  indeed  I 
did  my  very  best".  Stodla  writes  too  that  Sussmayr  .  .  . 

1  Joseph  Deiner.  See  p.  1425,  n.  i. 

2  The  rondo  of  K.  622,  clarinet  concerto  in  A  major,  one  of  Mozart's 
last  compositions. 

3  Anton  Stadler,  who  had  taken  part  in  the  performance  of  "La  Clemenza 
di  Tito",  had  stayed  on  in  Prague. 

4  "Die  Zauberflote."  5  Bedini  took  the  part  of  Annio. 

6  Probably  No.  7,  "Ah,  perdona  al  primo  affetto". 

7  Signora  Marchetti-Fantozzi,  the  prima  donna,  took  the  part  of  Vitellia. 

8  No.  23,  "Non  piu  di  fiori". 

9  Anton  Stadler,  the  clarinettist.  Mozart  is  probably  imitating  his  dialect. 


Z.  614  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  I?9I 

but  I  now  see  that  he  is  an  ass — Siissmayr  I  mean,  not 
Stodla,  who  is  only  a  bit  of  an  ass — but  Siissmayr, 
why,  he  is  a  full-blown  ass.  At  half  past  five  I  left  my 
room  and  took  my  favourite  walk  by  the  Glacis  to  the 
theatre.  But  what  do  I  see?  What  do  I  smell?  Why,  here 
is  Don  Primus l  with  the  cutlets!  Che  gusto! 2  Now  I  am 
eating  to  your  health!  It  is  just  striking  eleven.  Perhaps 
you  are  already  asleep?  St!  St!  St!  I  won't  wake  you. 

Saturday,  the  8tA.  You  should  have  seen  me  at  supper 
yesterday!  I  couldn't  find  the  old  tablecloth,  so  I  fished 
out  one  as  white  as  a  snowdrop,  and  put  in  front  of  me 
the  double  candlestick  with  wax  candles.  According  to 
Stadler's  letter  the   Italians  are  done  for  in  Vienna. 
Further,  Madame  Duschek  must  have  got  one  letter  from 
you,  for  he  says:  'The  lady  was  very  well  pleased  with 
Mathies'  postscript.  She  said:  'I  like  the  ASS,  or  A-S-S, 
as  he  is'/'    Do  urge  Siissmayr  to  write  something  for 
Stadler,  for  he  has  begged  me  very  earnestly  to  see  to 
this.  As  I  write,  no  doubt  you  will  be  having  a  good  swim. 
The   friseur   came  punctually   at   six   o'clock.   At  half 
past  five  Primus  had  lit  the  fire  and  he  then  woke  me  up 
at  a  quarter  to  six.  Why  must  it  rain  just  now?  I  did  so 
much  hope  that  you  would  have  lovely  weather.  Do  keep 
very  warm,  so  that  you  may  not  catch  a  cold.  I  hope  that 
these  baths  will  help  you  to  keep  well  during  the  winter. 
For  only  the  desire  to  see  you  in  good  health  made  me 
urge  you  to  go  to  Baden.  I  already  feel  lonely  without 
you.  I  knew  I  should.  If  I  had  had  nothing  to  do,  I  should 
have  gone  off  at  once  to  spend  the  week  with  you;  but  I 
have  no  facilities  for  working  at  Baden,  and  I  am  anxious, 
as  far  as  possible,  to  avoid  all  risk  of  money  difficulties. 
For  the  most  pleasant  thing  of  all  is  to  have  a  mind  at 
peace.  To  achieve  this,  however,  one  must  work  hard; 
and  I  like  hard  work.  Give  Siissmayr  a  few  sound  boxes 

1  Joseph  Deiner.  *  What  a  delicious  taste! 


on  the  ear  from  me,  and  I  ask  Sophie  H.,1  whom  I  kiss 
a  thousand  times,  to  give  him  a  couple  too.  For  Heaven's 
sake  do  not  let  him  starve  in  this  respect.  The  last  thing 
in  the  world  I  could  wish  would  be  his  reproach  that  you 
had  not  treated  or  looked  after  him  properly.  Rather  give 
him  too  many  blows  than  too  few.  It  would  be  a  good 
thing  if  you  were  to  leave  a  bump  on  his  nose,  or  knock 
out  an  eye,  or  inflict  some  other  visible  injury,  so  that  the 
fellow  may  never  be  able  to  deny  that  he  has  got  some 
thing  from  you. 

Adieu,  dear  little  wife!  The  coach  is  just  going.  I  trust 
that  I  shall  have  a  letter  from  you  to-day  and  in  this 
sweet  hope  I  kiss  you  a  thousand  times  and  am  ever 
your  loving  husband 


(615)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

[A  utograph  in  the  Zavertal  Collection,  University  of  Glasgow^ 

VIENNA,  ^October  %th-gth},  1791  2 
Saturday  night  at  half  past  ten  o'clock 


I  was  exceedingly  delighted  and  overjoyed  to  find 
your  letter  on  my  return  from  the  opera.  Although 
Saturday,  as  it  is  post-day,  is  always  a  bad  night,  the 
opera  was  performed  to  a  full  house  and  with  the  usual 
applause  and  repetition  of  numbers.  It  will  be  given 
again  to-morrow,  but  there  will  be  no  performance  on 
Monday.  So  Siissmayr  must  bring  Stoll  in  on  Tuesday 

1  Sophie  Haibel,  Constanze's  youngest  sister. 

2  The  autograph  of  this  letter,  which  bears  no  date,  has  been  published 
by  Farmer  and  Smith,  New  Mozartiana,  pp.  65-75,  123-127.  The  editors 
maintain  that  this  letter  was  written  after  the  letter  dated  October  I4th,  but 
do  not  provide  sufficient  evidence  to  upset  the  traditional  order  of  Mozart's 
last  letters. 


L.  615  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  7791 

when  it  will  be  given  again  for  the  first  time.  I  say  for 
the  first  time,  because  it  will  probably  be  performed 
several  times  in  succession.  I  have  just  swallowed  a 
delicious  slice  of  sturgeon  which  Don  Primus  (who  is  my 
faithful  valet)  has  brought  me;  and  as  I  have  a  rather 
voracious  appetite  to-day,  I  have  sent  him  off  again  to 
fetch  some  more  if  he  can.  So  during  this  interval  I  shall 
go  on  writing  to  you.  This  morning  I  worked  so  hard  at 
my  composition  that  I  went  on  until  half  past  one.  So  I 
dashed  off  in  great  haste  to  Hofer,  simply  in  order  not  to 
lunch  alone,  where  I  found  Mamma  l  too.  After  lunch  I 
went  home  at  once  and  composed  again  until  it  was  time 
to  go  to  the  opera.  Leutgeb  begged  me  to  take  him  a 
second  time  and  I  did  so.  I  am  taking  Mamma  to-morrow. 
Hofer  has  already  given  her  the  libretto  to  read.  In  her 
case  what  will  probably  happen  will  be  that  she  will  see 
the  opera,  but  not  hear  it.  The  N.Ns.  had  a  box  this 
evening  and  applauded  everything  most  heartily.  But  he, 
the  know-all,  showed  himself  to  be  such  a  thorough 
Bavarian  that  I  could  not  remain  or  I  should  have  had 
to  call  him  an  ass.  Unfortunately  I  was  there  just  when 
the  second  act  began,  that  is,  at  the  solemn  scene.  He 
made  fun  of  everything.  At  first  I  was  patient  enough  to 
draw  his  attention  to  a  few  passages.  But  he  laughed  at 
everything.  Well,  I  could  stand  it  no  longer.  I  called  him 
a  Papageno  and  cleared  out.  But  I  don't  think  that  the 
idiot  understood  my  remark.  So  I  went  into  another  box 
where  Flamm  2  and  his  wife  happened  to  be.  There  every 
thing  was  very  pleasant  and  I  stayed  to  the  end.  But 
during  Papageno's  aria  with  the  glockenspiel  I  went 
behind  the  scenes,  as  I  felt  a  sort  of  impulse  to-day  to 
play  it  myself.  Well,  just  for  fun,  at  the  point  where 

1  Frau  Weber. 

*  A  member  of  the  Vienna  Municipal  Council.  His  daughter  Antonie 
afterwards  became  a  famous  singer. 


I79i  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  L.  615 

Schikaneder  has  a  pause,  I  played  an  arpeggio.  He  was 
startled,  looked  behind  the  wings  and  saw  me.  When  he 
had  his  next  pause,  I  played  no  arpeggio.  This  time  he 
stopped  and  refused  to  go  on.  I  guessed  what  he  was  think 
ing  and  again  played  a  chord.  He  then  struck  the  glocken 
spiel  and  said  "Shut  up".  Whereupon  everyone  laughed. 
I  am  inclined  to  think  that  this  joke  taught  many  of  the 
audience  for  the  first  time  that  Papageno  does  not  play 
the  instrument  himself.  By  the  way,  you  have  no  idea 
how  charming  the  music  sounds  when  you  hear  it  from  a 
box  close  to  the  orchestra — it  sounds  much  better  than 
from  the  gallery.  As  soon  as  you  return — you  must  try 
this  for  yourself. 

Sunday,  at  seven  o'clock  in  the  morning.  I  have  slept 
very  well  and  hope  that  you  too  have  done  the  same.  I 
have  just  enjoyed  thoroughly  my  half  of  a  capon  which 
friend  Primus  has  brought  back  with  him.  I  am  going  to 
the  service  at  the  Piarists  at  ten  o'clock,  as  Leutgeb  has 
told  me  that  I  can  then  have  a  word  with  the  Director;1 
and  I  shall  stay  to  lunch. 

Primus  told  me  last  night  that  a  great  many  people  in 
Baden  are  ill.  Is  this  true?  Do  take  care  and  don't  trust 
the  weather.  Well,  Primus  has  just  returned  with  the 
tiresome  news  that  the  coach  left  to-day  before  seven 
o'clock  and  that  there  won't  be  another  one  until  the 
afternoon.  So  all  my  writing  at  night  and  in  the  early 
morning  has  been  to  no  purpose  and  you  will  not  get  my 
letter  until  this  evening,  which  is  very  annoying.  I  shall 
certainly  go  to  you  next  Sunday,  when  we  shall  all  visit 
the  Casino  and  come  home  together  on  Monday.  Lech- 
leitner  was  again  at  the  opera.  Though  he  is  no  connois 
seur,  he  is  at  any  rate  a  genuine  lover  of  music,  which 

1  Mozart  was  thinking  of  removing-  his  little  son  Karl  from  his  school  at 
Perchtholdsdorf  and  placing  him  at  a  Christian  Brothers*  seminary. 

VOL.  Ill  1441  2  C 

Z.  616  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  j79j 

N.N.  is  not.  N.N.  is  really  a  nonentity  and  much  prefers 
a  dinee.  Farewell,  my  love — I  kiss  you  millions  of  times 
and  am  ever  your 


P.S. — Kiss  Sophie  for  me.  I  send  Siissmayr  a  few 
good  nose-pulls  and  a  proper  hair-tug  and  Stoll  a 
thousand  greetings.  Adieu.  The  hour  is  striking — Fare 
well — We  shall  meet  again.1 

N.B. — You  probably  sent  the  two  pairs  of  yellow 
winter  trousers  along  with  the  boots  to  the  laundry,  for 
Joseph  and  I  have  hunted  for  them  in  vain!  Adieu. 

(6 1 6)  Mozart  to  his  Wife  at  Baden 

[Copy  in  the  Preussische  Staatsbibliothek,  Berlin\ 

VIENNA,  October  14^,  1791 

Hofer  drove  out  with  me  yesterday,  Thursday  the 
I3th,  to  see  our  Karl.2  We  lunched  there  and  then  we  all 
drove  back  to  Vienna.  At  six  o'clock  I  called  in  the  carriage 
for  Salieri  and  Madame  Cavalieri— and  drove  them  to 
my  box.  Then  I  drove  back  quickly  to  fetch  Mamma  and 
Karl,  whom  I  had  left  at  Hofer's.  You  can  hardly  imagine 
how  charming  they  were  and  how  much  they  liked  not  only 
my  music,  but  the  libretto  and  everything.  They  both  said 
that  it  was  an  operone?  worthy  to  be  performed  for  the 
grandest  festival  and  before  the  greatest  monarch,  and  that 
they  would  often  go  to  see  it,  as  they  had  never  seen  a  more 
beautiful  or  delightful  show.  Salieri  listened  and  watched 
most  attentively  and  from  the  ouverture  to  the  last  chorus 

1  A  quotation  from  the  "Zauberflote". 

2  Karl  Mozart  was  at  school  in  Perchtholdsdorf,  a  suburb  of  Vienna. 

3  A  "grand  opera". 


179*  MOZART  TO  HIS  WIFE  Z.  616 

there  was  not  a  single  number  that  did  not  call  forth  from 
him  a  bravo!  or  bello!  It  seemed  as  if  they  could  not 
thank  me  enough  for  my  kindness.  They  had  intended 
in  any  case  to  go  to  the  opera  yesterday.  But  they  would 
have  had  to  be  in  their  places  by  four  o'clock.  As  it  was, 
they  saw  and  heard  everything  in  comfort  in  my  box. 
When  it  was  over  I  drove  them  home  and  then  had 
supper  at  Hofer's  with  Karl.  Then  I  drove  him  home 
and  we  both  slept  soundly.  Karl  was  absolutely  delighted 
at  being  taken  to  the  opera.  He  is  looking  splendid.  As 
far  as  health  is  concerned,  he  could  not  be  in  a  better 
place,  but  everything  else  there  is  wretched,  alas!  All 
they  can  do  is  to  turn  out  a  good  peasant  into  the  world. 
But  enough  of  this.  As  his  serious  studies  (God  help 
them!)  do  not  begin  until  Monday,  I  have  arranged  to 
keep  him  until  after  lunch  on  Sunday.  I  told  them  that 
you  would  like  to  see  him.  So  to-morrow,  Saturday,  I 
shall  drive  out  with  Karl  to  see  you.  You  can  then  keep 
him,  or  I  shall  take  him  back  to  Heeger's l  after  lunch. 
Think  it  over.  A  month  can  hardly  do  him  much  harm. 
In  the  meantime  the  arrangement  with  the  Piarists,  which 
is  now  under  discussion,  may  come  to  something.  On  the 
whole,  Karl  is  no  worse;  but  at  the  same  time  he  is  not 
one  whit  better  than  he  was.  He  still  has  his  old  bad 
manners;  he  never  stops  chattering  just  as  he  used  to  do 
in  the  past;  and  he  is,  if  anything,  less  inclined  to  learn 
than  before,  as  out  at  Perchtholdsdorf  all  he  does  is  to 
run  about  in  the  garden  for  five  hours  in  the  morning 
and  five  hours  in  the  afternoon,  as  he  has  himself  con 
fessed.  In  short,  the  children  do  nothing  but  eat,  drink, 
sleep  and  run  wild.  Leutgeb  and  Hofer  are  with  me  at 
the  moment.  The  former  is  staying  to  supper  with  me.  I 
have  sent  out  my  faithful  comrade  Primus  to  fetch  some 

1  Wenzel  Bernhard  Heeger  (1740-1807),  headmaster  of  the  school  at 



food  from  the  Biirgerspital.  I  am  quite  satisfied  with  the 
fellow.  He  has  only  let  me  down  once,  when  I  was  obliged 
to  sleep  at  Hofer's,  which  annoyed  me  intensely,  as  they 
sleep  far  too  long  there.  I  am  happiest  at  home,  for  I  am 
accustomed  to  my  own  hours.  This  one  occasion  put  me 
in  a  very  bad  humour.  Yesterday  the  whole  day  was 
taken  up  with  that  trip  to  Perchtholdsdorf,  so  I  could  not 
write  to  you.  But  that  you  have  not  written  to  me  for 
two  days,  is  really  unforgivable.  I  hope  that  I  shall 
certainly  have  a  letter  from  you  to-day,  and  that  to 
morrow  I  shall  talk  to  you  and  embrace  you  with  all  my 

Farewell.  Ever  your 

October  I4th,  1791. 

I  kiss  Sophie  a  thousand  times.  Do  what  you  like  with 
N.N.  Adieu. 


A  letter,  written  many  years  later,  which  describes  the 
last  days  of  Mozart : 

Sophie  Haibel  to  Georg  Mikolaus  von  Nissen,  Salzburg I 

{Extract]  [Autograph  in  the  possession  of  the  Gesellschaft 

der  Musikfreunde,  Viennd\ 

DlAKOVAR,2  April  1th,  1825 

Now  I  must  tell  you  about  Mozart's  last  days.  Well, 
Mozart  became  fonder  and  fonder  of  our  dear  departed 
mother3  and  she  of  him.  Indeed  he  often  came  running 
along  in  great  haste  to  the  Wieden  (where  she  and  I  were 
lodging  at  the  Goldner  Pflug),  carrying  under  his  arm  a 
little  bag  containing  coffee  and  sugar,  which  he  would 
hand  to  our  good  mother,  saying,  "Here,  mother  dear, 
now  you  can  have  a  little  'Jause'  ".4  She  used  to  be  as  de 
lighted  as  a  child.  He  did  this  very  often.  In  short,  Mozart 
in  the  end  never  came  to  see  us  without  bringing  something. 
Now  when  Mozart  fell  ill,  we  both  made  him  a  night- 
jacket  which  he  could  put  on  frontways,  since  on  account 
of  his  swollen  condition  he  was  unable  to  turn  in  bed. 
Then,  as  we  didn't  know  how  seriously  ill  he  was,  we  also 
made  him  a  quilted  dressing-gown  (though  indeed  his 
dear  wife,  my  sister,  had  given  us  the  materials  for  both 
garments),  so  that  when  he  got  up  he  should  have 
everything  he  needed.  We  often  visited  him  and  he 

1  Mozart,  who  had  been  in  poor  health  for  some  time,  became  very  ill  early 
in  November  and  bedridden  about  a  fortnight  before  his  death  on  December 
5th,  1791.  A  vivid  and  moving  account  of  his  last  days  is  given  in  the  above 
letter  written  many  years  later  by  Sophie  Haibel  to  her  elder  sister  Constanze's 
second  husband,  Georg  Nikolaus  von  Nissen,  formerly  Counsellor  at  the 
Danish  Legation  in  Vienna,  who  at  the  time  was  collecting  materials  for 
his  biography  of  Mozart.     See  Nissen,  p.  573  if.  and  p.  687  ff.    The  letter  was 
first  published  in  full  in  MM,  November  1918,  pp.  21-23. 

2  Sophie  Weber's  husband,  Jakob   Haibel  (1761-1826),  musician  and 
composer,  was  choir-master  at  Diakovar. 

3  Frau  Cacilie  Weber,  who  died  on  August  22nd,  1793. 

4  i.e.  afternoon  coffee. 



seemed  to  be  really  looking  forward  to  wearing  his  dress 
ing-gown.  I  used  to  go  into  town  every  day  to  see  him. 
Well,  one  Saturday  when  I  was  with  him,  Mozart  said  to 
me:  "Dear  Sophie,  do  tell  Mamma  that  I  am  fairly  well 
and  that  I  shall  be  able  to  go  and  congratulate  her  on  the 
octave  of  her  name-day".  Who  could  have  been  more  de 
lighted  than  I  to  bring  such  cheerful  news  to  my  mother, 
who  was  ever  anxious  to  hear  how  he  was?  I  hurried  home 
therefore  to  comfort  her,  the  more  so  as  he  himself  really 
seemed  to  be  bright  and  happy.  The  following  day  was  a 
Sunday.  I  was  young  then  and  rather  vain,  I  confess,  and 
liked  to  dress  up.  But  I  never  cared  to  go  out  walking 
from  our  suburb  into  town  in  my  fine  clothes,  and  I  had  no 
money  for  a  drive.  So  I  said  to  our  good  mother:  "Dear 
Mamma,  I'm  not  going  to  see  Mozart  to-day.  He  was  so 
well  yesterday  that  surely  he  will  be  much  better  this 
morning,  and  one  day  more  or  less  won't  make  much 
difference/'  Well,  my  mother  said:  "Listen  to  this.  Make 
me  a  bowl  of  coffee  and  then  I'll  tell  you  what  you  ought 
to  do."  She  was  rather  inclined  to  keep  me  at  home;  and 
indeed  my  sister  knows  how  much  I  had  to  be  with  her. 
I  went  into  the  kitchen.  The  fire  was  out.  I  had  to  light 
the  lamp  and  make  a  fire.  All  the  time  I  was  thinking  of 
Mozart.  I  had  made  the  coffee  and  the  lamp  was  still 
burning.  Then  I  noticed  how  wasteful  I  had  been  with 
my  lamp,  I  mean,  that  I  had  burned  so  much  oil.  It  was 
still  burning  brightly.  I  stared  into  the  flame  and  thought 
to  myself,  "How  I  should  love  to  know  how  Mozart  is". 
While  I  was  thinking  and  gazing  at  the  flame,  it  went  out, 
as  completely  as  if  the  lamp  had  never  been  burning.  Not  a 
spark  remained  on  the  main  wick  and  yet  there  wasn't  the 
slightest  draught— that  I  can  swear  to.  A  horrible  feeling 
came  over  me.  I  ran  to  our  mother  and  told  her  all.  She 
said:  "Well,,  take  off  your  fine  clothes  and  go  into  town 
and  bring  me  back  news  of  him  at  once.  But  be  sure  not 



to  delay."  I  hurried  along  as  fast  as  I  could.  Alas,  how 
frightened  I  was  when  my  sister,  who  was  almost  de 
spairing  and  yet  trying  to  keep  calm,  came  out  to  me, 
saying:  "Thank  God  that  you  have  come,  dear  Sophie. 
Last  night  he  was  so  ill  that  I  thought  he  would  not 
be  alive  this  morning.  Do  stay  with  me  to-day,  for  if  he 
has  another  bad  turn,  he  will  pass  away  to-night.  Go  in  to 
him  for  a  little  while  and  see  how  he  is."  I  tried  to  control 
myself  and  went  to  his  bedside.  He  immediately  called 
me  to  him  and  said:  "Ah,  dear  Sophie,  how  glad  I  am 
that  you  have  come.  You  must  stay  here  to-night  and  see 
me  die."  I  tried  hard  to  be  brave  and  to  persuade  him  to 
the  contrary.  But  to  all  my  attempts  he  only  replied: 
"Why,  I  am  already  tasting  death.  And,  if  you  do  not 
stay,  who  will  support  my  dearest  Constanze  when  I  am 
gone?"  "Yes,  yes,  dear  Mozart,"  I  assured  him,  "but  I 
must  first  go  back  to  our  mother  and  tell  her  that  you 
would  like  me  to  stay  with  you  to-day.  Otherwise  she  will 
think  that  some  misfortune  has  befallen  you."  "Yes,  do 
so,"  said  Mozart,  "but  be  sure  and  come  back  soon." 
Good  God,  how  distressed  I  felt!  My  poor  sister  followed 
me  to  the  door  and  begged  me  for  Heaven's  sake  to  go  to 
the  priests  at  St.  Peter's  and  implore  one  of  them  to  come 
to  Mozart— a  chance  call,  as  it  were.  I  did  so,  but  for  a 
long  time  they  refused  to  come  and  I  had  a  great  deal  of 
trouble  to  persuade  one  of  those  heartless  people  to  go  to 
him.  Then  I  ran  off  to  my  mother  who  was  anxiously 
awaiting  me.  It  was  already  dark.  Poor  soul,  how 
shocked  she  was!  I  persuaded  her  to  go  and  spend  the 
night  with  her  eldest  daughter,  the  late  Josefa  Hofer.1  I 
then  ran  back  as  fast  as  I  could  to  my  distracted  sister. 
Siissmayr  was  at  Mozart's  bedside.  The  well-known 

1  Josefa  Weber-Hofer,  who  in  1797  had  married  as  her  second  husband 
the  actor  and  singer  Friedrich  Sebastian  Mayer  (1773-1835),  died  on  Decem 
ber  29th,  1819,  , 



Requiem1  lay  on  the  quilt  and  Mozart  was  explaining  to 
him  how,  in  his  opinion,  he  ought  to  finish  it,  when  he  was 
gone.  Further,  he  urged  his  wife  to  keep  his  death  a  secret 
until  she  should  have  informed  Albrechtsberger,2  who  was 
in  charge  of  all  the  services.  A  long  search  was  made  for 
Dr.  Closset,  who  was  found  at  the  theatre,  but  who  had  to 
wait  for  the  end  of  the  play.  He  came  and  ordered  cold 
poultices  to  be  placed  on  Mozart's  burning  head,  which, 
however,  affected  him  to  such  an  extent  that  he  became 
unconscious  and  remained  so  until  he  died.3  His  last  move 
ment  was  an  attempt  to  express  with  his  mouth  the  drum 
passages  in  the  Requiem.  That  I  can  still  hear.  Miiller 4 
from  the  Art  Gallery  came  and  took  a  cast  of  his  pale, 
dead  face.  Words  fail  me,  dearest  brother,  to  describe  how 
his  devoted  wife  in  her  utter  misery  threw  herself  on  her 
knees  and  implored  the  Almighty  for  His  aid.  She  simply 
could  not  tear  herself  away  from  Mozart,  however  much  I 
begged  her  to  do  so.  If  it  was  possible  to  increase  her 
sorrow,  this  was  done  on  the  day  after  that  distressing 
night,  when  crowds  of  people  walked  past  his  corpse  and 
wept  and  mourned  for  him.  All  my  life  I  have  never  seen 
Mozart  in  a  temper,  still  less,  angry. 

1  K.  626.  Six  months  previously  Mozart  had  been  commissioned  by  a 
certain  Count  Walsegg  to  compose  this  work,  which,  however,  had  been  de 
layed  by  his  journey  to  Prague  early  in  September  for  the  production  of 
"La  Clemenza  di  Tito",  and  by  his  work  on  "Die  Zauberflote",  first  per 
formed  on  September  3oth.  For  a  discussion  of  Siissmayr's  share  in  the 
composition  of  the  "Requiem"  see  Kochel,  p.  808  ff.     Cf.  also  p.  1494  ff. 

2  J.  G.  Albrechtsberger  (1736-1809)  was  chief  organist  at  the  Stefans- 
kirche,  where  Hofmann  was  Kapellmeister. 

3  Mozart  died  at  55  minutes  past  midnight  on  December  5th. 

4  Count  Josef  Deym  (1750-1804),  alias  Miiller,  was  the  owner  of  a  col 
lection  of  wax- works  and  casts  from  the  antique,  which  from  1797  onwards 
was  housed  in  a  building  hi  the  Stock  im  Eisen.     Mozart's  death-mask  has 
disappeared.     According  to  Nohl  (Mozart  nach  den  Schilderungen  seiner 
Zeitgenossen,  p.  393)  Constanze,  one  day  while  cleaning,  smashed  the  copy 
in  her  possession.     She  is  said  to  have  remarked  that  "  she  was  glad  that  the 
ugly  old  thing  was  broken"  (A.  Schurig,  Leopold  Mozarts  Reiseaufzeich- 
nungen,  p.  92). 








From  a  portrait  by  Hans  Hansen 

.(Mozart  Museum,  Salzburg) 


OF  the  six  to  seven  hundred  works  by  Mozart  which  are 
recorded  in  KocheFs  catalogue,  not  more  than  seventy  or 
so  were  published  during  the  composer's  lifetime,  and, 
though  many  more  were  in  circulation  in  manuscript,  it  is 
safe  to  say  that  at  the  time  of  his  death,  when  by  the  irony 
of  fate  the  success  of  his  last  opera  had  won  him  for  the 
first  time  a  universal  popularity,  the  greater  pan  of  his 
work  was  still  inaccessible  to  the  general  musical  public. 
This  being  so,  it  is  at  first  a  little  surprising  that  his  widow, 
hard  pressed  as  she  was  to  satisfy  her  husband's  creditors, 
should  not  at  once  have  realised  that  the  mass  of  manu 
scripts  which  he  had  left  behind  him,  though  not  even 
mentioned  in  the  official  inventory  of  his  effects,  was  by 
far  the  most  valuable  of  her  assets. 

It  must  be  remembered,  however,  that  at  that  date 
autographs  were  not  the  marketable  commodities  that 
they  have  since  become.  At  the  present  day  the  musical 
remains  of  a  composer  of  eminence  would  possess  a  double 
value:  they  would  interest  both  the  music  publishers  and 
the  collectors  of  manuscripts;  the  former  would  be  eager 
to  obtain  the  copyright  of  any  unpublished  compositions, 
and  the  latter  would  be  willing  to  purchase  any  autograph, 
however  insignificant,  simply  as  a  relic  of  the  composer. 
But  Constanze  Mozart  could  not  hope  for  much  profit 
from  either  source.  There  were  as  yet  no  rich  collectors  to 
pay  handsome  sums  for  a  few  bars  in  the  composer's  hand, 
and  the  music  publishers  could  not  be  expected  to  display 
much  interest  in  the  autographs  of  compositions,  the  most 
important  of  which  were  already  in  circulation,  at  least  in 
manuscript  copies.  Moreover,  Mozart's  papers  were  in 



hopeless  confusion,  and  Constanze  had  not  sufficient 
musical  knowledge  to  be  able  to  sort  them  out  and  to 
identify  them.  In  1792,  it  is  true,  through  the  agency  of 
the  Prussian  ambassador  in  Vienna,  Baron  von  Jacobi- 
Klost,  she  did  succeed  in  inducing  the  King  of  Prussia  to 
purchase  eight  manuscripts  from  her  at  the  price  of  one 
hundred  ducats  each,  but  this  was  no  doubt  an  act  of 
royal  grace  and  as  such  exceptional.  At  any  rate  there  is 
no  record  of  any  similar  transaction. 

In  the  spring  of  1798,  however,  the  Leipzig  publishers 
Breitkopf  and  Hartel,  detecting  unmistakable  signs  of  a 
coming  boom  in  Mozart,  announced  the  forthcoming  pub 
lication  of  a  complete  edition  of  his  works,  and  on  the  i5th 
of  May  wrote  to  the  composer's  widow  asking  for  her 
assistance  in  the  undertaking.  On  the  receipt  of  this  letter 
Constanze  at  last  took  steps  to  have  the  manuscripts  care 
fully  investigated.  Her  chief  business  adviser  at  this  time 
was  Georg  Nikolaus  von  Nissen,  an  official  in  the  Danish 
Embassy,  who  had  taken  lodgings  in  her  house  in  1797 
and  whom  she  was  to  marry  some  twelve  years  later. 
Unfortunately  Nissen,  though  an  enthusiastic  admirer 
of  Mozart,  was  not  a  skilled  musician,  and  Constanze  had 
to  turn  elsewhere  for  the  expert  advice  that  was  needed. 
Her  choice  ultimately  fell  upon  the  Abbe  Maximilian 
Stadler,  an  old  friend  of  the  Mozarts  who  had  just  taken 
up  his  residence  in  Vienna,  and  who,  being  a  sound 
scholar  as  well  as  a  capable  composer,  was  fully  qualified 
for  the  task.  In  his  little  pamphlet  on  Mozart's  Requiem 
he  has  himself  described  how  he  visited  Constant's  house 
from  time  to  time  and,  with  Nissen's  aid,  soon  succeeded 
in  classifying  and  cataloguing  the  whole  collection.  He 
did  his  work  thoroughly,  and  paid  special  attention  to  the 
many  fragmentary  compositions  that  he  found.  One  or 
two  of  them,  indeed,  he  himself  completed  in  the  hope  of 
making  them  available  for  performance  and  so  enhancing 



their  commercial  value.  The  lists  which  the  Abbe  drew  up 
as  a  result  of  his  labours  were  subsequently  printed  in  the 
appendix  to  Nissen's  biography  of  Mozart  (1828),  and 
have  been  frequently  reproduced  since.  When  supple 
mented  by  the  two  other  lists  there  given — Mozart's  own 
list  of  his  compositions  for  the  years  1784  to  1791  and 
Leopold  Mozart's  list  of  his  son's  juvenile  works — they 
gave  the  musical  public  for  the  first  time  a  comprehensive 
survey  of  the  whole  field  of  Mozart's  work. 

But  their  immediate  importance  was  more  practical. 
They  enabled  Constanze  to  see  exactly  what  manuscripts 
she  possessed  and  made  it  easier  for  her  to  draw  the  fullest 
advantage  from  them.  She  was  thus  soon  in  a  position  to 
furnish  Breitkopf  and  Hartel  with  whatever  they  wanted 
for  their  edition.  Unfortunately  it  turned  out  that  they 
did  not  want  very  much.  For  some  years  they  had  been 
accumulating  manuscript  copies  of  Mozart's  works,  and 
in  most  cases  they  were  quite  content  to  rely  upon  these. 
For  a  moment  they  seem  to  have  been  tempted  by  Con- 
stanze's  proposal  that  they  should  purchase  her  collection 
en  bloc,  but  in  the  end  all  that  they  took  from  her  was  a 
handful  of  works,  some  forty  in  all,  of  which  they  possessed 
no  copies  of  any  sort.  Even  so,  if  there  is  any  truth  in 
her  statements,  she  was  not  very  well  paid  for  her  assist 

*It  was  while  the  negotiations  with  Breitkopf  were  still 
dragging  on  that  there  suddenly  appeared  upon  the  scene 
a  man  who,  unlike  his  rivals,  combined  business  acumen 
with  something  of  the  collector's  enthusiasm.  Johann 
Anton  Andre  (1775-1842),  son  of  Johann  Andre  (1741- 
1799),  the  founder  of  the  music  publishing  house  at  Offen 
bach,  was  at  this  time  a  young  man  of  twenty -four,  but 
was  already  making  his  mark  as  a  composer.  At  the 
moment,  however,  he  was  more  concerned  with  develop 
ing  the  business  which  he  had  just  inherited  than  with 



composition,  and  when  Haydn  called  his  attention  to  the 
straitened  circumstances  in  which  Mozart's  widow  was 
living,  and  spoke  of  her  willingness  to  dispose  of  her  hus 
band's  manuscripts,  he  realised  that  he  could  satisfy  the 
call  of  charity  in  a  manner  not  altogether  unprofitable  to 
himself,  and  lost  no  time  in  coming  to  terms  with  Con- 
stanze,  and  in  purchasing  the  whole  collection  from  her. 
The  transaction  was  not  free  from  difficulties,  the  chief  of 
which  was  that  it  was  bound  to  disturb  the  harmony,  if 
harmony  had  ever  existed,  of  Constanze's  relations  with 
Breitkopf  and  Hartel.  It  certainly  placed  the  latter  in  a 
very  awkward  position,  and  in  spite  of  all  their  professions 
of  indifference,  they  must  have  regarded  the  sale  of  the 
manuscripts  with  considerable  alarm.  At  the  very  least  it 
made  it  impossible  for  their  edition  of  the  "(Euvres  com- 
plettes"  of  Mozart  to  fulfil  the  promise  of  its  title. 

Andre  finally  arranged  to  give  3150  gulden  (about 
,£320)  for  the  collection,  to  be  paid  in  a  certain  number 
of  instalments,  had  the  music  packed  up  in  his  presence, 
and  left  it  to  be  sent  on  to  him  at  Offenbach.  It  was  clear, 
however,  from  Mozart's  own  thematic  catalogue,  which 
was  included  in  his  purchase,  and  from  other  sources, 
that  the  collection  was  not  complete,  and  Constanze  evi 
dently  promised  to  do  her  utmost  to  procure  the  missing 
manuscripts  for  him.  It  will  be  seen  from  the  letters  that 
follow  that  his  indefatigable  efforts  to  secure  them  were  a 
considerable  trial  to  her.  The  ultimate  extent  of  his  collec 
tion  can  best  be  gauged  from  the  catalogue  which  he  pub 
lished  in  1841,  when  he  was  endeavouring  to  dispose  of  it. 
It  runs  to  no  less  than  280  items.  At  this  point  a  brief  note 
on  the  subsequent  history  of  the  manuscripts  may  not  be 
out  of  place.  Andre  guarded  them  with  the  greatest  care 
and  had  a  special  cabinet  constructed  to  contain  them.  He 
studied  them  assiduously  and  gained  a  knowledge  of  the 
minutiae  of  Mozart's  handwriting  and  methods  of  com- 



position  that  enabled  him  to  do  valuable  pioneer  work  in 
cataloguing,  classifying  and  dating  the  various  pieces  in 
this  vast  mass  of  music.  Kochel  frankly  acknowledged  his 
indebtedness  to  him  and  hardly  ever  ventured  to  differ 
from  him  on  points  of  chronology.  Strange  to  say,  how 
ever,  Andre  did  not  in  the  end  publish  so  many  of  the 
manuscripts  as  might  have  been  expected,  and  he  was 
from  time  to  time  subjected  to  sharp  criticism  for  keeping 
these  valuable  treasures  "hermetically  sealed"  at  Offen 
bach.  It  is  clear  that  the  more  he  studied  them  the  more 
engrossed  in  them  he  became,  and  that  his  interest  in  them 
grew  to  be  more  and  more  that  of  the  scholar,  with  the 
result  that  their  commercial  potentialities,  and  even  his 
duty  to  the  public,  came  to  seem  of  only  secondary  impor 
tance.  But  no  one  can  accuse  him  of  failing  to  appreciate 
the  value  of  his  collection.  As  he  grew  older  he  became 
anxious  about  its  final  disposal.  He  wished  it  to  be  kept 
intact,1  but  could  not  bequeath  it  to  a  public  institution 
without  injustice  to  his  children.  He  therefore  made  over 
tures  to  the  courts  of  Vienna,  Berlin  and  London  as  well 
as  to  various  national  libraries,  in  the  hope  of  finding  a 
purchaser  for  the  whole  collection.  It  was  only  when  all 
these  attempts  came  to  nothing  that  he  decided  to  try  to 
sell  the  manuscripts  piecemeal.  But  here  again  he  met 
with  little  success,  and  when  he  died  in  1842  the  bulk  of 
the  collection  was  still  intact.  In  1854  his  heirs,  consisting 
of  his  six  sons  and  his  son-in-law  J.  B.  Streicher,  divided 
the  remaining  MSS.  among  them.  In  the  course  of  time 
many  of  them  passed  into  other  hands,  but  a  large 
number  were  still  in  the  possession  of  the  Andre  family 
when  in  1873  the  Prussian  State  Library  decided  to 

1  It  is  to  be  noted,  however,  that  as  early  as  1811,  apparently  through 
Constanze's  agency,  Andre  had  sold  a  small  but  valuable  group  of  manu 
scripts  to  J.  A.  Stumpff,  the  London  harp  manufacturer.  This  included  the 
six  quartets  dedicated  to  Haydn,  the  three  dedicated  to  the  King  of  Prussia 
and  the  one  in  D  (K.  499),  all  of  which  are  now  in  the  British  Museum. 

VOL.  Ill  I4S7  2  D 


purchase  all  the  MSS.  that  could  be  collected  from  them, 
and  so  finally  preserved  them  from  further  dispersal. 

To  return  to  Andre's  original  transaction.  It  naturally 
gave  rise  to  a  considerable  amount  of  correspondence,  but 
of  this  only  some  thirty  of  the  letters  written  by  Constanze 
or  Nissen  to  Andre  have  been  preserved.  They  appear  to 
have  been  bequeathed  by  Andre  to  his  amanuensis  Hein- 
rich  Henkel,  and  subsequently  to  have  found  their  way  to 
this  country.  They  are  now  in  the  possession  of  the  present 
writer.  The  passages  which  are  here  translated  have  been 
selected  either  for  their  bibliographical  importance — for 
many  works  are  discussed  which  are  not  even  mentioned 
in  the  rest  of  the  Mozart  correspondence — or  for  the  light 
that  they  throw  upon  the  character  of  Mozart's  Constanze. 
But  here  a  word  of  warning  is  necessary.  The  letters  though 
written  in  Constanze's  name  and  occasionally  bearing  her 
signature,  are  all  in  Nissen's  handwriting,  and  much  of 
the  petulance,  to  say  nothing  of  the  verbosity,  that  they 
display  must  be  laid  to  his  account.  Even  so  most  of  the 
characteristics  which  may  be  ascribed  to  her  on  the 
strength  of  other  evidence  may  readily  be  detected  in 
these  letters.  No  one  can  read  them  without  picturing  a 
capable,  wide-awake  woman;  a  little  mercenary,  perhaps, 
and  somehow  always  giving  the  impression — not  alto 
gether  justified — that  she  was  not  quite  straightforward 
in  her  dealings.  This  is  not  the  Constanze  that  Mozart 
knew.  Whilst  he  lived  she  was  frivolous,  inconsiderate 
and  extravagant;  but  when  suddenly  thrown  upon  her  own 
resources,  she  developed  with  an  astonishing  ease  all  those 
bourgeois  virtues  which,  if  she  had  displayed  them  earlier, 
might  have  jarred  upon  him,  but  would  certainly  have 
helped  to  save  him  from  disaster.  At  her  best  she  is  not 
a  very  attractive  figure,  but  it  is  only  fair  that  these 
two  pictures  should  be  set  side  by  side  before  any  final 
judgment  is  pronounced  upon  her. 



Andre  appears  to  have  been  a  shrewd  but  lovable  per 
son,  kindly  at  heart,  but  not  afraid  of  giving  momentary 
offence  by  outspoken  criticism.  It  is  a  matter  for  regret 
that  his  contributions  to  this  correspondence  have  not 
been  preserved.  They  would  probably  have  illuminated 
many  points  that  must  now  remain  obscure,  and  would  in 
any  case  have  contributed  to  our  knowledge  of  a  man 
whom  lovers  of  Mozart  must  always  regard  with  respect. 

To  our  knowledge  of  Mozart  himself  these  letters  con 
tribute  very  little,  though  here  and  there  a  skilful  bio 
grapher  will  find  hints  that  are  worth  following  up.  Their 
chief  importance  lies  in  the  odd  scraps  of  information  they 
contain  on  various  compositions  about  which  very  little 
is  otherwise  known.  Especially  valuable  are  the  passages 
dealing  with  certain  "doubtful"  works,  such  as  the  so- 
called  "romantic"  sonatas  for  clavier  and  violin,  the  Eb 
violin  concerto,  the  Wiegenlied  and  the  divertimenti  for 
basset-horns  and  bassoon.  These  and  other  points  of  in 
terest,  such  as  Constanze's  very  important  though  some 
what  muddled  references  to  the  manuscripts  of  the 
Requiem,  are  fully  discussed  in  the  notes.  It  is  only 
necessary  to  add  that  apart  from  a  few  extracts  which 
have  been  quoted  by  other  writers  on  Mozart,  from  Andre 
himself  to  Dr.  Alfred  Einstein,  the  reviser  of  the  latest 
edition  of  Kochel,  the  letters  are  now  printed  for  the  first 
time  in  any  form. 


VIENNA,  February  2ist-2jt&>  1800 

I  sit  down  to  answer  your  letters  in  rotation.  First, 
your   letter   of  the   2ist   of  January.    I   have  already 



requested  Breitkopf  and  Hartel1  to  send  the  few  original 
MSS.  furnished  by  me,  which  are  still  in  their  possession, 
direct  to  you.  Some  of  those  they  had  you  have  already 
received  through  me.  The  particular  one  you  were  most 
desirous  of  possessing  is  now  not  so  valuable,  for  the 
piano2  concerto  in  question3  will  shortly  be  engraved,  or 
possibly  is  engraved  already. 

I  see  that  you  have  already  advertised  our  transaction 
in  the  Hamburg  and  Frankfurt  journals.4  The  advertise 
ment  is  excellent,  and,  I  should  think,  ought  to  be  suffi 
cient,  for  where  is  the  "Hamburger  Zeitung"  not  to  be 
found?  If  you  wish  to  insert  it  in  the  "Literaturzeitung"  or 
in  any  other  journal,  you  are,  of  course,  quite  at  liberty  to 
do  so:  but  for  me,  especially  in  view  of  my  lack  of  connec 
tions,  it  means  unnecessary  expense.  But  your  advertise 
ment  is  by  itself  proof  against  all  contradiction  and  so 
authentic  enough.  I  hope,  however,  that  you  will  publish 
more  works  than  the  advertisement  promises.  While  on 
this  point  a  suggestion  occurs  to  me.  If  you  do  not  wish 
to  bring  out  the  older  works,  such  as  "Bastien  und 
Bastienne"  and  all  the  others,  in  their  entirety,  why  not 

1  In  Letter  V  Constanze  gives  a  list  of  the  MSS.  which  were  still  in  Breit 
kopf  s  possession.  These  MSS.  were  furnished  by  her  in  connection  with  the 
edition  of  Mozart's  works  which  Breitkopf  began  to  issue  in  1798.  For  a  full 
list  of  them  see  her  letter  to  Breitkopf  of  November  3Oth,  1799  (Nottebohm, 
Mozartiana,  p.  132). 

2  In  view  of  the  date  at  which  these  letters  were  written  the  editor 
has  felt  himself  justified  in  translating  the  word  "Klavier"  as  "piano5*  or 
"pianoforte"  throughout. 

3  This  was,  no  doubt,  the  "hitherto  quite  unknown  piano  concerto  in  C 
major",  the  forthcoming  publication  of  which  was  announced  by  Breitkopf  in 
the  AMZ  for  March  1800  (Int.  Blatt  IX),  viz.  K.  467. 

4  See   e.g.   the  Frankfurter  Staats-Ristretto  of  February    loth,  1800. 
"Madame  Mozart  of  Vienna,  the  composer's  widow,  has  sold  to  me  the  whole 
of  the  manuscripts  of  her  husband  that  remained  in  her  possession.  I  am  thus 
in  a  position  to  produce  the  most  accurate  edition  of  several  works  of  our 
beloved  Mozart,  both  known  and  unknown.  ...  As  my  edition  progresses, 
I  shall  also  bring  out  in  score  at  least  four  of  the  best  operas  of  the  com 
poser,  and  perhaps  several  of  his  instrumental  compositions.  .  .  .  J  Andre, 
Offenbach,  January  3ist,  1800." 



publish  the  many  simple  and  pleasing  airs  they  contain 
in  a  pianoforte  arrangement  as  an  additional  collection 
of  songs? 

Thank  you  for  your  promise  to  make  your  bills  payable 
at  shorter  sight;  but  I  cannot  agree  with  you  that  it  is  not 
a  matter  of  so  much  as  a  fortnight.  It  is  very  important 
that  one  should  get  one's  money  just  when  one  counts  on 
getting  it.  I  am,  however,  honestly  glad  that  you  gain  so 
considerably  over  the  exchange. 

Next  for  your  letter  of  the  27th  of  January.  I  thank  you 
most  sincerely  for  the  trouble  you  have  taken,  and  all  to 
no  purpose,  and  suggest  that  you  try  again  some  other 
time.  Could  you  yourself  by  any  chance  engage  my  son1 
on  reasonable  terms?  He  might  be  useful  to  you  for  he  is  a 
clever  lad,  especially  at  music. 

Now  for  your  letter  of  the  I3th  of  February.  With  this 
I  received  the  bill  for  your  third  payment,  but  I  shall  let 
this  letter  wait  till  I  can  inform  you  that  the  money  has 
been  paid.  How  can  you  imagine  that  I  should  ever  think 
that  I  had  any  ground  of  complaint  against  you  on  the 
score  of  your  payments  or  any  other  matter?  Far  from  it! 
It  is  true  that  my  business  adviser,2  who  sends  you  his 
best  regards,  has  remarked  that  you  have  not  thought  it 
necessary  to  use  the  word  "punctually".  He  points  out 
that  if  Dellazia  is  not  to  pay  till  the  27th  of  February,  I 
actually  get  that  instalment  four  weeks,  all  but  one  day, 
later  than  I  should  do,  according  to  the  agreement.  But 
you  know  how  precise  he  is.  This  time  I  silenced  him  with 
the  assurance  that  you  would  certainly  be  punctual  with 
your  last  instalment.  I  am  not  surprised  that  you  do  not 

1  Karl  Thomas  Mozart  (1784-1858)  had  already  embarked  on  a  com 
mercial  career  in  Italy,  but  was  dissatisfied  and  longed  to  turn  to  his 
father's  profession.  Constanze  no  doubt  thought  that  a  post  with  a  publisher 
of  music  was  a  suitable  compromise  between  the  claims  of  art  and  business. 
The  project  came  to  nothing. 

2  Nissen. 



want  to  buy  the  "Requiem"1  at  so  high  a  price:  what  does 
surprise  me  is  that  you  make  no  offer  for  it  at  all.  It  is  all 
one  to  me.  I  get  nothing  out  of  it.  But  merely  from  friend 
ship  for  you  and  interest  in  your  collection  I  should  have 
liked  you  to  have  it.  And  while  we  are  on  this  point  I  will 
give  you  a  word  of  advice.  "Davidde  penitente"  is,  so  far 
as  I  know,  only  in  circulation  in  manuscript  copies,  one 
of  which  I  gave  you,  if  I  am  not  very  much  mistaken. 
Search  then  among  the  arias  and  the  mass  from  which 
this  oratorio  was  put  together,2  collect  all  the  originals  of 
the  pieces  belonging  to  it,  and  then  publish  the  work  as  a 
pendant  to  the  "Requiem".  It  will  meet  with  just  as  much 
success,  for  it  is  a  fine  thing.  My  receipt  of  the  "Musica- 
lische  Zeitung"  is  terribly  irregular,  but  I  have  no  curiosity 
about  the  article  to  which  you  have  called  my  attention.3 
For  the  present  I  cannot  think  of  anything  to  say  on  the 
matter.  You  know  what  works  you  have  in  the  original 
manuscript,  and,  in  consequence,  what  cannot  and  what 
may  be  in  the  possession  of  others. 

I  am  delighted  beyond  measure  at  the  thought  of  the 
complete  thematic  catalogue  which  you  kindly  promise 

1  The  reference  is  presumably  to  those  portions  of  Mozart's  autograph 
score,  all  incomplete,  which  still  remained  in  Vienna,  probably  in  Siissmayr's 
possession.  These  the  latter  had  copied  out,  with  his  additions,  in  his  own 
hand,  in  the  copy  of  the  score  sent  to  Count  Walsegg,  who  commissioned  the 
work  from  Mozart. 

2  "Davidde  penitente"  (K.  469)  was  an  adaptation  of  the  unfinished  mass 
in  C  minor  (K.  427),  with  the  addition  of  two  arias  (nos.  6  and  7)  specially 

3  A  review  of  Andre's  edition  (as  Op.  67)  of  the  PF.  concerto  K.  450 
(AMZ  October  2nd,  1799),  containing  a  statement  that  Breitkopf  and  Hartel 
possessed  the  original  autographs  of  several  unpublished  concertos  by  Mozart. 

4  This  never  materialised.  In  1805  Andre  published  Mozart's  own  cata 
logue,  which  covers  the  period  from  1784  to  the  year  of  his  death,  and  in 
1841  issued  a  thematic  catalogue  of  all  the  Mozart  MSS.  which  were  then  in 
his  possession.  He  also  drew  up,  but  never  published,  a  thematic  list  of  all 
Mozart's  compositions  written  before  1784,  which  is  now  preserved  in  the 
British  Museum  (Add.  MS.  32412;  see  Music  and  Letters,  April  1924). 



Enclosed  you  will  find  a  few  notes  about  things  by 
Mozart  that  you  haven't  got.  I  will  let  you  have  several 
more.  But  please  be  so  good  as  to  inform  me  with  whom 
you  are  most  closely  in  touch  here,  so  that  I  can  send  him 
anything  that  comes  into  my  hands,  and  so  save  the  cost 
of  carriage. 

I  am  at  present  arranging  the  fragments,  and  it  is  very 
important  that  you  should  let  me  have  a  statement  of  the 
items  of  this  kind  that  you  purchased  from  me  with  the 
other  works.  Please  have  the  kindness  then  to  inform  me, 
as  soon  as  you  can — you  will  oblige  me  beyond  measure  by 
doing  so — of  the  key  and  other  characteristic  features  of: — 

the  fragment  of  an  oboe  concerto,1 

the  unfinished  piece  for  wind-instruments,2 

the  scena  in  Bb,3 

the  aria  in  D,4 

the  aria  in  Bi>,5 

and  the  sonata  for  four  hands  in  G  major.6 
In  the  case  of  the  violin  sonata,  which  was  completed  by 
a  musical  friend  of  mine,7  I  have  this  information  already. 
In  addition  I  should  very  much  like  to  know  how  many 
acts  and  scenes  are  finished  in  the  unnamed  German 
opera,8  which  has  accompanied  declamation  in  the  place 
of  recitative;  further,  how  many  scenes  are  completed  in 
the  two  unfinished  Italian  operas  "L/  oca  del  Cairo"  and 
"Lo  sposo  deluso" — these,  I  think,  are  their  names. 

1  K.  293. 

2  Possibly  K.  411,  if  this  is  regarded  as  forming  one  movement  only  of 
a  larger  work.  See  Kochel,  p.  557. 

3  Possibly  K.  434.  4  Possibly  K.  435. 
5  Possibly  K.  580.  6  Possibly  K.  357. 

7  K.  403.  The  musical  friend  was  the  Abbe  Maximilian  Stadler  (1748- 
^33) »  a  prolific  composer  of  church  music,  now  chiefly  remembered  for 
his  publications  in  defence  of  the  authenticity  of  the  "Requiem".  For  a  list 
of  the  works  completed  by  him  see  p.  1473,  n.  2. 

8  K.  344.  Afterwards  christened  "Zaide"  by  Andre  when  he  brought  out 
an  edition  of  the  work  in  1838. 



I  send  you  a  specimen  to  show  you  how  I  have  recorded 
and  described  the  other  fragments. 

VIENNA,  February  27th,  1800 

I  can  now  have  the  honour  of  informing  you  that  Herr 
Dellazia  has  paid.  Pending  the  date  of  your  final  payment, 
when  I  can  make  out  a  formal  receipt  for  the  whole  sum, 
this  present  letter  will  meet  your  requirements,  wherein  I 
declare  that  of  the  3,150  gulden1  mentioned  in  our  agree 
ment,  you  have  so  far  paid  off  2,100  gulden  in  the  three 
stipulated  instalments. 

You  remember  you  played  and  sang  at  my  piano  a 
chorus  "Dir,  Seele  des  Weltalls",  and  an  aria  "Dir  danken 
wir  die  Freude".2  Both  of  these  pieces,  which  are  frag 
ments  of  an  unfinished  cantata,  were  arranged  for  the 
piano  by  a  musical  friend  of  mine.  I  gave  you  the  original 
manuscripts,  which  lacked,  however,  the  last  bars  of  the 
aria.  These  I  have  now  discovered  and  will  send  to  you 
together  with  the  opening  bars  of  the  aria  which  was  to 
have  followed  them,  and,  further,  an  imperfect  score  of 
the  string  quintet  in  G  minor,3  and  a  few  other  frag 
ments,  which  you  may  be  able  to  use  here  and  there  for 
filling  in. 

You  are  aware  that  many  of  the  airs  from  the  "Zauber- 
flote",  "Don  Giovanni",  "Cosi  fan  tutte",  and  "Figaro" 
have  been  arranged  for  string  quintet.  Well,  the  Viennese 
public  is  now  anxious  for  a  similar  adaptation  of  "Ido- 


1  About  ^320.  Jahn  gives  the  price  paid  as  1000  ducats  (about  ^460), 
which  was  in  fact  what  Constanze  had  asked  when  she  was  endeavouring  to 
sell  the  collection  to  Breitkopf.  Heinrich  Henkel,  who  should  have  known,  as 
he  acted  for  many  years  as  Andre's  amanuensis,  puts  the  figure  as  high  as 
1000  carolins  (about  ^looo,  see  MMB,  Heft  5.  February  1898). 

2  K.  429.  The  musical  friend  was  no  doubt  again  the  Abbe  Stadler. 

3  K.  516.  Mozart  appears  to  have  written  out  the  whole  work  twice  over. 
See  Kochel,  p.  655,  for  a  full  description  both  of  the  complete  and  of  the 
fragmentary  scores. 



I  have  the  honour  to  be,  most  respectfully, 
your  devoted  servant 


Note  i.  The  first  part  of  "La  finta  giardiniera"  you 
might  perhaps  be  able  to  get,  either  in  the  original  or  in 
copy,  from  Herr  Drexler,  who  is  a  grocer,  or  something 
of  the  sort,  in  Wels  in  Upper  Austria,  and  once  ran  a 
private  theatre.2 

As  for  the  "singspiel"  with  accompanied  dialogue,  that 
has  no  title,3  you  should  advertise  in  the  journals,  on  the 
chance  that  you  may  be  able  to  complete  it  and  to  christen 
the  poor  bairn.  I  don't  know  whether  it  ever  was  finished. 

In  "Don  Giovanni"  some  wind  parts  are  missing.4 

A  fantasia  for  pianoforte  in  F  minor5  should  be  in  the 
hands  of  a  certain  Herr  Leitl  in  Prague. 

For  the  scena  no.  346in  the  thematic  catalogue  you  must 
apply  to  Count  Hatzfeld  of  Mainz. 

1  The  signature  is  autograph. 

2  The  MS.  of  Act  I  of  "La  finta  giardiniera",  in  the  original  Italian  ver 
sion,  appears  to  have  gone  astray  during  Mozart's  lifetime  and  has  never  been 
discovered  since.  In  the  winter  of  1779,  when  Bohm's  troupe  of  players  were 
at  Salzburg,  Mozart  seems  to  have  authorised  the  preparation  of  a  German 
version  of  the  text,  which  was  finally  written  into  the  original  score  beneath 
the  Italian  words.  If  we  may  suppose  that  this  very  score  was  lent  to  the 
various  travelling  companies  who  wished  to  produce  the  authorised  German 
version,  it  is  not  difficult  to  account  for  the  disappearance  of  the  first  Act.  Of 
Drexler  (or  Drechsler)  nothing  is  known. 

3  K.  344.  See  above,  p.  1463,  n.  8. 

4  They  are  missing  still  from  the  autograph,  but  have  been  preserved 
in  various  transcripts.  For  particulars,  see  Kochel,  p.  674.  Mozart  often 
wrote  such  parts  on  separate  slips,  which  easily  became  detached  from  the 
main  work.  Cp.  also  p.  1480,  n.  2. 

5  Presumably  the  PF.  arrangement  of  the  fantasia  for  mechanical]  organ 
(K.  608),  which  is  referred  to  again  in  Letter  X  (see  p.  1499,  n.  i).  Leitl 
(or  Laitl)  was  a  flute-player,  who  took  part  in  the  first  performance  of  "Don 
Giovanni"  in  Prague  and  was  an  enthusiastic  collector  of  Mozart's  works. 

6  K.  490,  a  scena  and  rondo  for  soprano,  with  violin  obbligato,  written 
for  an  amateur  performance  of  "Idomeneo"  (Vienna,  1786).  The  Count  Hatz 
feld  referred  to  by  Constanze  was  presumably  Hugo  Franz,  son  of  Count 
August  Hatzfeld  for  whom  the  violin  part  was  written.  In  Andre's  edition  of 
Mozart's  thematic  catalogue  this  composition  is  number  35,  not  34. 



A  serenade  "Piu  non  si  trovano"1  I  shall  send  you  at  the 
earliest  opportunity. 

Abbe  Stadler  may  be  able  to  get  you  the  rest  of  the 
rondo  of  the  piano  concerto  no.  26,  as  a  result  of  his 
correspondence  with  Fraulein  Ployen  [Ployer].2 

Abbe  Gelinek,3  who  is  with  Prince  Kinsky  here,  should 
have  one  or  two  piano  pieces  that  are  still  quite  unknown, 
e.g.  two  fantasias  and  a  concerto  in  C,  which  he  got  from 
the  late  Frau  Trattner. 

I  am  told  that  Leitl  has  four  concertos  in  C,  and  one 
in  A.4 

The  original  manuscript  of  the  piano  concerto  no. 
475  is  probably  in  the  possession  of  the  bookseller  Herri 
in  Prague. 

I  am  told  that  the  fragment  of  a  sonata  for  four  hands,6 
which  formed,  I  believe,  the  last  number  in  Herr  Andre's 
list,  is  of  no  use,  as  the  whole  sonata  is  to  be  published  by 
Hoffmeister.  Another  of  my  informants,  however,  has 
denied  this. 

Traeg7  has  the  manuscript  of  the  bass  aria  no.  132  "Per 
questa  bella  mano",8  and  also  of  a  divertimento. 

1  K.  549,  a  trio  for  two  sopranos  and  bass,  with  accompaniment  for  three 
basset-horns.  Cf.  p.  1479,  n.  4. 

2  On  Babette  Ployer  see  p.  1294,  n.  4.  The  concerto  referred  to  is  K.  449. 
The  autograph,  now  in  the  Prussian  State  Library,  still  lacks  two  leaves  of  the 
rondo,  which  are  supplied  in  copy. 

3  Josef  Gelinek  (1758-1825),  a  prolific  composer  of  drawing-room  music, 
owed  his  appointment  as  music-master  in  Prince  Kinsky's  household  to 
MozartTs  influence.  Therese  von  Trattner  was  one  of  Mozart's  favourite  pupils 
and  it  was  to  her  that  he  dedicated  the  fantasia  and  sonata  in  C  min.  (K.  475, 
457).  He  is  not  known  to  have  written  any  other  fantasia  or  a  concerto  for  her. 

4  On  Leitl  see  p.  1465,  n.  5.  It  is  probable  that  he  possessed  copies  only  of 
the  four  concertos  in  C  (K.  246,  415,  467,  503)  and  of  one  of  the  two  concertos 
in  A  (presumably  K.  488). 

5  [?  K.  503.]  Herri  was  the  publisher  of  Niemetschek's  life  of  Mozart 
(Prague,  1798). 

6  K.'  357.  Notpublished  till  1853,  when  Andre's  son  Johann  August,  brought 
out  an  edition  in  which  the  missing  portions  were  supplied  by  his  brother  Julius. 

7  Johann  Traeg,  a  Viennese  music-dealer  who  specialised  in  manuscript 
copies.  8  K.  612. 



Note  2.  The  sample  or  specimen1  (see  my  letter). 

A  German  cantata  "Dir,  Seele  des  Weltalls,  o  Sonne", 
for  two  tenors  and  a  bass.  The  first  chorus  in  Eb  is  quite 
complete.  It  starts  with  a  splendid  unison  passage, marked 
throughout  by  a  melody  that  is  noble  and  at  the  same 
time  simple  and  appealing.  At  the  words  "Von  dir  kommt 
Fruchtbarkeit,  Warme,  Licht"  the  word  "Licht"  is 
stressed  by  means  of  a  sudden  forte  on  the  chord  of  the 
seventh,  which  would  undoubtedly  produce  a  powerful 
effect  on  the  hearer,  at  least  if  the  accompaniment  for 
flutes,  oboe,  clarinets,  bassoons,  etc.  were  added  in  accord 
ance  with  the  note  in  the  score.  After  the  chorus  comes  a 
tenor  solo  in  Bb,  full  of  the  tenderest  melody  and  with  a 
fine  accompaniment  for  the  double  bass.  Here  too,  how 
ever,  the  parts  for  the  other  instruments  are  wanting.  Last 
comes  a  second  tenor  solo  in  F,  of  which,  however,  only 
17  bars  are  finished. 


VIENNA,  March  i2th,  1800 

I  have  just  received  your  letter  this  very  moment  and 
hasten  to  answer  it  at  once.  I  am  sorry  to  find  in  it  an  ugly 
passage  in  which  you  threaten  not  to  pay  me  until  you 
have  received  my  "reply".2  That  would  be  downright 
dishonesty,  and  you  would  be  committing  a  grave  in 
justice,  as  you  will  realise — if,  that  is,  you  are  capable  of 
such  a  thing.  But  I  cannot  believe  that  you  are.  No,  it  is 

1  Of  the  method  of  describing  the  fragments.  This  description  occurs 
word  for  word  in  the  Abb6  Stadler's  catalogue  of  the  Mozart  fragments 
printed  by  Nissen  (App.  pp.  18,  19).  It  is  thus  safe  to  regard  him  as  the 
"musical  adviser"  to  whom  Constanze  so  often  refers. 

2  To  a  statement  by  Breitkopf  and  Hartel  published  in  the  AMZ  for 
March  5th,  1800  (Int.  Blatt  IX),  in  which  they  sought  to  minimise  the 
importance  of  Andre's  purchase. 



merely  an  excuse  to  gain  more  time,  to  save  more  "per 

As  you  see,  I  am  very  candid.  But  you  will  also  see 
from  the  enclosed  statement1  how  I  deal  with  people  who 
threaten  me  with  injustice,  and  whom  I  can  force  to  act 
honestly — by  the  aid  of  "justice".  I  have  need  of  my 
money.  I  have  counted  upon  it,  and  God  knows  that  I 
shall  lose  once  more  through  this,  your  third  postpone 
ment,  as  I  am  so  precise  in  my  calculations.  Don't  keep 
me  waiting. 

Your  request  is  perfectly  just  and  reasonable.  I  myself 
was  much  annoyed  when  I  read  the  advertisement,2  and  I 
have  been  able  to  make  use  of  all  your  remarks  with  the 
exception  of  that  which  refers  to  the  plates  of  the  con 
certo.3  These  Breitkopf  actually  did  purchase  from  me 
early  in  1799.  If  I  didn't  mention  the  fact  to  you  it  was 
because  it  didn't  occur  to  me.  But  why  didn't  you  ask 
about  them?  You  were  well  aware  that  there  had  been 
plates,  and  that  they  can't  disappear.  However,  this  is  a 
mere  trifle  and  only  of  secondary  importance.  I  sold  you 
the  copies,  as  you  know,  simply  as  copies;  and  sold  them 
to  you  as  a  dealer  in  music  not  as  a  music- engraver — 
quite  apart  from  and  prior  to  our  main  transaction. 

I  am  happy  in  the  conviction  that  you  will  find  my 
statement  eminently  satisfactory  as  it  stands,  but  readily 
admit  that  I  have  only  made  it  from  a  sense  of  duty.  I 
should,  of  course,  have  preferred  to  dispense  with  this 
publicity — not  to  mention  the  considerable  damage  done 
to  my  reputation  with  the  other  party. 

1  Not  preserved. 

*  See  p.  1467,  n.  2.  Constanze's  reply  to  this  "advertisement"  was  pub 
lished  in  the  Frankfurter  Staats-Ristretto  for  April  4th,  1 800. 

3  The  piano  concerto  in  C  (K.  503),  which  Constanze  had  published  in 
1798  at  her  own  expense.  The  engraving  was  carried  out  by  Breitkopf  and 
Hartel  to  whom  Constanze  subsequently  sold  the  plates.  Andre  ultimately 
purchased  from  her  the  whole  of  the  copies  that  remained  unsold. 



I  have  nothing  more  to  tell  you,  and  so  conclude,  in 
order  that  the  answer  to  your  letter,  which  reached  me  an 
hour  ago,  may  not  be  delayed  a  single  moment  through 
any  fault  of  mine. 

I  could  wish  most  sincerely  that  you  should  make  no 
statement  at  all.  I  also  hope  that  this  statement  of  mine, 
which  you  may  now  make  known  wherever  you  can,  will 
satisfy  you.  It  is  so  unpleasant  to  be  always  quarrelling 
and  squabbling,  and,  in  my  opinion,  my  statement  knocks 
the  bottom  out  of  the  whole  business.  And  don't  you  agree 
that  it  is  more  to  your  credit  if  I  am  the  only  one  to  say 




VIENNA,  March  29^,  1800 

Further  useful  notes  for  Herr  Andre 

I  see  from  a  statement  in  no.  18  of  the  "Musicalische 
Zeitung"  for  1800,  under  the  heading  "Anecdotes'1  on 
page  316,  that  in  some  previous  number  the  authenticity 
of  a  violin  concerto  ascribed  to  Mozart  has  been  ques 
tioned.1  I  don't  know  which  one  is  referred  to  and  so  can 

1  This  is  the  Concerto  in  E^  (K.  268),  the  authenticity  of  which  has  so  often 
been  debated.  As  Constanze  herself  mentions  later  in  the  course  of  this  letter, 
it  was  first  published  (in  1799,  as  Op.  76)  by  Andre  himself,  or,  at  any  rate,  by 
his  father,  who  was  head  of  the  firm  till  his  death  in  June  1799.  It  was  re* 
viewed  in  the  AMZ  for  October  1799  and  curtly  dismissed  as  an  incom 
petent  piece  of  work,  which  could  not  possibly  be  by  Mozart.  In  January 
1800  there  appeared  an  answer  to  this  review,  in  the  course  of  a  communica 
tion  from  F.  A.  Ernst  (1745-1805),  Konzertmeister  to  the  King  of  Saxony. 
It  is  this  to  which  Constanze  here  refers.  On  the  strength  of  Ernst's  testimony, 
which  is  far  from  unambiguous  but  clearly  associates  the  work  with  Munich 
and  with  the  Munich  violinist  Johann  Friedrich  Eck,  the  present  writer  has 
argued  that  in  the  form  in  which  it  now  survives  it  represents  Eck's  working 
over  of  Mozartian  material,  and  has  suggested  1780-1781  as  the  date  of  its 
composition.  See  Music  and  Letters,  April  1931,  and  cp.  Kochel,  pp.  435, 



give  no  opinion  on  the  matter.  It  may  be  a  work  of 
Mozart's,  even  though  it  is  not  in  Herr  Andre's  posses 
sion.  But  if  it  is  some  fifteen  years  old,  as  is  stated  on 
page  3 1 6,  it  is  bound  to  be  mentioned  in  Mozart's  thematic 
catalogue,  which  starts  early  in  I784.1  From  this  its  date 
and  age,  at  any  rate,  can  be  fixed  exactly — for  I  may 
remark  here,  what  will  hold  good  of  all  other  such  cases, 
that  the  catalogue  in  question  was  from  its  very  beginning 
drawn  up  by  Mozart  in  such  detail  that  even  trifles  that 
he  composed  while  travelling,  like  the  little  Gigue  which  he 
wrote,  I  think,  in  Leipzig  in  1789  2  are  carefully  recorded. 

I  am  curious  to  know  what  are  the  "unknown  quartets" 
which  Herr  Breitkopf  announces  in  his  February  adver 
tisement.  The  "catalogue"  will  at  least  enable  Herr  Andre 
to  tell  whether  they  were  written  after  1784.  They  may,  of 
course,  be  still  older  and  yet  genuine.  But  it  is  improbable, 
though  quite  possible,  that  there  are  quartets  written  by 
Mozart  before  1784,  which  have  never  seen  the  light  and 
yet  deserve  to  do  so.  If  they  don't  deserve  it,  Herr  Breit 
kopf  ought  not,  of  course,  to  publish  them. 

I  now  see  from  an  earlier  number  of  the  "Musicalische 
Zeitung"  that  the  violin  concerto  of  which  mention  was 
made  at  the  beginning  of  these  notes,  has  been  published 
by  Herr  Andre  himself.  It  is  therefore  to  his  own  advan 
tage  to  make  sure  that  it  is  among  the  original  manu 

In  the  6th  volume  of  the  Breitkopf  edition 3  there  are  no 
less  than  two  whole  pieces  which  have  been  sold  to  the 
public  as  Mozart's  work,  but  which  are  undoubtedly  noth 
ing  of  the  kind.  The  theme  with  variations, no.  9,  on  p.  59,4 

1  Mozart's   catalogue  is   not,  however,   complete.   See  O,  E.  Deutsch, 
Mozarts  Werkverzeichnist  Vienna,  1938,  pp.  10-12. 

2  K.  574- 

3  Of  the  "(Euvres  complettes  de  W.  A.  Mozart".  Cahier  6  consisted  of  "14 
differentes  pieces  pour  le  pianoforte". 

4  K.  App.  289.  Emanuel  Aloys  Forster  (1748-1823). 



is  by  Herr  Forster,  who,  I  know  for  certain,  has  himself 
written  to  Breitkopf  and  Hartel  complaining  of  its  inclu 
sion;  and  another  theme  with  variations,  no.  u,  on  p.  74,* 
is  by  Herr  Eberl,  who  told  me  so  himself  and  at  the  same 
time  advertised  the  fact  in  the  supplement  to  no.  118  of 
the  "Hamburger  Correspondent"  of  the  2 5th  of  July,  1798, 
in  which  he  informed  the  public  that  various  pieces  had 
been  published  as  Mozart's  work  which  were  really  his, 
and  mentioned  particularly  the  variations  for  piano  on  the 
theme  "  Freundin  sanfter  Herzenstriebe  "  from  Ditters- 
dorf  s  "Gutsherr".2  It  is,  of  course,  unfortunate  that  Herr 
Andre  himself  has  already  published  these  variations  (if 
nothing  else)  as  by  Mozart,  and  it  is  true  that  Breitkopf 
and  Hartel  can  always  make  shift  to  excuse  themselves 
by  urging  that  both  these  works  had  been  accepted  as 
Mozart's.  Nevertheless,  when  preparing  their  edition-de 
luxe  they  should  have  obtained  definite'  information  and 
have  made  themselves  acquainted  with  the   advertise 
ment  I  have  just  mentioned,  the  more  so  as  one  at  least 
of  these  two  pieces  is  marked  by  faults  of  composition  and 
is,  in  general,  unworthy  of  Mozart.  Apart  from  this  it  is 
most  revolting  to  hear  these  gentlemen  talking  of  the  great 
expense  they  have  not  shrunk  from  incurring  to  honour 
Mozart  in  his  grave,  when  one  remembers  that  most  of  the 
pieces  they  have  published  so  far  have  not  been  copied 
from  the  original  manuscript,  but  are  only  reprints  which 
haven't  cost  them  a  penny,  whilst  the  few  works  they 
have  so  copied  have  cost  the  merest  trifle.  Moreover,  they 
did  not  even  trouble  to  enquire  into  their  authenticity. 

1  K.  App.  287.  Anton  Eberl  (1766-1807),  a  friend  and  pupil  of  Mozart's. 
His  Op.  i,  a  piano  sonata  in  C  min.,  was  also  published  under  Mozart's 
name  (see  K.  App.  284a). 

2  K.  App.  287. 




VIENNA,  May  31^,  1800 

You  must  forgive  me  for  saying  so,  but  you  have 
gained  and  I  have  lost  over  your  remittance.  You  paid 
me  in  bank-notes  which  are  cheap  in  Germany,  but  I  have 
had  to  buy  bonds  from  the  bank  here  at  a  dearer  rate  than 
I  should  have  had  to  pay  if  I  had  been  able  to  purchase 
them  at  the  exact  time  fixed  for  your  settlement.  This  is 
the  plain  truth.  N[issen]  is  content  to  acquiesce  in  the 
injustice  merely  to  avoid  a  squabble. 

I  have  at  length  read  Breitkopf  s  reply.1  Thanks  for 
telling  me  about  it.  I  am  glad  that  you  think  it  solely  my 
business  to  answer  it.  After  mature  consideration,  how 
ever,  I  have  decided  to  say  nothing;  otherwise  there  would 
be  no  end  to  the  squabble.  Breitkopf  is  quite  right  when 
he  says  towards  the  end  of  his  announcement  that  the 
future,  that  is,  a  comparison  of  the  two  editions,  will  show 
where  the  truth  lies.  Quite  so — but  the  advantage  will  be 
with  you.  Apart  from  this,  in  the  case  of  anything  pub 
lished  by  you,  he  will  be  at  the  obvious  disadvantage  of 
having  to  issue  mere  reprints;  for,  as  he  will  be  unable  to 
copy  the  original  manuscript,  he  will  be  forced  to  do  the 
next  best  thing — copy  from  the  edition  which  has  been 
made  from  it.  But  for  heaven's  sake  see  that  your  editions 
are  as  correct  as  it  is  possible  to  make  them! 

The  fragments  in  my  possession  do  not  belong  to  you. 
All  that  I  sold  you  was  the  fifteen  parcels  which  you  your 
self  sealed,  although  I  promised  to  let  you  have  anything 
else  that  came  into  my  hands.  Accordingly  I  have  already 

1  To  Constanze's  statement  (see  p.  1468,  n.  2).  Published  in  the  AMZ 
for  April  1800  (Int.  Blatt  XII). 



sent  you  a  sixteenth  parcel,  and  here  is  no.  17.  If  I  can  get 
hold  of  anything  more  I  shall  be  sincerely  pleased.  For  my 
part  I  have  nothing  more  to  sell  you.  But  I  am  eager  that 
everything  that  my  husband  wrote  should  be  published; 
and  that  is  the  guarantee  for  my  promise,  if  guaran 
tee  it  needs.  Now  when  you  bought  those  fifteen  parcels 
from  me,  you  saw  also  a  number  of  fragments  and  sketches 
which  I  told  you  I  was  not  giving  you.  Indeed,  far  from 
laying  claim  to  them  or  expressing  any  desire  to  have 
them,  you  simply  exclaimed:  "Many  people  would  be  glad 
enough  to  have  things  like  these.  What  a  fraud  could  be 
perpetrated  with  them!  Why,  they  would  set  a  man  up  in 
fine  themes  for  the  rest  of  his  life!"  Well,  I  am  carefully 
preserving  them,  and  if  my  son  does  not  make  use  of  them 
some  day,1  sooner  or  later  someone  certainly  will — per 
haps  somebody  may  care  to  publish  them  as  a  collection, 
just  as  they  are,  simply  for  their  interest  as  relics.  If  that 
happened,  no  one  would  ever  be  able  to  flaunt  himself  in 
borrowed  plumes,  and  Mozart  would  get  the  credit  that  is 
his  alone.  What  I  have  just  said  naturally  holds  good  of  all 
fragments  which  I  have  not  made  over  to  you.  The  four 
which  I  pointed  out  to  you  as  having  been  completed — 
you  have  sufficient  particulars  to  know  which  ones  I  mean 
— also  belong  to  me.  It  is  a  pure  chance,  which  has  in  no 
way  altered  their  character,  that  a  friend  of  mine,2  actuated 
by  no  desire  for  personal  gain  but  simply  by  a  love  for 

1  These  fragments  passed  into  the  possession  of  Karl  Mozart  on  his  mother's 
death  and  were  bequeathed  by  him  to  the  Mozarteum  at  Salzburg,  where  they 
are  still  preserved.  The  themes  of  most  of  them  are  quoted  in  the  new 

2  The  Abbe  Stadler.  He  is  known  to  have  completed:  2  Kyries  (K.  322, 
323),  the  Allegro  for  PF.  and  violin  in  B^  (K.  372),  the  PF.  Fantasia  in  C  min. 
(K.  396),  the  Allegro  for  PF.  in  &  (K.  400),  the  Fugue  for  PF.  in  G  min. 
(K.  401),  the  sonatas  in  A  and  C  for  PF.  and  violin  (K.  402,  403),  the 
PF.  Trio  in  D  min.  (really  three  unrelated  fragments,  K  442),  and  the 
Fugue  in  G  (K.  443).  What  particular  works  Constanze  refers  to,  here 
and  elsewhere,  as  "the  four  completed  fragments"  it  is  not  possible  to 

VOL.  Ill  1473  2  E 


Mozart  and  his  art  and  by  a  kind  desire  to  help  me  to  get 
some  slight  additional  profit  from  them,  completed  them 
for  me.  I  am  not  under  a  shadow  of  obligation  to  give  them 
to  you.  If  I  were,  you  would  have  a  claim  on  all  fragments 
whatsoever.  However,  if  you  fail  to  appreciate  my  zealous 
attention  to  your  interests,  it  is  not  my  fault.  I  should  have 
expected  you  to  make  me  a  favourable  offer.  That  you 
are  as  well  equipped  as  any  man  for  the  task  of  complet 
ing  the  pieces  in  question  I  am  quite  convinced.  But  I 
could  not  recompense  my  friend  so  poorly  for  his  work  as 
to  allow  him  to  have  laboured  in  vain. — After  writing 
this,  I  am  willing  to  modify  my  terms  as  follows: — I  will 
give  you  the  four  fragments,  if  you  will  undertake  to  pub 
lish  them  with  my  friend's  additions  and  with  an  indica 
tion  of  how  much  is  Mozart's  own  work,  and  to  give  me 
by  way  of  payment  either  twenty-five  copies  of  your 
edition,  or  the  equivalent  of  twenty-five  copies  in  cash.  I 
am  even  willing  to  let  you  have  them  for  four  copies,  if 
you  will  make  me  a  present  of  the  piano  scores  of 
"Figaro",  "Die  Zauberflote",  "Cosi  fan  tutte",  and 
"Die  Entfuhrung",  which  have  already  been  published,1 
and  will  send  them  to  me  at  your  own  expense.  I  should 
have  said  above  that  you  need  not  adhere  to  my  friend's 
work  in  every  particular.2 

How  can  you  imagine  that  N[issen]  can  undertake  the 
task  of  searching  for  the  missing  portions  and  procuring 
them  for  you?  Do  you  think  he  has  nothing  else  to  do?  As 
it  is,  he  is  constantly  on  the  alert  for  any  good  thing  that 
may  come  along.  Whenever  he  finds  anything  he  will 

1  Not  by  Andre.  Constanze  is  probably  referring  to  the  piano  scores 
published  by  Simrock  of  Bonn  ("Die  Zauberflote",  1793  J  "Figaro",  1796; 
"Die  Entfiihrung"  and  "Cosi  fan  tutte",  in  1799).  The  first  of  these  was 
arranged  by  Fr.  Eunicke,  the  remainder  by  Beethoven's  teacher,  Christian 
Gottlob  Neefe. 

a  In  a  marginal  note  Constanze  has  added:  "If  you  do  not  accept 
either  of  these  proposals,  I  will  sell  the  fragments  or  publish  them  myself". 



always  let  you  know  of  it.  Wranizky1  is  hard  to  get  hold 
of,  and  he  is  under  no  obligation  to  me.  It  is  surely  up  to 
you  to  make  use  of  your  friendship  with  him.  You  cannot 
possibly  expect  me  to  act  as  a  sort  of  agent  for  you.  If 
Wranizky  can  do  nothing  you  must  pay  somebody  to  give 
you  his  time  and  labour. 

If  there  are  to  be  many  letters  passing  between  us  as 
bulky  as  yours  of  the  2nd  of  May,  it  would  be  really  unfair 
that  I  should  have  to  bear  the  cost  of  their  postage.  Our 
correspondence  is  solely  to  your  advantage.  Why,  you 
might  just  as  well  expect  me  to  pay  the  carriage  on  the 
music  I  send  you!  The  spirit  of  our  agreement  is  that 
throughout  I  should  be  spared  all  expense.  I  made  Breit- 
kopf  pay  for  the  whole  of  my  correspondence  with  him. 
Now  for  a  friendly  word  of  advice.  Don't  be  in  too  great  a 
hurry  to  make  accusations  against  Breitkopf — at  least  in 
public.  You  say  in  your  last  letter:  "So  Breitkopf  is  trying 
to  make  out  that  he  too  possesses  original  manuscripts  of 
the  concertos  in  A  maj.,  Eb,  and  C  min.!"2  But  in  his 
latest  statement  he  doesn't  claim  to  possess  the  originals. 
It  is  true  that  in  his  February  announcement  he  said  that 
after  the  concerto  which  I  had  sent  him  (and  the  one 
which  I  got  him  to  publish  for  me)  he  would  bring  out  two 
further  concertos,  "also  from  the  original  manuscripts". 
Now  it  is  quite  likely  that  he  does  possess  copies  of  the 
works  in  question.  How  good  his  copies  are  time  will  show. 
Meanwhile  you  have  always  one  great  advantage  over 
him:  you  will  be  able  to  exercise  control  over  his  publica 
tions;  a  control  that  will  extend  to  all  his  copies,  and  to 
those  works  published  "from  the  original  manuscript",  of 
which  you  yourself  possess  the  autographs. 

1  Paul  Wranizky  (1756-1808),  from  1785  till  his  death  Kapellmeister  to 
the  Court  Opera  at  Vienna. 

3  K.  488,  482  and  491,  which  were  published  by  Breitkopf  and  Hartel 
in  1800,  1 80 1  and  1802  respectively. 



Your  letter  of  the  2nd  of  May  has  meant  much  labour 
for  me — twice  as  much  as  there  need  have  been.  I  can  see 
that  you  have  not  so  much  as  looked  at  my  notes,  in  which 
many  of  your  questions  are  answered.  However,  I  will  go 
through  the  points  once  more  so  far  as  my  memory  serves 
me:  for  the  rest,  I  must  refer  you  to  my  notes.  What 
follows  is  all  that  I  can  tell  you  and  the  only  information 
that  I  have.  I  will,  of  course,  honourably  keep  my  promise 
to  let  you  have  anything  else  that  I  may  happen  to  run 
across,  and  to  let  you  know  if  I  hear  of  anything  that 
is  to  be  found  elsewhere.  I  have  already  given  myself 
trouble  enough  to  no  purpose,  and  asked  for  information 
in  several  journals  and  in  private  letters.  By  the  way,  if 
you  send  any  copies  of  music  from  your  edition  to  Traeg 
or  anyone  else  for  forwarding  to  me,  please  give  him 
orders  to  get  them  sent  to  me  at  once,  so  that  I  need  not 
have  to  wait  for  them. 

The  carriage  on  the  music  which  I  am  posting  to  you 
to-day  is  40  kreutzers.  Please  let  me  have  this  sum  with 
your  payment  for  the  music  from  Berlin. 

I  send  you  my  best  regards,  and  remain, 
most  sincerely, 

your  devoted  servant 


You  send  me  a  list  at  the  head  of  which  you  say:  "Of 
the  following  works  which  are  all  mentioned  in  Mozart's 
own  catalogue,  I  possess  neither  score  nor  parts,  and 
therefore  ask  for  further  details  as  to  where  I  may  be 
able  to  get  them".  Let  me  deal  with  this  first. 

2.  Piano  quintet.1  The  original  MS.  of  this,  with  an 
alternative  version  of  the  finale,  is  in  the  possession  of 

1  The  Quintet  in  Eb  for  PF.  and  wind  (K.  452).  The  "alternative  version" 
of  the  finale,  really  a  rough  sketch,  is  now  preserved,  with  similar  sketches  for 
the  other  movements,  in  the  library  of  the  Paris  Conservatoire.  Nicolaus  von 
Zmeskall  is  now  best  remembered  as  Beethoven's  friend  and  correspondent. 



Herr  von  Zmeskall,  Court  Secretary  in  the  Hungarian 
Chancellor's  Office  here. 

3.  Piano  concerto.1  The  MS.  is  in  the  possession  of  the 
Abbe  von  Stadler  here. 

8.  Rondo  for  piano  solo.2  This  is  part  of 

1 8.  Allegro  and  Andante.  The  whole  sonata  has  been 
published  by  Artaria. 

9.  This3  is  not  in  Leutgeb's  possession,  as  I  have  asked 
him  about  it. 

10.  Twelve    variations    for    piano    solo.4    These   are 
probably  in  the  possession  of  Herr  Hoffmeister.  At  any 
rate  they  were  written  for  him  or  for  his  "albums". 

11.  A  manuscript  symphony5  by  Mozart — whether  it 
is  this  actual  one  I  don't  know — is  said  to  be  in  the  posses 
sion  of  Herr  Stoll,  choir-master  at  Baden,  not  far  from 
Vienna.  The  Grand  Duke  of  Tuscany,6  before  whom 
Wranizky  often  plays,  is  said  to  possess  two  symphonies 
by  Mozart  that  are  quite  unknown. 

14.  I  have  now  sent  you  a  few  fragments  of  the  quintet.7 
17.  Scena  written  for  Madame  Duschek  in  Prague.8  I 
must  refer  you  to  the  lady  herself. 

1  Of  the  six  piano  concertos  entered  in  Mozart's  catalogue  after  the  Wind 
quintet  and  before  the  Piano  rondo,  one  only,  that  in  D  min.  (K.  466),  was 
not  in  Andre's  possession  when  he  published  his  catalogue  of  his  Mozart  MSS. 
in  1841.  Possibly  this  is  the  concerto  referred  to  here. 

2  The  Rondo  (K.  494)  was  composed  in  1786,  the  Allegro  and  Andante 
(K.  533)  two  years  later.  In  or  about  1790  Mozart  himself  sanctioned  their 
publication  together  as  a  sonata.  The  publisher  was,  however,  Hofrmeister, 
not  Artaria. 

3  The  horn  concerto  in  E^   (K.  495)-  OQ  Leutgeb  see  p.  1068,  n.  4- 

+  K.  500,  published  by  Hoffmeister  about  1786.  The  autograph  has  never 
come  to  light. 

*  Andre's  enquiry  evidently  related  to  the  "Prague"  symphony  (K.  504). 
On  Stoll,  for  whom  Mozart  wrote  the  "Ave,  verum",  see  p.  1413,  *.  2. 

6  Ferdinand  III  (1769-1824)  was  Grand  Duke  of  Tuscany  at  this  time.  He 
was  renowned  for  his  patronage  of  the  arts,  but  is  not  known  to  have  come 
into  personal  contact  with  Mozart. 

'  The  quintet  in  G  min.  (K.  516).  See  p.  1464*  n.  3. 

8  "Bella  mia  fiamma"  (K.  528).  On  Josephine  Duschek  see  p.  408, 
n.  2. 



22.  Duet  for  Madame  Mombelli  and  Signer  Benucci.1 
Here  again  I  must  refer  you  to  these  two  singers.  Signor 
Benucci  is  in  Tuscany. 

25.  This  symphony2  was  composed  in  Prague,  and  you 
should  make  enquiries  there. 

31,  32.  The  majority  of  these  canons,3  at  any  rate,  are 
in  Breitkopf  s  hands. 

33.  A  manuscript  divertimento4 — whether  it  is  this 
actual  one,  I  don't  know — is  in  Traeg's  possession.5 
Some  of  the  dance  music  you  mention  is  in  the  posses 
sion  of  Herr  von  Lipawsky  here.6 

44.  Madame  Hofer  asserts  that  she  never  had  this  aria.7 

45.  A  quintet — whether  it  is  this  actual  one,8  I  don't 
know — is  in  the  possession  of  Herr  von  Puchberg,  a  mer- 

1  K.  54013.  A  duet  for  Zerlina  (Signora  Mombelli)  and  Leporello  (Signor 
Benucci),  which  took  the  place  of  Don  Ottavio's  aria  "II  mio  tesoro"  in  the 
Vienna  performance  of  "Don  Giovanni"  in  1788.  The  autograph  is  still 

2  Possibly  the  E^  symphony  (K.  543),  although  this  was  actually  written  in 
Vienna.  Constanze  may  have  been  misled  by  the  fact  that  a  PF.  arrangement 
of  the  work  was  published  in  Prague  in  1794.  Mozart  is  not  known  to  have 
written  any  symphony  during  his  visits  to  Prague.  The  so-called  "Prague" 
symphony  (K.  504)  derives  its  name  from  the  fact  that  it  was  performed  by 
Mozart  at  a  concert  in  Prague  in  January  1787.  Andre  had,  however,  already 
enquired  about  this  symphony  in  his  question  no.  n. 

3  K.  553-562.  ^ 

4  Andre's  enquiry  was  about  the  great  Eb  trio  or  divertimento  (K.  563),  the 
autograph  of  which,  now  lost,  was  at  one  time  in  the  possession  of  E.  W.  Pole 
in  London. 

5  Later  Constanze  has  added  a  note :  "No,  this  is  not  the  divertimento 
that  Traeg  has." 

6  Josef  Lipawsky  (c.  1772-^:.  1810),  pianist  and  composer,  was  a  friend 
and  pupil  of  Mozart's. 

7  "Schon  lacht  der  holde  Friihling"  (K.  580),  composed  for  Mme  Hofer, 
Mozart's    sister-in-law    and    the   original    Queen    of   the    Night    in   the 
"Zauberflote",  to  sing  in  a  German  adaptation  of  Paisiello's  "Barbiere  di 
Siviglia".  The  autograph  ultimately  came  into  Andre's  possession. 

8  The  clarinet  quintet  (K.  581).  On  Puchberg  see  p.  1360,  n.  2.  On  Anton 
Stadler,  for  whom  this  quintet  and  the  clarinet  concerto  were  written,  and 
who  is  not  to  be  confused  with  the  Abbe  Maximilian  Stadler,  see  p.  409,  n.  2. 
The  unknown  trios  (p.  1479)  are  probably  the  five   divertimenti  for  two 
basset-horns  and  bassoon  (K.  App.  229  and  229a). 



chant  here.  For  information  about  works  of  this  kind  you 
should  apply  to  the  elder  Stadler,  the  clarinettist,  who 
used  to  possess  the  original  MSS.  of  several,  and  has 
copies  of  some  trios  for  basset-horns  that  are  still  un 
known.  Stadler  declares  that  while  he  was  in  Germany 
his  portmanteau,  with  these  pieces  in  it,  was  stolen. 
Others,  however,  assure  me  that  the  said  portmanteau 
was  pawned  there  for  73  ducats;  but  there  were,  I  believe, 
instruments  and  other  things  in  it  as  well. 

57.  Piece  for  an  organ  in  a  clock.1  This  should  be  in 
the  possession  of  Count  von  Deym,  the  present  Royal 
Chamberlain,  and  owner  of  what  he  used  to  call  "Miiller's 
Art  Gallery". 

59.  The  MS.  of  this  air  for  bass  voice2  with  double 
bass  obbligato,  is  in  Traeg's  possession. 

63.  Short  masonic  cantata.3  Possibly  Hoffmeister  has 
this.  At  any  rate  he  printed  it. 

Parts  for  three  basset-horns  in  score,  consisting  of  five 
numbers.  The  voice  parts  to  these  "notturni"4  are  by 

1  K.  608.  Count  Josef  Deym  (1750-1804),  alias  Miiller,  was  the  proprietor 
of  a  collection  of  wax- works,  casts  from  the  antique  and  miscellaneous  attrac 
tions,  which  from  1797  onwards  was  housed  in  a  special  building,  and  became 
one  of  the  '  'sights"  of  Vienna.  According  to  Nohl  (Mozart  nach  den  Schilde- 
rungen  seiner  Zeitgenossen,  p.  393),  the  Adagio  and  Allegro  (K.  594)  were 
specially  composed  for  performance  at  the  first  exhibition  there  of  the  effigy  of 
Field- Marshal  Laudon.  Mozart  wrote  at  least  one  other  composition  for  Deym, 
the  Andante  (K.  616).  Deym  took  a  cast  of  Mozart's  features  as  he  lay  on  his 
death-bed,  and  appears  to  have  constructed  a  figure  of  the  dead  composer 
dressed  with  his  own  clothes  (see  p.  1450,  and  Schurig,  Constanze  Mozart \  p.  26). 

2  K.  612. 

3  "Die  ihr  des  unermesslichen  Weltalls"  (K.  619),  first  printed  in  1792  as  a 
supplement  to  F.  H.  Ziegenhagen's  Lehre  vom  richtigen  Verhaltnis  zu  den 
Schopfungsuuerken.  There  is  no  trace  of  an  edition  by  Hoffmeister.  The  auto 
graph,  now  in  the  Library  of  the  University  of  Upsala,  was  acquired  by  a 
Herr  von  Silfverstolpe  during  his  residence  in  Vienna  as  Swedish  plenipo 
tentiary  (1796—1802).  If,  as  seems  orobable,  he  got  it  from  Constanze,  she  was 
for  once  disingenuous  in  her  dealings  with  Andre. 

4  K.  346, 436-439.  These  trios  for  two  sopranos  and  bass,  with  an  accompani 
ment  for  three  basset-horns  (or  two  clarinets  and  basset-horn),  were  composed 
for  Gottfried  von  Jacquin  (see  p.  1343,  n.  3)  and  passed  under  his  name.  But  in 



Jacquin,  and  are  in  Traeg's  possession.  They  are,  in  fact, 
common  property.  However,  I  don't  think  they  have  ever 
been  published. 

For  the  mass1  that  was  afterwards  used  for  "Davidde 
penitente"  you  should  make  enquiries  in  Salzburg,  where 
it  was  composed,  or  at  any  rate  performed.  Mozart  cer 
tainly  did  not  make  use  of  the  concluding  section  of  this 
mass  in  his  "  Requiem'1.  When  he  was  composing  the 
"mass",  there  was  no  question  of  the  "Requiem",  which 
is  a  much  later  work. 

No  one  knows  anything  of  the  theme  from  a  Mozartian 
piano  concerto  which  has  been  communicated  to  you. 

P.S.  I  called  on  Leutgeb  once  in  person — he  lives  in 
the  furthest  part  of  the  suburbs — and  have  written  to  him 
twice,  but  got  no  reply.  I  have  therefore  decided  to  send 
you  this  letter  and  the  parcel.  There  can  hardly  be  any 
doubt  that  he  never  had  the  piece. 

Now  for  the  section  of  pieces  that  require  completing. 
Of  "Figaro"  and  "Die  Entftihrung"2  I  have  never  had 
anything  more,  as  I  have  already  told  you  by  word  of 
mouth.  You  may  be  able  to  get  the  other  portions  from 
the  theatre  here,  through  Wranizky.  The  little  that  is 

spite  of  Constanze's  statement  and  of  the  appearance  of  Jacquin's  name  as 
composer  on  a  transcript  of  them  now  in  the  library  of  the  Gesellschaft  der 
Musikfreunde  in  Vienna,  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  they  are  wholly  Mozart's 
work.  The  accompaniments  were  written  by  him  in  a  separate  score. 

1  The  unfinished  mass  in  C  min.  (K.  427).  It  was  first  performed,  prob 
ably  supplemented  by   movements   from    earlier   masses,    at   St.    Peter's 
Church  in  Salzburg  on  Aug.  25,  1783.    On  this  occasion  Constanze  herself 
sang  the  part  for  soprano  solo.  Cp.  p.  1244,  n.  I. 

2  In  the  autograph  scoreof  "Figaro",  now  in  the  Prussian  State  Library,  the 
recitative  to  Figaro's  aria  no.  26  is  preserved  in  copy  only.  It  was  the  original 
of  this,  no  doubt,  that  Andre  was  endeavouring  to  acquire.  He  was  ultimately 
successful,  but  unfortunately  did  not  insert  the  autograph  fragment  in  its 
proper  place  in  the  score.  It  is  now  in  the  possession  of  a  Berlin  dealer.  The 
portions  missing  from  "Die  Entfuhrung"  were  a  few  parts  for  percussion  and 
wind,  written  on  separate  leaves.  These  too  Andre  finally  recovered.  On  "Don 
Giovanni"  see  p.  1465,  n.  4. 



wanting  in  "Don  Juan"  I  have  been  unable  to  discover, 
but  as  it  is  such  a  trifle  it  is  of  no  consequence.  Traeg  has 
copies  of  the  missing  portions  that  he  can  let  you  have. 
The  "Schauspieldirektor"  consists  of  an  overture  and  five 
numbers1 — see  the  piano  score  by  Siegfried  Schmidt, 
which  bears  no  date  but  was  published  by  Breitkopf 
several  years  ago.  The  majority  of  the  remaining  frag 
ments  probably  never  were  completed.  However — 

As  regards  i.  Sonata  for  four  hands  in  G  maj.2  The 
theme  of  this  sonata,  as  given  by  you,  seems  to  have 
been  taken  from  the  middle  of  the  variations  for  four 
hands  which  Hoffmeister  engraved. 

4.  Piano  rondo,  with  orchestral  accompaniment.3  This 
will  be  in  the  hands  of  Madame  Bojanowich,  formerly 
Fraulein  Ployer,  who  is  living  not  far  from  Kreuz  in 
Croatia.   Her  father-in-law  is   Hungarian  Ambassador 
here.  I  have  already  caused  enquiry  to  be  made  of  her, 
but  to  no  effect. 

5.  Aria  for  tenor.4  I  have  already  sent  you  the  con 
cluding  section  of  this. 

9.  Breitkopf  did  not  get  this  sonata  from  me.  It  must 
once  have  been  complete. 

n.  Aria  for  Madame  Hofer.5  This,  she  says,  never  was 

13.  You  go  too  far  when  you  conclude  that  this  con- 

1  There  are  four  numbers  only.  Schmidt's  piano  score  was  published  in 

2  K.  357.  See  p.  1463.  K.  357,  however,  nowhere  shows  any  thematic 
resemblance  to  the  variations  (K.    501).    Curiously   enough   the   second 
variation  of  K.  501  is  thematically  similar  to  that  of  the  opening  Andante  of 
an  unfinished  sonata  for  PF.  and  violin  written  for  Constanze  (K.  404). 

3  Presumably  K.  386,  of  which  two  leaves  only  now  survive,  but  which  was 
originally  complete  except  for  the  last  leaf.  This  is  the  Rondo  recently  recon 
structed  by  Dr.  Alfred  Einstein,  with  the  help  of  the  surviving  fragments  and 
of  a  piano  version  made  by  Cipriani  Potter  at  a  time  when  the  autograph, 
then  in  this  country,  was  still  more  or  less  intact. 

4  Probably  the  tenor  aria  from  the  cantata  "Dir,  Seele  des  Weltalls" 
(K.  429).  See  p.  1467.  s  K.  580.  See  p.  1478,  n.  7. 



certo1  must  be  in  my  possession  just  because  Traeg  has  a 
copy  of  it,  though  that  does  prove  that  it  must  once  have 
existed.  Leutgeb  hasn't  got  it. 

17.  As  you  set  so  much  store  by  this  cadenza2  I  have 
tried  to  get  you  a  copy  of  it.  Gelinek,  who  collects  things 
of  that  sort,  hasn't  got  it,  nor  has  Stadler  nor  Kutschera, 
the  piano-tuner.  The  latter,  however,  has  promised  to 
keep  an  eye  open  for  it.  I  myself  have  no  more  cadenzas 
— in  fact  I  have  nothing  more. 

6.  10.  Rondo  for  horn,  with  a  jocular  superscription.3 
Leutgeb  has  promised  me  a  copy  of  this.  I  don't  think 
that  any  of  these  horn  pieces  have  yet  been  published. 

12.  Rondo  for  horn  and  orchestra.4  Leutgeb  knows 
nothing  of  this,  and  concludes  that  no  complete  score 
of  it  exists. 

14.  Draft  of  an  introductory  Allegro.5  Leutgeb  is  of 
the  same  opinion  here,  as  also  in  the  case  of 

15.  Draft  of  a  horn  concerto.6 

Leutgeb  has  nothing  more  even  in  copy  beyond  a 
quintet  in  D#  (E^)  for  solo  horn,  violin,  2  violas,  and 
'cello,7  of  which  you  probably  possess  the  original.  You 
can  probably  get  information  about  any  music  for  wind- 
instruments  that  you  haven't  got  through  Wranizky, 
the  elder  and  younger  Stadler,  or  Herr  Wendt  here.8 
Madame  Eissen,  Eizen,  or  something  of  the  sort,  who  is 
the  widow  of  the  late  horn-player  at  the  National  Theatre 

1  A  horn  concerto,  possibly  K.  417. 

2  To  one  of  the  PF.  concertos.  On  Gelinek  see  p.  1466,  n.  3.  Artaria's 
edition  of  the  cadenzas  (see  K.  624)  was  dedicated  to  him. 

3  The  rondo  of  the  concerto  in  D  (K.  412).  Kochel  quotes  examples  of 
Mozart's  jocular  notes. 

4  Possibly  K.  371.      5  Possibly  K.  App.  98b.      6  Possibly  K.  App.  98a. 
?  K.  407- 

8  On  Wranitzky  see  p.  1475,  n.  I.  On  the  elder  Stadler  see  p.  409,  n.  2. 
His  younger  brother  Johann  (1756-1804)  also  played  the  clarinet  and  was 
also  a  member  of  the  orchestra  of  the  National  Theatre.  Johann  Wend 
(1745-1801),  oboist  and  composer,  was  attached  to  the  Hofkapelle  at 
Vienna  from  1787. 



here,1  is  said  to  have  one  or  two  manuscript  scores  of  horn 
pieces.  Wranizky  is  sure  to  know  her.  Mozart  himself  gave 
several  MSS.  to  her  husband. 

The  catalogue  of  the  whole  of  Mozart's  works  that  you 
have  promised  me,  which  is  to  include  works  not  in  your 
possession  as  well  as  those  that  are,  you  cannot,  of  course, 
let  me  have  for  the  present.  It  will  take  a  good  deal  of 
time  before  a  list  of  that  sort  can  lay  claim  to  complete 
ness.  The  biographies  of  Mozart 2  may  also  supplement  it. 



VIENNA,  September  lotk,   1800 

Thanks  for  your  letter  of  the  ist  of  September,  which 
gave  me  great  pleasure.  You  are,  however,  in  error  on 
one  small  point.  You  say  that  the  Mozart  fragments 
should  be  your  property  if  they  are  published,  whoever 
may  have  completed  them.  If  that  were  so,  even  my  own 
son  could  not  undertake  to  finish  them.  However,  I  still 
feel  strongly  inclined  to  publish  them,  or  get  them  pub 
lished,  just  as  they  are,  and  so  make  them  generally 
available.  Through  my  death  or  some  other  chance  they 
might  easily  fall  into  strange  hands  and  be  put  to  a  wrong 
use.  Printing  would  be  a  sure  safeguard  against  that.  If 
anyone  then  wished  to  venture  on  the  task  of  completing 
them,  nobody  could  stop  him. 

The  four  completed  fragments  I  have  sent  to-day  under 

1  Jakob  Eisen  (1756-1796). 

2  The  biographies  of  Mozart  published  at  this  date  were:   i.  the  article 
inE.  L.  Gerber's  Historisch-biograpMschesLexikon  der  Tonkunstler  (1790); 
2.  the  obituary  notice  in  F.  Schlichtegroll's  Nekrolog  auf  das  Jahr  J7pr 
(1793),  reprinted  separately  at  Graz  in  1794;  3.  a  brief  life  in  No.  I  of 
Bossier' s  Musikalische  Korrespondenz^^\  and  4.  F.  Niemetschek's  Leben 
des  K.  K.  Kapellmeisters  Wolfgang  Gottlieb  Mozart  (1798). 


the  usual  seal  Z1  to  Fischer,  Singer  to  the  Imperial  House 
hold  in  Berlin,2  from  whom  your  agent  can  get  them  on 
production  of  a  letter  from  you  authorising  him  to  receive 
"a  parcel  in  Herr  Fischer's  possession"  (Fischer  has  no 
idea  what  is  in  it),  and  on  payment  of  the  cost  of  postage. 
I  adopted  this  course  because  I  wanted  you  to  get  them 
without  delay,  as  you  desired,  and  at  the  same  time  to 
run  no  risks. 

From  Breitkopf  and  H  artel  I  have  had  nothing.  They 
have  orders  to  send  everything  to  you.3  The  only  pieces 
that  they  should  still  have  in  their  possession  are: — 
thirteen  canons  in  the  original  MSS.  (they  have  had 
several  more  in  copy),  "Caro  mio  Druck  und  Schluck'  V 
one  sonata  and  a  fragment,  a  fugue,  the  last  eight  bars  of 
which  are  not  by  Mozart,5  an  unfinished  violin  sonata,6 
the  "Ouverture"  published  in  Heft  6  of  their  edition,7 
two  songs  for  opening  and  closing  ceremonies  at 
Mozart's  lodge,8  a  fragment  "V  amo  di  core",9  which, 
however,  is  my  property  if  they  make  no  use  of  it,  and 
also,  I  believe,  the  song  "Die  Trennung".10  The 
"Ouverture"  you  may  have  received  already.  I  will  not, 
of  course,  swear  that  the  above  list  is  absolutely  accurate. 

Well,  good-bye!  May  you  profit  by  your  speculation! 
N[issen]  and  I  send  you  our  best  regards. 


1  An  attempt  to  reproduce  Nissen's  seal,  which  has  been  preserved  on 
many  of  these  letters. 

2  On  Ludwig  Fischer,  the  original  Osmin  in  "Die  Entfiihrung",  see 
p.  1123,  n.  7. 

3  In  the  margin  Constanze  has  written:  "Please  let  me  know  from  time 
to  time  what  manuscripts  you  get  back  from  Leipzig,  so  that  I  can  keep 
account  of  them,  and  strike  the  items  off  my  list." 

4  A  jocular  quartet  for  soprano,  two  tenors  and  bass,  with  PF.  accompani 
ment  (K.  App.  5).  s  K.  401.  6  Possibly  K.  402. 

7  The  PF.  Suite  (K.  399),  written  in  the  Handelian  style  and  consisting  of 
Ouverture,  Allemande,  Courante.  A  Sarabandewas  to  have  followed,  but  six 
bars  only  were  completed,  8  K.  483  and  484. 

9  This  curious  work  (K.  348),  more  fully  described  in  Letter  VII,  is  a  canon 
for  three  choirs,  each  of  four  voices.  I0  K.  519.